to be affected by the heats of summer. It was, therefore, that no new corps were sent, until intelligence had been received of the battle of Salamanca, which was considered an extraordinary circumstance as to require reinforcements to be sent. With regard to the United States of America, he contended that the conduct of ministers had been throughout consistent. The papers relative to the correspondence and intercourse between the governments were not on their lordships' table, because his Majesty's ministers had not yet received the final answer to a proposition made to the United States through sir John Boriase Warren; in the mean time, he took leave to say, that the Orders in Council were not now the only grounds of demurrer on the part of that government.

Marquis Wellesley, conceiving that some points urged by noble lords opposite were personally applied to him, shortly explained, that he thought nothing which fell from him warranted a personal allusion on their parts. He warmly remarked, that during the whole period to which he spoke, he had considered the system of the war in the peninsula inadequate to its object; an opinion which he had uniformly declared, and in adherence to which he had resigned his office as secretary of state. He could not particularise objections without the permission of his sovereign or his representative; but if he was allowed an opportunity, he should be ready to meet the noble lords, point by point, upon that subject, either in public or private, and before any tribunal to which he might be summoned.

Viscount Melville defended the conduct of the Admiralty with respect to the American and West India stations, observing, that on the Halifax station alone, long before the commencement of hostilities, the squadron was double the strength of the whole American navy. This he enumerated, as well as the force in the West Indian seas; and stated the American navy to consist of five frigates, and a few sloops of war. It was impossible to guard against such casualties as were alluded to by noble lords opposite, (the capture of the Guerriere frigate); but care was taken to render such attempts an extreme risk on the part of the enemy.

Lord Grenville said, he did not think so badly of ministers as to charge them with neglecting to provide a naval force superior to the American navy, which only consisted of five frigates, His charge (VOL. XXIV.)

was, that they did not send sufficient reinforcements of troops, and that our military force in Canada was, in consequence, inferior to that of the assailants.

The question was then put, and the Address agreed to without a division.

The Earl of Liverpool moved, that lord Walsingham be constituted chairman of all the committees of that House during the present session of parliament; a motion, the propriety of which, he was confident every noble lord would acquiesce in.

The Lord Chancellor observed, that if the House could secure the services of the noble lord, they would be a blessing.

Lord Walsingham shortly expressed his grateful sense of what had fallen from the noble lords.

The question was put, and ordered accordingly, nem. diss.

Monday, November 30.

THE PRINCE REGENT'S SPEECH ON OPENING THE SESSION.] The Speaker acquainted the House that that House had been in the House of Peers, where his royal highness the Prince Regent had delivered a Speech to both Houses of Parliament, of which, to prevent mistakes, he had obtained a copy. [See p. 12.] After the Speaker had read the Speech,

Lord Clive rose to move an Address in answer to the most gracious Speech of his royal highness the Prince Regent. In the liberty he then took of offering himself to the notice of the House, it was not his intention, nor would it be necessary, to trespass at any length upon their indulgence, With respect to the first part of the Speech, he felt confident that every person in that House, and in the country, lamented not less than himself the situation of the illustrious personage to whom it alluded. There was no one who could avoid feelings of the most lively regret when he reflected, that a life spent, as that of his Ma jesty had been, in the practice of every virtue that was honourable to our nature, that could adorn or dignify the man or the sovereign, and which had rendered him dear to the hearts of his subjects, should, towards the close, be deprived of that rest and of that repose which were due to his merits and to his virtues. The next point in his Royal Highness's Speech to which he would allude, was one of sincere and heartfelt gratulation, the successful resistance that had been made in the Peninsula (E)


