History of Europe from the Commencement of the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, Volum 5

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Principle of the warfare on both sides ib 12 Ruinous effects of the invasion of Switzerland and Italy to the French military power
9
The French commence hostilities
10
Operations in the Grisons
11
The French are at first successful
12
The Austrians are driven back with great loss into the Tyrol
13
Great successes of Dessoles and Lecourbe
14
But Massena is defeated in repeated attacks on Feldkirch
15
Jourdan sustains a check from the Archduke Charles
16
Importance of this success ib 21 Position of the French at Stockach
17
Defeat of the French
19
Retreat of the French across the Rhine
20
The Congress of Rastadt was still sitting
21
Its dissolution and assassination of the French plenipotentiaries
22
General horror which it excites in France and throughout Europe 23 28 Commencement of hostilities in Italy Imprudent dispersion of the French for...
24
Position of the Imperialists on the Adige
25
French plan of operations
26
Preliminary movements of both parties
27
Which leads to no decisive result
28
Serrurier defeated above Verona
29
Countermarches of both parties ii
30
Brilliant attack of Kray with the reserve gives the Austrians the victory
31
Its decisive results Disorderly retreat of the French
32
VOL V
33
Operations in Germany to 41 Massena falls back on the Alps and takes a defensive position in the Orisons
34
Description of the theatre of war to 43 General attack upon Massenas line in the Orisons
35
Insurrection of the Swiss in his rear being unsupported it is crushed
36
Massena draws back his right wing in the Italian Alps
37
General attack by the Austrians on the French in the Grisons Luciensteg is carried
38
General retreat of the French behind the lake of Zurich
39
Part of the Austrian left wing is detached into Lombardy
40
The right wing of the French is driven from the St Gothard
41
Massenas position at Zurich He is there unsuccessfully attacked by the Archduke
42
The latter prepares a second attack Massena prevents it by a retreat Dissolution of the Swiss forces in the French service
43
Reflections on the magnitude of the preceding operations in the Alps
44
Arrival of the Russians under Suwarroff on the Mincio
45
Character of these troops and their commander
46
Early history of Suwarroff
47
His campaigns against the Poles and Turks to 67 His glorious successes at Fokschany and Rimniski
48
His conquest of Poland
49
His character as a general
50
His vast influence with his soldiers
52
and condition of the French army
53
Moreau retreats behind the Adda
56
Whither he is tardily followed by Suwarroff
57
Check of the Russians under Rosenberg in endeavouring to cross the Po
59
Suwarroff surprises Turin and the castle of Milan is taken
60
Suwarroff spreads over the whole of Piedmont and Lombardy
61
Reflections on these rapid successes of the Allies
62
Errors of the Austrians who coerced Suwarroff
63
Affairs of the Parthenopeian republic and general revolt at Naples
64
Macdonald commences his retreat and retires in safety to Tuscany
65
He enters into communication with Moreau and concerts measures with him
66
Position of the Allies at this juncture
67
Dangers arising from their great dispersion 80 Macdonalds advance First combats with the Republicans
68
Able and energetic resolution immediately adopted by Suwarroff ib 82 The two armies meet on the Trebbia First and indecisive action there
69
SuwarrofFs judicious plan of attack
71
Battle of the Trebbia and success of the Russians on the second day ib 85 Singular nocturnal combat on the second night
72
Preparations of both parties for battle on the third day
73
Desperate conflict on the Trebbia
74
Decisive attack of Prince Lichtenstein on the French centre 89 Victory remains with the Russians Excessive loss on both Bides
75
The disastrous retreat of the French over the Apennines
76
Successful operations during the battle of Moreau against Bellegarde
77
Reorganisation of both French armies under Moreau
79
Reflections on Suwarroffs admirable conduct in the preceding movements
80
Expulsion of the Republicans from Naples and bloody revenge of the Royalists
81
Violation of the capitulation by the Neapolitan court and Nelson concurs in these iniquitous proceedings Deplorable fate of Prince Car raccioli
83
Reflections on these unpardonable atrocities
84
And on the inferences to be drawn from the campaign
86
In strategy the possession of the valleys secures that of the mountains
87
Selfish desires which at this period paralysed all the operations of the Allies
88
the Nile 661
89
CHAPTER XXVIII
90
Enormous consumption of human life since the opening of the campaign
91
Clear proof thus afforded of the error of attacking Switzerland and Italy
92
Military preparations of the Allies
93
Objects of the contending generals
94
Great levy of troops by the Directory ib 8 Their measures to reinforce the armies
95
The Aulic Council injudiciously restrain Suwarroff from active operations
96
Leads to an agreement for a disastrous separation of the Russian and Austrian forces
97
the siege of Mantua
98
Description of that fortress
99
Commencement of the siege by Kray and surrender of the place
100
Fall of Alessandria and commencement of the siege of Tortona
101
Position of the Republicans in front of Genoa
102
Magnanimous conduct of Moreau on Jouberts assuming the command ib 17 Advance of the French to raise the siege of Tortona Positions of the Alli...
