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nephritis as a sequel rather than increases it.
It may be stated that sero-therapy has not yet proven of any value either in the treatment or the prophylaxis of the disease. The inunction of soluble silver salts has not proven of any more benefit, but encouraging reports are made as to beneficial results believed to follow inunction with eucalyptus, and undeniably the danger of dissemination to other patients is lessened by this antiseptic method.
pin depresses the vagus nerve, which is over-activ in the first stage of shock, and the drug acts as a sedativ. If the vagus be greatly stimulated, no safe dose of atropin will quiet it; but in the second stage, the atropin acts on the vaso-motor center instead of the vagus, and thus provides elasticity in the blood-vessels, so that they do not yield to dilation, but form a proper caliber and act in conjunction with the heart. Half a dram of adrenalin solution, I to 1,000, in a pint of hot saline solution, injected into a vein, is a valuable adjunct to the atropin, if circumstances admit of securing the facilities for such injection. Heat in some form can generally be quickly obtained, and forms a useful adjuvant to treatment.
Energy and promptness are requisits of successful treatment of shock, and the results are gratifying to the conscientious physician.
Treatment of Shock. Many general practicians, not pretending to perform surgical operations, permit their conception of shock and their knowledge acquired in the medical school regarding how to handle it, to grow hazy. Somehow they have allowed themselves to drift into the idea that shock is essentially a surgical condition, seen only in the operating room, and that knowledge regarding it is superfluous. This is wrong; for any medical man, at any moment, may be confronted by the gravest cases of shock following accidents, and he should keep himself competent to act properly in such emergencies, for inefficient treatment may accelerate a fatal result.
"Shock consists primarily in an overstimulation of the inhibitory apparatus which governs the heart and respiration, immediately followed by exhaustion of inhibition, so that the pulse and breathing become rapid and shallow instead of slow, and depression of the vaso-motor center, so that a serious fall of the arterial pressure ensues. This period of inhibitory excitement speedily gives place to inhibitory exhaustion, and we have a rapid pulse not only from inhibitory palsy, but because the palsy of the vasomotor system relaxes the blood-vessels SO that the normal resistance to the heart is removed. This vaso-motor paralysis is the most important factor in the case. The capillaries in this second stage of shock are dilated, and the patient may actually bleed to death into his own blood vessels. The skin is relaxt, moist, and cold from excessiv dissipation of heat. This is the more prolonged stage of the two, but they both need active treatment.” (Hare.)
The patient is seldom reacht soon enuf for the physician to observe the symptoms of the first stage of shock, but if the patient be so fortunate as to receive such early treatment, the treatment is just the same as in the second stage. Atropin is the drug of choice. One sixtieth to one fiftieth of a grain is given hypodermically. This seeming anomaly is explained as follows: Atro
Muscular Rheumatism. Doubtless one of the most frequent forms of this disease of protean manifestations, muscular rheumatism, is not so frequently diagnosed as it should be. In consequence, improper treatment is adopted. Naturally, the patient seeks the speediest relief from pain ; yet to use morphin, as is frequently done in localized cases, cannot but be condemned as a vicious therapy, if we admit the now generally accepted view that the affection is a systemic one with a local manifestation. Eliminativ measures are the proper basis of treatment, with local palliativs as a subsidiary measure, for unless this be done, our patient may rapidly pass into some of the graver and more intractable types of the rheumatic diathesis.
This type of rheumatism may affect any muscle in the body; hence, if it affect the chest muscles, often the diagnosis of pleurisy is formulated; or if it manifest itself in the throat, laryngeal affection may be diagnosed and fruitlessly treated. It is separated from neuralgia by the fact that in muscular rheumatism there are no painful points, and that firm pressure with the hand always brings temporary relief from the rheumatic pain or soreness. Motion always aggravates muscular rheumatism, wherever situated; while neuralgia, pleurisy, throat affections, etc., commonly are uninfluenced by movement. Fever does not exclude the affection, tho it is not usually high. Leube found varying temperatures not exceeding found varying temperatures n 102° F., in one third of 200 cases carefully studied. The locations most frequently observed as sites of the affection are the lumbar expected to prescribe the stuff, in order to increase the value of his stock. Perhaps he and other doctors own only about onethousandth part of the stock; and so while the doctors are working their patients to increase the value of the stock held by the doctors, they are working 1,000-fold for the "other fellows," who are, meanwhile, laughing in laughing in their sleeves at the
their sleeves at the gullible doctors. So even the doctors who are mean enuf to work their patients to increase the value of certain stock, we can see are fools as well as knaves.