by our gallant countrymen to the encroach-
ments of France. Often as they had had
occasion, within the last four years, to
commemorate the achievements and ap-
plaud the distinguished conduct of the ge-
neral, and the army employed in the pro-
tection of Spain, yet in no instance since
the commencement of that struggle, was
skill or valour so greatly displayed as in
the decisive and glorious battle of Sala-
manca. The consequences of that victory
were as sudden and important as ever fol-
lowed from conquest. The siege of Cadiz
was raised; Madrid was evacuated by the
enemy; all the south of Spain was relieved
from their oppressions; and what was a
yet more important consequence, lord
Wellington was raised to the rank of ge-
neralissimo of the Spanish forces. This
was the most important result of all. If
any thing could tend more powerfully
than another to give vigour and success to
the exertions of the Spanish people, to
render effectual their efforts for their own
deliverance, it was thus placing their re-
sources at the disposal of a person so
well able to guide them, and vesting
so skilful a commander with the con-
troul of their armies. He would next
take the liberty of congratulating the
House on the relation in which they stood
to Russia, and in general on the new con-
nections which had sprung up between
Great Britain and the northern powers of
Europe. The circumstances of Russia, he
was happy to say, were such as left no
ground for despondency. The Russians,
it was true, had met with some reverses,
but they were not sufficient to damp their
ardour, or quell that enthusiastic love of
country, which should animate every bo-
som. That spark of resistance, which had
been lighted up in Spain, they had the sa-
tisfaction to behold rapidly spreading over
Europe, and already extended to the ex-
tremity of the north. He was doubtful to
which part of the prospect, now held out
by Russia, he should first call the attention
of the House; whether to the spirit and
decision of the emperor himself, or to
the skill of his generals, or to the sacrifices
so cheerfully made by the nobility, or to
the valiant men who fought under their
command; but to whatever part of the
picture they directed their attention,
whether to the magnanimity of the em-
peror, the talent of his generals, the bra-wallowed, even without the excuse of pro-
very of his troops, or the devotion of his vocation? What has been the practice of
subjects, they would find abundant matter your life for the last twenty years? Is
for exultation. On these topics it was un- there a corner in Europe, Asia, or Africa,

necessary to dwell. They were the ad-
miration of every person who could know
and appreciate them. From one end to
the other of that vast empire there seemed
to be only one object in view, and that
object was resistance to the enemy. From
one end of it to the other, there seemed
to be only one subject of contention, and
that was who should contribute most to
the defence of their laws, their religion,
and their country. Such were the men
whom for their bravery and their zeal,
the oppressor of Europe would stigmatise
with the name of Barbarians. If enthu-
siasm in the protection of every thing
that was dear to our nature could merit
the name of barbarism, he, for one, would
wish to know where patriotism was to be
looked for, and must express a hope that
such barbarity might never be removed
by civilization. But this was not the first
time that a conqueror, when he found
himself unable to combat the difficulties
that opposed his progress, endeavoured to
load with the same stigma the persons
who had the boldness to resist him; in
which a disgraceful attempt was sought
to be covered under the offer of indignities
to a gallant people. Alexander the Great,
under much the same circumstances, chose
to designate as robbers and barbarians,
the ancestors of these very Russians who
had the courage to oppose his encroach,
ments. To such language they answered
as they ought to have done, "that not to
them who defended their country, but to
him who came to despoil it, the appella-
tion of robber was applicable ;" and he
would ask, might not the Russians now
exclaim to Buonaparté, as their ancestors
did to Alexander the Great, At tu, qui
'te gloriaris ad latrones persequendos ve-
nire; omnium gentium quos adisti, la-
'trones.' Might not Russia with great
truth thus address Buonaparté, "By what
right do you designate us as barbarians;
why cast upon a nation whom you are
wantonly attacking, the stigma of being
robbers? How are you rendered so equi-
table a judge as to be competent to form
an estimate of us? What have we done to
deserve this stigma?-nothing but what
you yourself have done, and are still do-
ing by stealth, for our only crime was a
wish to trade with Great Britain. But is
there any crime in which you have not

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that has not witnessed your contempt of every thing that is sacred among men? Have you a single Russian of whom you can boast that he has deserted the cause of his country to join your standard? On the other hand, have you not carried your oppressions so far as to render them into lerable even to your own family? Has not the brother whom you set as a king over the population of Holland abdicated his situation to avoid your tyranny? Has not another brother thrown himself into an enemy's country, where he finds that security and that protection which you refused to give him? Which, then," might the Russian exclaim with triumph, "is the greater barbarian, I who defend my country from unjust hostility, or you who wantonly attack it? And yet you call us barbarians! You, Napoleon, whose practice has been throughout your career "Auferre, traducere, rapere!"—He would now beg leave to call the attention of the House to that part of his Royal Highness's Speech which referred to Sicily, and he could not but congratulate them upon the result of a negociation with that power, which was likely to prove equally serviceable to both countries. One effect of that negociation would be, to organize a much more powerful force than before existed for the defence of that island, and disposable for the promotion of the common cause. Every person, he was sure, would rejoice on hearing that the Regent was desirous of bringing Sicily into such a state as would be most conducive to its own interest, and to that of Great Britain. While every one must agree with his Royal Highness in regretting, that all our efforts to stand in those relations of amity with America which could be wished, had proved ineffectual, it was nevertheless a subject of high satisfaction to contemplate the valour and loyalty displayed in our transatlantic territories. The steady zeal and warm attachment to the mother country, lately evinced by the people of Canada, was a subject for congratulation which he could not pass over upon the present occasion. They had withstood every attempt which had been made by America to seduce them from their allegiance, and the efforts to invade their territories were equally unsuccessful. In the first attempt at invasion the whole American force surrendered to much inferior numbers; and in the second, even the prisoners taken exceeded the British army