103
Joubert resolves to retreat on learning the fall of Mantua
104
He is attacked before doing so by Suwarroff Death of Joubert
105
Battle of Novi The Allies are at first repulsed ib 21 Combined attack of all their forces
106
The advance of Melas decides the victory
107
The French retreat
108
Great loss on both sides
109
Operations of Championnet in the Alps during this time Fall of Tortona
110
Situation of Massena and the Archduke at Zurich Ill 28 Insane dislocation of the allied forces at this period by the Aulic Council ib 29 Description of ...
112
The roads through it
113
Plan of the Allies and of Massena
114
Commencement of the attack by Lecourbe on the St Gothard
115
The Imperialists are forced back at all points
116
They are driven from the Grimsel and the Furca
118
Unsuccessful attempt of the Archduke to cross the Limmat below Zurich
119
Being foiled he marches to the Upper Rhine The Austrian left defeated in Glarus
120
Successful expedition of the Archduke against Mannheim
121
Plan of the Allies for a combined attack by Suwarroff and Korsakoff on Massena
122
Relative situations of the French and Russian centres at Zurich
123
Unfounded confidence of the latter
124
Feigned attacks on Zurich and the Lower Limmat
125
Dreadful confusion in the town of Zurich
126
Brave resolution of Korsakoff to force his way through ib 47 He cuts his way through the enemy but loses all his bngcage and artillery
127
Success of Soult against Hotze above the lake and death of the latter
128
Operations of Suwarroff on the Tessino Forcing of the St Gothard
129
Dreadful struggle at the Devils Bridge
130
Arrived at Altdorf Suwarroff is forced to ascend the Shachenthai Difficult passage of the ridge of Mutten
131
He finds uoue of the expected reinforcements there
132
And is there surrounded on all sides and reluctantly forced to retreat
133
aid
137
5S Treaty between Russia and England for an expedition to Holland
138
Vigorous preparations for the expedition in England ib 60 The expedition soils and lands on the Dutch coast Action at the Helder
139
Capture of the Dutch fleet at the Texel
140
The English joined by the Russians at length advance
142
Disaster of the Russians on the right
143
Success of the British in the centre and left But the Russians continue their retreat and the British are at length repulsed
144
Removal of the Dutch fleet to England
145
The Duke of York renews the attack and is successful ib 68 His critical situation notwithstanding
147
Indecisive action ib 70 Which leads to the retreat of the British
148
The British first retire and at last agree to evacuate Holland
149
Effects of this disaster on the nation ii
151
The Imperialists draw round Coni to 75 Championnet is compelled to attempt its relief and his measures for that purpose
152
Actions around Coni
153
77 Preparations for a decisive battle
154
Battle of Genola in which the French are defeated ib 79 Success of St Cyr near Novi and Biege and fall of Coni
155
Gallant conduct of St Cyr in the Bochetta Pass
156
Unsuccessful attempt of the Imperialists upon Genoa who go into winter quarters
157
Fall of Ancona
158
Position of the respective parties at the conclusion of the campaign
159
Jealousy between the Russians and Austrians
160
SuwarrofT retires into Bavaria
161
Which leads to a rupture between the cabinets of Vienna and St Peters burg
162
Positions assumed by the Austrians when so abandoned and operations on the Lower Rhine
163
Reflections on the vast successes gained by the Allies in the campaign
164
Deplorable internal situation of the Republic
165
Causes of the rupture of the Alliance
166
Comparison of the military writings of Archduke Charles and Napoleon
167
Si Character of the Archduke
168
Parallel between the Archduke and Suwarroff
169
Comparison of the passage of the St Gothard by Suwarroff and the St Bernard by Napoleon
170
Last illness and death of Suwarroff