muscles (lumbago); the intercostals, pectorals and serratus magnus (pleurodynia); the neck muscles (torticollis); the scalp muscles (cephalodynia); and the muscles of the abdomen (abdominal rheumatism). In the scalp muscles it is frequently confused with migraine, neuralgia, etc.; and in the abdominal region it may simulate many varying types of internal trouble.
Only in the most severe types of the affection are opiates to be considered, and such cases are very rare, if rest and proper local measures are instituted. In most cases, the salicylates and other rheumatic remedies, either by local inunction or by systemic inges. tion, are to be used. Elimination by skin, bowels, and kidneys, to the highest degree, is essential to a satisfactory outcome of the case. Hot fomentations are grateful, and a Turkish bath will often cut short an attack if given sufficiently early. A cloth, moistened by hot water and laid over the seat of pain, and persistently and gently “ironed" with a common hot smoothing iron, is an old fashioned, but a generally very successful means of bringing quick relief. Bags filled with hot salt, hops, or the common hot water bag, should be laid against the seat of pain as the patient rests in bed. A 20 percent ointment of salicylic acid, effectually rubbed into the s te of pain, is often curativ in subacute and chronic cases. Lini. ments are rarely of value, except on account of the massage necessary to apply them or the “ moral" effect on the patient. The moral effect can be secured by the relief afforded by other rational measures, and the physician be spared the expense of the stronger anodyne embrocations Massage and electricity are often of service, when it is convenient to apply them, and show the most markt results in chronic cases. The salicylates and alkalies for the acute, and potassium iodid, guaiacum, arsenic, and colchicum for the chronic types, are the internal remedies most frequently indicated.
Children are frequent sufferers frcm muscular rheumatism, and in this class of patients the pain is generally severe. It is cruelty to suggest “growing pains” or a sprain, and adopt indifferent or no treatment at all.
Pure Food Legislation. Many and strenuous have been the attempts at pure food legislation, including drugs and liquors, but the interests endangered (the interests which are a danger to the people) have always succeeded in preventing it. The whiskey trust has been a prominent factor in preventing this legislation. But friends of the people are still working determinedly, and they hope to successfully pass a bill during the present session of Congress, in spite of the powerful interests that are arrayed against the people.
The bill now in shape is known as the Heyburn bill; it is Senate bill No. 88. We present it here in full for your consideration, with the suggestion that you write your wishes and sentiments concerning it to your Congressman and U. S. Senators. Here it is with the amendments to December 14, 1905, incorporated :
A BILL For preventing the manufacture, sale, or trans
portation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicins, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representativs of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That it shall be unlawful for any person, association of persons, or corporation within any Territory, District, or insular possession of the United States, to manufacture, sell, offer for sale, or deliver for shipment, or to cause to be delivered, shipt or transported from within any State, Territory, District or insular possession to any State, Territory, District, insular possession or foreign country any article of food, drugs, medicins, or liquors which is adulterated or misbranded, or which contains any poisonous or deleterious substance within the meaning of this Act; and any person, association of persons, or corporations who shall violate any of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and for each offense shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not to exceed five hundred dollars, or
Fools as well as Knaves. Beware of special stock propositions to doctors, particularly in proprietary medicin companies. These propositions are still being made, and hence this repetition of our warning frequently made in the past. The scheme is to get doctors to give their good money for the stock (perhaps at some “special” price), and then the doctor is
shall be sentenced to one year's imprisonment, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court, and for each subsequent offense and conviction thereof shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars, or sentenced to one year's imprisonment, or both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.