employed against them. Wherever the British troops were employed, whether in Europe or in America, they never failed to display that bravery for which they were always distinguished. They required nothing but opportunity to display their intrepidity and firmness, and victory was sure to follow; and these instances of success in America he was happy to hail as the earnest of future glory, when our fellow subjects in those parts would meet the foe and earn fame to themselves and honour to their common country. With respect to the renewal of the East India Company's Charter, it would not now be necessary for him to enter upon that subject at present. When the proper time should arrive, he believed the House would be fully prepared to take that important question into their serious consideration.-Allusion had been made in the Speech from the throne, to the late unfortunate disturbances that prevailed in some parts of the country. He was happy to see that these disturbances were now put to rest by the salutary measures to which the government had found it necessary to resort. Such were the principal topics of the Address which he meant to propose to the consideration of the House before sitting down. He could not, however, but once more congratulate them upon the favourable change that had taken place in the affairs of Europe. How different was the prospect now to what it was at the meeting of the last parliament ! He might say that Great Britain was at that period alone and unaided in the contest. The influence and the arms of France were felt almost without resistance in every part of Europe. There was hardly any part of Spain in which its power was not then felt. The great resources of the enemy were then unbroken. He had a mighty and victorious army on foot, commanded by men of the first character for military talent, Portugal was then robbed of the greater part of her territory; and Russia and Sweden were neutralized by intimidation and the threats of Buonaparté. But how greatly were things altered for the better. Russia was now up in arms against her oppressor, and Sweden was not unfriendly to her cause. She had driven from her territories a numerous and powerful host that threatened her with run; and Buonaparté, so far from realizing the high and boasting promises with which he had entered that country, was now endeavouring, after defeat and disgrace, to

save himself by flight and secure a retreat | to Poland. In Spain also, lord Wellington had beat one of the most numerous and best equipped armies the French had ever brought into the field, and obliged them to draw together all their disposable forces and evacuate the southern provinces for the purpose of opposing his victorious progress. What was there, he would ask, they might not hope from such a state of things? When the spell was broken and Europe was at length convinced that Buonaparté and his armies were not invincible, was there not reason to expect that the nations oppressed by his power would rise to assert their rights, and recover that honour they had suffered him to tarnish? Was there not reason to expect that the descendants of the great Frederick would again come forward to oppose, as he had often done, the devouring power of France; that they would again come forward like the brave people of Russia, and exclaim, "We also are men, and will not submit any longer to the encroachinents of our oppressor." Was there not reason to hope that the words of a great departed statesman would be realized, and that they should live to see that "Britain had saved herself by her firm ness, and that Europe would also save herself by following the same course.' "" He would not trespass any longer upon the time of the House, but should conclude with moving,

"That an humble Address be presented to his royal highness the Prince Regent, to thank his Royal Highness for his most gracious Speech:

"To assure his Royal Highness, that we most sensibly share in the deep concern which his Royal Highness has expressed at the continuance of his Majesty's lamented indisposition, and at the diminution of the hopes which his Royal Highness had so anxiously entertained of his recovery:

"To express our cordial participation in the satisfaction derived by his Royal Highness from the improvement of our prospects during the course of the present year:

"That we have observed, with the utmost satisfaction, the valour and intrepidity displayed by his Majesty's forces, and those of his allies in the peninsula, on so many occasions during this campaign, and the consummate skill and judgment with which the operations have been conducted by general the marquis of Welling

ton, and which have led to consequences of the utmost importance to the common


"To congratulate his Royal Highness on the glorious and ever-memorable victory obtained by that illustrious officer at Salamanca, by which great achievement, and by the other operations which have transferred the war into the interior of Spain, he has compelled the enemy to raise the siege of Cadiz, and the southern provinces of that kingdom have been delivered from the power and arms of France; that while we regret that the efforts of the enemy, combined with a view to one great operation, have rendered it necessary to withdraw from the siege of Burgos, and to evacuate Madrid, for the purpose of concentrating the main body of the allied forces, it is satisfactory to reflect that these efforts of the enemy have nevertheless been attended with important sacrifices on their part, which we trust will materially contribute to extend the resources and facilitate the exertions of the Spanish nation:

"To assure his Royal Highness, that we are determined to continue to afford every aid in support of a contest which has first given to the continent of Europe the example of persevering and successful resistance to the power of France, and on which not only the independence of the nations of the peninsula, but the best interests of his Majesty's dominions essentially depend.