171
His last request and funeral
172
Deplorable insignificance of the part which England took in the Con tinental struggle
173
Great results which might have followed a more vigorous warfare at land by England
174
Cause of the rapid fall of the French power in 1799
175
CHAPTER XXIX
176
Extreme difficulties of government since that event
177
Universal dissatisfaction after the new elections ib 4 Restoration of the liberty of the press
180
Preparations for a revolution
181
a Revolution of the 30th Prairial
182
New ministerial appointments
183
Efforts of the Jacobins to revive the revolutionary spirit which totally fail
184
Forced loan and conscription of 200000 men decreed by the Councils
185
Anarchy of the provinces Cruel law of the hostages
186
Insurrection in Brittany and La Vendee ib 15 Great severity in the collection of the forced loan and success of the mili
187
Increased violence of the Jacobins
188
FouchS is appointed Minister of Police His character and conservative designs
189
He closes the Jacobin Club
190
Violence of the daily press and attack on them by the Directory
191
Their continued vigorous measures against the Jacobins
192
Deplorable state of France at this period
193
Arrival of Napoleon at Frejus and universal enthusiasm which it excited
194
21 His journey and arrival at Paris
195
His reception there by the Directory and state of their government
196
Previous intrigues of the Directory with Louis XVIII
197
Junction of the malcontents of all parties to support Napoleon ib 27 Profound dissimulation of his conduct
199
His efforts to gain Gohier and Moulins who refuse
200
After much hesitation he at length resolves to join Sieves
201
Measures resolved on
202
He tries in vain to gain Bernadotte
203
Progress of the conspiracy ib S3 Great banquet in the Hall of the Ancients
204
Preparations of the conspirators in the Council of the Ancients
205
Efforts of Napoleon with all parties
206
The 18th Brumaire
207
Meeting of the conspirators in the Rue Chantereine
208
Napoleons speech at the bar of the Ancients
209
Curious pamphlet published in support of Napoleon
210
Proceedings of the Council of Five Hundred and resignation of Barras ib 41 Arrest of Oohier and Moulins
211
Napoleon Sieyes and Roger Ducos are named consuls
212
The 19th Brumaire at St Cloud
213
Excessive vehemence in the Five Hundred ib 45 Imminent danger of Napoleon who enters the Hall of the Ancients
214
Napoleons agitation and speech to the Ancients
215
He enters the Hall of the Five Hundred Frightful disorders there
217
Intrepid conduct of Lucien
218
Dissolution of the Five Hundred by an armed force
219
Nocturnal meeting of the conspirators in the Orangery Their decrees
220
Joy in Paris at these events
221
General satisfaction which the revolution diffused through the country ib 53 Clemency of Napoleon after his victory
222
Formation of a constitution
223
Napoleons objection to Sieyess plan
224
Napoleons appointment as First Consul
225
Total abrogation of the power of the people
226
Outlines of the new constitution and formation of the lists of eligibility
227
Appointments in administration made by Napoleon
228
Gross cupidity of Sieyes
229
Immense majority of the people who approved of the new constitution
231
Reflections on theaccession of Napoleon to the consular throne ib 63 Durablo freedom had been rendered impossible by the destruction of the aristo...
232
All revolutions after this were revolutions of the palace only
233
Disastrous effects of the irreligion of France
235
Its lasting alliance with the selfish passions ib 67 Identity of courtiers and democrats
236
Prodigious effects of the centralisation of power introduced by the Re volution
237
Hopeless state of the cause of freedom in France
239
Distinction between the safe and dangerous spirit of freedom ib 71 Immense impulse given by the changes of the Revolution to the spread of Christia...