SEC, 2. That the introduction into any State, Territory, District, or insular possession, from any other State, Territory, District, or insular possession, or from any foreign country, or the shipment to any foreign country of any article of food or drugs which is adulterated or misbranded, deleterious or poisonous, within the meaning of this Act, is hereby prohibited; and any person, association of persons, or corporation who shall ship or deliver for shipment from any State, Territory, District, or insular possession to any other State, Territory, District, or insular possession, or shall export or offer to export the same to a foreign country, or who shall knowingly receive in any State, Territory, District, or insular possession of the United States from any other State, Territory, District, or insular possession of the United States, or from any foreign country, or who, having received, shall deliver in original unbroken packages, or shall offer to deliver to any other person, persons, or corporation any such article, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction for such offense shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars for the first offense, and upon conviction of each subsequent offense shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars or be imprisoned not exceeding one year, or both, in the discretion of the court.
That in the case of any violation of the provisions of the foregoing two sections by any corporation, the fines and penalties imposed therefor may be enforced against the officers of such corporation personally responsible for such violation, and any violation of any of the provisions of this Act by any corporation shall be deemed to be the act of the officer of such corporation directly responsible therefor, and such officer may be punished for such violation as though such violation was the personal act of such officer.
SEC. 3. That the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Commerce and Labor shall make uniform rules and regulations for the collection and examination of specimens of foods, drugs, medicins, and liquors manufactured or offered for sale in the District of Columbia, or in any other District, Territory, or insular possession of the United States, or which shall be offered for sale in unbroken packages in any State other than that in which they shall have been respectivly manufactured or produced, or which shall be received from any foreign country, or intended for shipment to any foreign country, or which may be submitted for examination by the chief health officer of any State, Territory, District, or insular possession, or at any domestic or for eign port through which such product is offered for interstate commerce or for export or import between the United States and any foreign port or country.
Sec. 4. That the examinations of specimens of foods, drugs, medicins, and liquors shall be made in the Bureau of Chemistry of the Depart.
ment of Agriculture, or under the direction and supervision of such Bureau, for the purpose of determining from such examinations whether such article is adulterated or misbranded, or contains any poisonous or other substance deleterious to the health of human beings or domestic animals; and if it shall appear from any such examination that such specimens are adulterated or misbranded or contain any added poisonous or deleterious substance or ingredient injurious to human health when used in the prescribed or usual manner of use of such article, the Secretary of Agriculture shall cause notice thereof to be given to the parties from whom such samples were obtained, and public notice of the facts shall be given by publication in such manner as the rules and regulations may prescribe to all other persons, association of persons, or corporations in whose possession like articles may be found or known to be that such article is within the provision of this Act; and shall give such party as may be charged with violation of this Act an opportunity to be heard, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed as aforesaid, and if after such hearing it is found that any of the provisions of this Act have been violated by such parties, then the Secretary of Agriculture shall at once certify the facts to the proper United States district attorney, with a copy of the results of the analysis or the examination of such article, duly authenticated by the analyst or officer making such examination, under the oath of such officer.
Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of each district attorney to whom the Secretary of Agriculture shall report any violation of this Act, or to whom any health officer or agent of any State, Territory, District, or insular possession shall present satisfactory evidence of any such violation, to cause appropriate proceedings to be commenced and prosecuted in the proper courts of the United States, without delay, for the recovery of the fines and the enforcement of the penalties as in such case herein provided.
DEFINITIONS. Sec. 6. That the term "drug" as used in this Act shall include all medicins and preparations recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia or National Formulary for internal and external use; also any substance intended to be used for the cure, mitigation, or prevention of disease.
Sec. 7. The term "food” as used herein shall include all articles used for food, drink (other than malt, spirituous, or vinous liquors), confectionery, or condiment by man or domestic animals, whether simple, mixt, or compound.
Sec. 8. That the term “liquor" as used herein shall include all malt, vinous, alcoholic, and spirituous liquors and combination of them used or intended to be used as beverages.
ADULTERATIONS AND MISBRANDING. SEC. 9. That for the purpose of this Act any article shall be deemed to be adulterated :
In the case of drugs:
First. If, when a drug is sold under or by a name recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia or National Formulary, it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or purity, as determined by the test laid down in the United States Pharmacopeia or National Formulary offi
cial at the time of investigation: Provided, That no drug not defined in the United States Pharmacopeia or National Formulary shall be deemed to be adulterated under this provision if the standard of strength, quality, or purity be plainly stated upon the bottle, box, or other container thereof as originally packt.
Second. If its strength or purity fall below the professed standard or quality under which it is sold.