"To return his Royal Highness our humble thanks, for having been graciously. pleased to direct copies of the Treaties between his Majesty and the courts of Saint Petersburgh and Stockholm, to be laid be-. fore us, and to assure his Royal Highness that we participate in the pleasure expressed by his Royal Highness at the restoration of the relations of peace and friendship with those courts:

"That we have observed, with sentiments of the highest admiration, the resistance which has been opposed by the emperor of Russia to so large a proportion of the military power of France, assisted by its allies and by the tributary states de pendent upon it, in a contest for his own sovereign rights, and for the independence of his dominions: by his imperial majesty's magnanimity and perseverance, by the zeal and disinterestedness of all ranks of his subjects, and by the gallantry, firme ness, and intrepidity of his forces, the presumptuous expectations of the enemy have been signally disappointed: the enthu

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siasm of the Russian nation has increased the attempts of the enemy to invade with the difficulties of the contest, and Upper Canada have not only proved aborwith the dangers with which they were tive, but that by the judicious arrangesurrounded they have submitted to sa- ments of the governor-general, and by the crifices of which there are few examples skill and decision with which the military in the history of the world, and we in- operations have been conducted, the forces dulge the confident hope that the deter- of the enemy assembled for that purpose mined perseverance of his imperial ma- in one quarter have been compelled to cajesty will be crowned with ultimate suc-pitulate, and in another have been defeatcess, and that this contest, in its result, willed with considerable loss :

have the effect of establishing, upon a foundation never to be shaken, the security and independence of the Russian empire:

"That we learn with peculiar satisfaction the proof of confidence which his Royal Highness has received from his imperial majesty, in the measure which he has adopted of sending his fleets to the ports of this country, as well as the determination expressed by his Royal Highness to afford his imperial majesty the most cordial support in the great contest in which he is engaged:

"That we rejoice to find that his Royal Highness has concluded a Treaty with his Sicilian majesty supplementary to the treaties of 1808 and 1809, and to return our humble thanks to his Royal Highness, for his gracious intention of laying a copy of this Treaty before us as soon as the ratifications shall have been exchanged; and that we trust the object will be attained which his Royal Highness has had in view, of providing for the more extensive application of the military force of the Sicilian government to offensive operations against the common enemy:

"That whilst we learn from his Royal Highness, that the declaration of war by the government of the United States of America was made under circumstances which might have afforded a reasonable expectation that the amicable relations between the two nations would not long be interrupted, we participate in the regret expressed by his Royal Highness, that the conduct and pretensions of that government have hitherto prevented the conclusion of any pacific arrangement:

"That we rejoice to learn, that notwithstanding the measures of hostility which have been principally directed against the adjoining British provinces, and the efforts which have been made to seduce the inhabitants of them from their allegiance to his Majesty, his Royal Highness has received such satisfactory proofs of loyalty and attachment from his Majesty's subjects in North America, and that

"To assure his Royal Highness, that we fully rely on the exertion of his best efforts for the restoration of the relations of peace and amity between the two countries, but that until this object can be attained, without sacrificing the maritime rights of Great Britain, his Royal Highness may rely upon our cordial support in the vigorous prosecution of the war:

"To return our humble thanks to his Royal Highness, for having directed the estimates for the services of the ensuing year to be laid before us; and to assure his Royal Highness, that we will readily furnish such supplies as may be necessary to enable him to provide for the great in terests committed to his charge, and to afford the best prospect of bringing the contest in which his Majesty is engaged to a successful termination:

"That we will not fail to take into our early consideration the propriety of providing effectually for the future government of the provinces of India, and that in considering the variety of interests which are connected with this important subject, our best efforts will be employed in making such an arrangement, as may best promote the prosperity of the British possessions in that quarter, and at the same time secure the greatest advantages to the commerce and revenue of his Majesty's dominions:

"That we sincerely participate in the satisfaction expressed by his Royal Highness at the success of the measures adopted for suppressing the spirit of outrage and insubordination which had appeared in some parts of the country, and at the disposition which has been manifested to take advantage of the indemnity held out to the deluded by the wisdom and benevo lence of parliament: we trust that his Royal Highness will never have occasion to la ment the recurrence of atrocities so repugnant to the British character; and that all his Majesty's subjects will be impressed with the conviction that the happiness of individuals, and the welfare of the state, equally depend upon a strict

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