240
CHAPTER XXX
242
And against the principles on which it was first grounded ii
250
Errors of the Allies
252
The aggressions of France on Switzerland c
253
Her general faithlessness to treaties
255
IS Advantages of peace to France
256
France the aggressor in the war
257
Pacific conduct of Great Britain 25 S 21 Principle of the Republicans which renders war inevitable
259
Napoleons views on the necessity of conquest to his existence
260
Reflections on this subject
261
St Cyrs views on it
262
Great error of the English Opposition at this period
263
25 The Parliament resolve on war Supplies voted by the British parliament
264
Land and sea forces voted
265
Mr Dundass India budget The Union of Ireland ib 29 Its leading provisions
266
Views of the leaders on both sides of parliament on this great change
267
Great prosperity of the British empire at this period and prodigious rise of prices
268
Bad harvest of 1799 and consequent scarcity in 1800
269
Great efforts of government to relieve it and noble patience of the people
270
Measures of England and Austria for the prosecution of the war
271
Treaties entered into for this purpose with Austria and Bavaria
272
Military preparations of the Imperialists
273
Discontented state of the French affiliated Republics
274
Measures of Napoleon to restore public credit in France
275
Dreadful injustice of the forced loans
276
Salutary effect of Napoleons government 41 Pacification of La Vendee
279
Napoleon effects a reconciliation with the Emperor Paul ib 45 His energetic military measures and revival of the military spirit in France
280
His measures to extinguish the revolutionary fervour of the people
282
He suppresses the liberty of the press
283
He fixes his residence at the Tuileries
284
Splendid military pageant on this occasion
285
Commencement of the etiquette and splendour of a court
286
Recall of many emigrants exiled since 18th Fructidor
288
Paris
292
Suppression of the fete on 21st January elevation of Tronchet and his ideas on religion
293
Correspondence between Napoleon and Louis XVIII 294 59 General improvement in the prospects of France
296
CHAPTER XXXI
297
Forces of the Imperialists
298
Plan of the Austrians
299
And of the First Consul ib 5 Jealousy of the army of the Rhine of Napoleon
300
Positions of Krays forces in Germany
301
Positions of Moreaus troops
302
First movements of the French general
303
Irresolution of the Austrian generals in consequence
304
Moreau advances against their centre
305
Battle of Engen ib 13 Victory of the French
307
Its great results and retreat of Kray ib 15 Battle of Moeskirch
308
It at length terminates in the defeat of the Imperialists
309
Results of the battle
310
Perilous situation of St Cyr on the following day ib 19 Affair of Biberach and retreat of the Austrians to Ulm
311
Great advantages of that position
312
Kray keeps the field with part of his force
313
Great strength of the intrenched camp
314
Increasing perplexity of Moreau He in vain moves round to Augsburg
315
He next proposes to advance on the left bank of the Danube Imminent risk of the French left
316
Extreme suffering of the troops on the summits of the Maritime Alps
325
Massena is appointed to the command His proclamation to these troops
326
Energetic measures taken to restore order Positions of the opposite armies ib 39 Description of Genoa
327
Its walls and fortifications
328
Measures taken for its blockade by land and sea Successful attack of the Imperialists on the French position
329
Suchet is separated from tho main body and driven back towards France
330
Desperate and successful sortie of Massena
331
His dispositions for reopening his communication with Suchet ib 45 Austrian measures to prevent it which prove successful
332
Continued successes of the Imperialists
333
Massena finally driven into Genoa
334
Results of these combats and defeat of Suchet by Elnitz ib 49 Suchet is driven over the Var into France
335
General attack on the French positions around Genoa
336
Which at first successful is finally repulsed by Massena
337
2 Successful sally of the French
338
Which leads to another in which they are defeated and Soult made prisoner
339
The siege is converted into a blockade Extreme sufferings of the in habitants
340
A fresh sortie is defeated
341
Agonies endured by the inhabitants
342
Massena at length surrenders
343
The Austrians set out to meet Napoleon Advance of the Allies to Nice
344
Description of Suchets position on the Var and attack on it by the Austrians
345
The army is stopped in the valley of Aosta by the fort of Bard 71 Firm resistance of the Austrian commandant 72 Device by which the passage was at...