That such drug shall be deemed to be misbranded:
First. If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the name of another article.
Second. If the package containing it, or its label, shall bear any statement regarding the ingredients or the substances contained therein, which statement shall be false or misleading in any particular, or if the same is falsely branded as to the country, State, or Territory, or place therein, in which it is manufactured or produced, or if the contents of the original package shall have been removed, in whole or in part, and other contents shall have been placed in such package.
In the case of confectionery an article shall be deemed to be adulterated :
If it contain terra alba, barytes, talc, chrome yellow, or other mineral substances or poisonous colors or flavors, or other ingredients deleterious or detrimental to health.
In the case of food an article shall be deemed to be adulterated :
First. If any substance or substances has or have been mixt and packt with it so as to reduce or lower or injuriously affect its quality or strength.
Second. If any substance or substances has or have been substituted wholly or in part for the article.
Third. If any valuable constituent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted.
Fourth. If it contain any added poisonous or other ingredient which may render such article injurious to human health: Provided, That goods intended for export shall not be deemed misbranded or adulterated when prepared and packt in accordance with specifications of the foreign purchaser, provided no substance is used that is in conflict with the laws of the country to which the goods are to be shipt, when such country having laws upon the subject does not prohibit such process of preparation.
Fifth. If it consists in whole or in part of a filthy, decomposed, or putrid animal or vegetable substance, or any portion of an animal unfit for food, whether manufactured or not, or if it is the product of a diseased animal or one that has died otherwise than by slaughter.
An article of food shall be deemed to be misbranded:
First. If it is to be offered for sale under the name of another article: Provided, That the term “distinctiy name" shall not be construed as applying to any article sold or offered for sale under a name that has come into general use to indicate the class or kind of the article if the name be accompanied on the same label or brand with a statement of the place where said article has been manufactured or produced.
Second. If it be mixt, colored, powdered, or
stained in a manner whereby damage or inferiority is concealed, so that such product when sold or offered for sale shall deceive or tend to deceive the purchaser or user thereof.
Third. If it be labeled or branded so as to deceive or mislead the purchaser or user, or purport to be a foreign product when not so, or is an imitation, either in package or label, of another substance of a previously establisht name, or which has been trade-markt or patented.
Fourth. If the package containing it or its label shall bear any statement, design, or device regarding the ingredients or the substances contained therein, which statement, design, or device shall be false or misleading in any particular, or if the same is falsely branded as to the State, Territory, or place in which it is manufactured or produced.
Fifth. An article of food which does not contain any added poisonous or deleterious ingredients shall not be deemed to be adulterated or misbranded. In the case of mixtures or compounds which may be now, or from time to time hereafter, known as articles of food sold under their own distinctiv names, and not included in definition first of misbranded articles of food in this section. Or in the case of articles labeled, branded, or tagged so as to plainly indicate that they are mixtures, compounds, combinations, imitations, or blends: Provided, That the same shall be labeled, branded, or tagged so as to show that they are of such character: And provided further, That nothing in this Act shall be construed as requiring or compelling proprietors or manufacturers of proprietary goods which contain no unwholesome added ingredients to disclose their formulas of production, except in so far as the provisions of this Act may require to secure freedom from adulteration or imitation.
In the case of liquors, an article shall be deemed adulterated if it contain any added ingredient of a poisonous or deleterious character.
Such liquors shall be deemed misbranded:
First. If it is blended or rectified, or consists of an admixture of different grades of the same liquor, or contains, or is mixt with, other substances, and such fact is not plainly stated on the package in which such liquor is offered for sale, or if the label or any written or printed statement accompanying the package in which such liquor is kept or sold contains any false statement as to the character of the contents of such package, or represents such liquor to be the product of any other country than that in which it was actually produced.
Sec. 10. That no dealer shall be convicted under the provisions of this Act when he can establisht a guaranty signed by the wholesaler, jobber, manufacturer, or other party residing in the United States, from whom he purchases such articles, to the effect that the same is not adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this Act, designating such article. Said guaranty, to afford protection, shall contain the name and address of the party or parties making the sale of such articles to such dealer, and in such case said party or parties shall be amenable to the prosecutions, fines, and other penalties which would attach, in due course, to the dealer under the provisions of this Act.
Sec. II. That every person, association of
the execution and delivery of a good and sufficient bond to the effect that such articles shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of contrary to the provisions of this Act, or the laws of any State, Territory, District, or insular possession, the court may by order direct that such articles be delivered to the owner thereof. The proceedings of such libel cases shall conform, as near as may be, to the proceedings in admiralty, except that either party may demand trial by jury of any issue of fact joined in any such case, and all such proceedings shall be at the suit of and in the name of the United States.
Sec. 14. That this Act shall not be construed to interfere with commerce wholly internal in any State nor with the exercise of their police powers by the several States.
Sec. 15. That the provisions of this Act shall not apply to common carriers as such, or to their servants, agents, or employes, acting for said common carriers.
Sec. 16. That this Act shall take effect and be in force from and after the first day of July, nineteen hundred and six.
nineteen een from and Act shall take
persons, or corporation who manufactures or produces and delivers for interstate or foreign shipment or transportation, or who receives from any State, Territory, District, or insular possession or foreign country other than the State, Territory, District, or insular possession in which it is produced, and any person, association of persons, or corporation who sells or exposes for sale in any Territory, District, or insular possession any article of food, drug, or liquor, shall furnish, within business hours and upon tender and full payment of the selling price, a sample of such drug, article of food, or liquor to any person duly authorized by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor to receive the same, and in any Territory, District, or insular possession, to any officer or agent of such Territory, District, or insular possession, respectivly, charged with the inspection of food or drugs in such jurisdiction who shall apply to such manufacturer, producer, or person or association of persons, or corporation selling or exposing for sale as aforesaid such drug, article of food, or liquor for such sample in sufficient quantity for an analysis of any such article or articles in his, or their, or its possession.
Sec. 12. That any manufacturer, producer, or dealer, who refuses to comply upon demand with the requirements of section eleven of this Act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment not exceeding one hundred days, or both. And any person, association of persons, or corporation, found guilty of manufacturing or offering for sale, or selling any adulterated, impure, or misbranded article of food, drug, or liquor in violation of the provisions of this Act shall be adjudged to pay, in addition to the penalties hereinbefore provided for, all the necessary costs and expenses incurred in inspecting and analyzing such adulterated articles which said person may have been found guilty of manufacturing, selling or offering for sale.
Sec. 13. That any article of food, drug, or liquor that is adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this Act, and is being transported from one State, Territory, District, or insular possession, to another for sale, or having been transported, remains unloaded, unsold, or in original unbroken packages, or if it be sold or offered for sale in the District of Columbia or the Territories, or insular possessions of the United States, or if it be imported from a foreign country for sale, or if it is intended for export to a foreign country, shall be liable to be proceeded against in any district court of the United States within the district where the same is found, and seized for confiscation by a process of libel for condemnation. And if such article is condemned as being adulterated or misbranded, or of a poisonous or deleterious character, within the meaning of this Act, the same shall be disposed of by destruction or sale, as the said court may direct, and the proceeds thereof, if sold, less the legal costs and charges, shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States, but such goods shall not be sold in any jurisdiction contrary to the laws of that jurisdiction: Provided, however, That upon the payment of the costs of such libel proceedings and
The Abolishing of Football. Some months ago Columbia University (New York City) abolisht football as an intercollegiate game. The news comes this morning (Jan. 16) that —
"Harvard board of overseers abolishes football pending reform in game acceptable to the corporation.
"Union College students almost unanimously adopt resolutions to abolish football as now played.
"Yale faculty, at special meeting, considers advisability of abolishing football, but defers final action.”
So it seems that common sense and Christian civilization are again asserting themselves. It is high time, for we were fast going back to the condition of ancient Rome, with its brutal combats in the coliseum. The worst of it is that football, regardless of the brutality of the type, has been patronized and encouraged largely by women and girls who were otherwise decent, respectable educated and refined, and even religious; just as the brutalities in the Roman coliseum were patronized and encouraged by the leading “ladies” of that time. However pious and refined the gentler sex may seem, the fact is that the moral advancement of the world is due to men. The Harvard board characterized football as it has been played as an “apology for a rough and tumble fight." Yet it has been women and girls, usually of the upper classes, who have been craziest to witness the games, however brutal, and to cheer and encourage the players.