360
Passage of the St Gothard and Mont Cenis by the wings of the army Melas in haste concentrates his troops
361
Milan
362
Advance into Lombardy and capture of Milan
363
proclamation to his troops
365
The French vanguard comes up with the Austrians at Montebello 866
367
Position of the French in the pass of Stradella between the Apennines and the Po
369
Disastrous retreat of Elnitz from the Var i
370
Gallant resolution of Melas to cut his way through Napoleons army
371
Arrival of Desaix from Egypt at Napoleons headquarters
372
Preparatory movements of both parties
373
Forces assembled on both sides
374
Battle of Marengo
375
Great success of the Austrians
376
Arrival of Napoleon on the field of battle and his first stops
377
Imminent danger of the French
378
Arrival of Desaix After a gallant charge he too is defeated
379
A decisive charge of Kellermann converts the defeat into a victory
380
Final defeat of the Austrians
381
Loss sustained on both Bides
382
Base conduct of Napoleon to Kellermann
383
armistice of Alessandria
384
Its immense results and faithful observance by the Austrians 3S5 99 Napoleon returns to Milan and thence to Paris
386
Reflections on this campaign Great changes are never owing to trivial causes
387
Disasters of France under the Directory 3S8 102 The sudden resurrection under Napoleon 3S9 103 Causes of the disasters of the campaign to the Im...
391
What is the real fortification required in such a case
392
Merits of Napoleon in the campaign
393
And of the Austrian commander
394
Propriety of the convention of Alessandria considered
395
Inexpedience of receiving battle in the oblique order
396
Deplorable effects of the English being absent from the scene of action
397
CHAPTER XXXII
399
Treaty previously signed between Austria and England the Imperial government in adhering to it Good faith of 40 0
400
avowed by the Imperial cabinet
401
Lord Grenvilles answer 248
402
Proposals of Great Britain
403
Which fail from the unreasonable demands of France
404
Armistice with the Austrians and Jacobin conspiracy to assassinate Na poleon
405
And of Austria Noble efforts of her people
407
Austrian forces
408
Russia and Prussia keep aloof to 13 English expedition of Sir James Pultency fails at Ferrol
409
And from dread of the plague he declines to attack Cadiz
410
Surrender of Malta to the British blockading squadron
411
The French crush the Tuscan insurgents with great cruelty
412
Leghorn is seized and the English merchandise confiscated
413
Last remnant of Swiss independence destroyed Incorporation of the Netherlands with France and capture of Surinam and Demerara by the English
414
Description of the line of the Inn
415
Operations on the Lower Rhine
416
The Austrians advance into Bavaria and Moreau at the same time pushes forward
417
the French retire to Hohen linden
418
Description of the field of battle
419
Dreadful struggle at the outlet of the forest
421
Decisive flank movement of Bichepanse
422
The Austrian line of communication is intercepted
424
Able measures of Moreau to profit by it
425
Great victory gained by the French to 33 Its prodigious consequences and merit of Moreau in gaining it
426
The Austrians retire behind the Inn
428
Rapid advance of the French towards Salzbourg
430
Defeat of the French at Salzbourg
431
But the Imperialists are nevertheless obliged to retire and Moreau pushes on towards Vienna
432
Great successes gained by his advancedguard
433
The Archduke Charles joins the army but cannot arrest the disasters
434
An armistice is agreed to
435
Operations of the army on the Maine to 43 Operations in the Orisons and designs of Napoleon there
436
Macdonalds army there
437
Description of the road over the Splugen
438
Napoleons design for the passage of that mountain
439
Preparations of Macdonald for crossing the Splugen ib 48 Description of the passage of the Via Mala
440
And of the Splugen mountain
441
Precautions necessary in crossing during winter
442
Extreme difficulties experienced by the French troops in the passage
443
passage of the vanguard ib 53 Increased difficulties and heroism of Macdonald
444
Ho arrives at Chiavenna on the lake of Como
446
He is placed under the orders of Brune and passes the Col Apriga
447
Attack on the Mont Tonal in which the French are repulsed
448
Positions and forces of the French and Austrians in Italy
449
French forces in Italy
450
First operations of Brune
451
Passage of the Mincio ib 61 Desperate conflict of the troops who had crossed over
453
Brune at length relieves them and the passage is completed
454
Great losses of the Imperialists
455
Bellegarde retires to Caldiero ib 65 Advance of the Republicans up the valley of tho Adige
456
Alarming situation of Laudon on the Upper Adige ib 67 Macdonald makes his way into the Italian Tyrol
457
And at length reaches the Upper Adige
458
Ho escapes by a lateral path to Bassano
459
Bellegarde retreats to Treviso Armistice there
460
An insurrection breaks out in Piedmont
461
The Neapolitans invade the Roman states and are totally defeated
462
The contest was plainly hopeless
463
The Queen of Naples flies to St Petersburg to implore the aid of Paul
464
Peace between France and Naples concluded at Foligno Feb 9 Its con ditions
465
The French take possession of the whole Neapolitan territories
466
Secret articles of this treaty
467
Siege of Elba ib 81 Its gallant defence by the English garrison
468
Treaty of Luneville
469
The Emperor signs for the Empire as well as Austria
470
His apology to the electors of Germany ib 85 Extravagant joy at this peace in Paris
471
Reflections on this campaign
472
The real object of the war was already gained by the Allies
473
Evidence of Napoleons implacable hostility to England
474
Increasing and systematic pillage by the Republican armies
475
Symptoms of patriotic and general resistance springing up
476
Origin of the difference of the laws of war at sea and land
478
Early usages of war on both elements Gradual change at land
479
Original usages still kept up at sea
480
A Common maritime law of Europe as to neutral vessels
481
Principles of that law ib 6 Sir William Scotts exposition of the maritime law
483
This law universally acknowledged in Europe prior to 1780
484
But these rights were sometimes abated by special treaty
486
Origin of resistance to these rights The Armed Neutrality
487
Its principles are subsequently abandoned by the northern powers in their own case
488
Various examples of this abandonment ib 12 But the neutrals suffered severely in the close of the war
490
Excessive violence of the Directory against the United States 401
493
Lord Whitworth is sent to Copenhagen and enters into an accommodation
494
Growing irritation of the Emperor Paul at the Allies Politic conduct of Napoleon
495
Differences about Malta
496
He is joined by Sweden Denmark and Prussia
497
His warm advances to Napoleon
498
General maritime confederacy signed on Dec 16 1800
500
Its threatening consequences to England to 25 Measures of retaliation on the part of the British government
501
Diplomatic debates with the neutral powers Argument of England
502
Answer of Prussia and the neutral powers
503
Hanover is invaded by Prussia 50 5
507
And their inexpediency a 33 Arguments in reply by Mr Pitt
508
Rights of England conceded by existing treaties
509
Iuexpedience of succumbing before the coalition
510
Mr Pitt resigns in consequence of the Catholic claims
511
But this was only the ostensible ground of his resignation
512
Vigorous measures of his successors to prosecute the war
515
Prosperous state of Great Britain at this period
517
Advancement of its Agriculture c
518
Naval forces of tho confederacy
519
The British fleet sails from the Downs
520
Description of the Sound
521
Gay scene which the Sound usually presents 522 46 Splendid appearance of the British fleet as it approached the Straits
523
Undaunted spirit of the Danes V6 48 Passage of the Sound by the English fleet
524
Preparations of the Danes
525
Nelsons plan of attack
526
Preparations on both sides for the battle
528
Great difficulty experienced by the pilots ib 53 Battle of Copenhagen Great danger of the British fleet
530
Coolness and determination of Nelson who disobeys orders and continues the action
531
Heroic deeds on both sides
532
Nelsons proposal for an armistice 634
535
Melancholy appearance of the Danes after the battle
536
Impressive scene at Copenhagen on Good Friday
537
Loss on either side and armistice agreed on for fourteen weeks
538
Hanover overrun by Prussia 639
540
General irritation against the Czar
542
Symptoms of insanity in his conduct
543
Conspiracy among the nobles for his dethronement
544
its particulars
545
His mixture of good and bad qualities
547
His character
548
His early pacific and popular measures
550
Nelson sails for Cronstadt His conciliatory measures there
551
Peace with Russia and abandonment of the principles of the armed neu trality
552
Napoleons indignation at it
553
Dissolution of the naval confederacy
554
Reflections on these events
555
Glorious conduct of the British government at this crisis
556
CHAPTER XXXIV
557
Convention of ElArish ib 6 The British government had previously prohibited such a convention and hostilities are in consequence renewed
562
Position of the two armies
563
Terrible charge of the Turks and its defeat
566
Desperate situation of the garrison at Cairo
567
Storm and massacre at Boulak and defeat of the Turks in every quarter ib 13 Improved condition of the French army
568
Assassination of Kleber
569
Designs of Kleber when he fell
570
Menou takes the command
571
Preparations for the English expedition and magnificent conception of the attack
572
Formation of the English expedition Forces of the French
573
The whole contest falls on Abercrombys corps
574
Sir Ralph resolves to make the attack alone
575
Arrival of the expedition on the coast of Egypt and landing of the troops
576
Severe action on the sandhills
577
Effects of this first success
578
Cautious measures of the English general to 25 Bloody encounter with the French vanguard
579
Ultimate success but great loss of the British
580
Description of the ground now taken up by the British army 681
581
Interesting recollections connected with the spot ib 30 Battle of Alexandria Repulse of the French on the right
583
Rampou restores the combat on the right Desperate conflict between the Highlanders and Invinciblcs
584
Defeat of the French
586
Its first effects arc not very decisive Surrender of Damietta
587
indecisive measures of Menou
588
General Hutchinson advances toward Cairo and takes Ramanieh
589
General Belliard is defeated near Cairo
590
Cairo is invested and its garrison capitulates
591
Advance of Sir David Bairds division from the Red Sea
592
Their march from Cosseir to Thebes across the desert ib 42 General Hutchinson moves against Menou at Alexandria
594
Progress of the siege and surrender of Menou
595
Results of this campaign 96
597
Great naval exertions of Napoleon to preserve Egypt
601
Third unsuccessful attempt of Napoleon for the relief of Egypt
602
Naval action in the bay of Algesiraz
603
In which the British are worsted
604
Great rejoicings in France at this event
605
The British squadron sets sail from Gibraltar
606
Second battle of Algesiraz and terrible catastrophe in the Spanish fleet ib 56 Defeat of the French C08 57 Attack of Napoleon on Portugal Treaty wit...
609
Napoleons real object in this attack
610
The Portuguese apply to England for aid which is refused
611
The Portuguese make no resistance and peace is concluded
612
Which the First Consul refuses to ratify and a French army invades Portugal
613
Peace concluded by enormous pecuniary spoliation and Napoleon offers Hanover to Prussia which is declined
614
Preparations for the invasion of England
615
Apprehensions of the British government
616
Attack on the flotilla at Boulogne by Nelson
617
Which is defeated
618
First proposal for the introduction of steam into naval operations
619
Its probable effect on future naval wars to 69 Negotiations for peace between France and England
620
First proposals of England which are refused
621
Napoleons views in the negotiation r6 72 Preliminaries signed at London
622
Transports of joy on the occasion both in France and England
623
But the peace is severely stigmatised in England by many Arguments used against it in the country
624
Arguments urged in support of it by the administration
625
Peace between France and Turkey
627
And with Bavaria America and the lesser powers ib 78 Important treaty between France and Russia
628
Debates in parliament on the peace Arguments against it as degrading to England
629
SO It gives no security against French aggression
630
The alleged inveteracy of Napoleon against Great Britain
631
Alleged impossibility of peace being maintained
632
Successes gained during the war urged as arguments against the peace
633
Answer made by the government and Mr Pitt Gains of the kingdom by the peace
634
The original objects of the war had become unattainable
635
Necessity thence accruing for a change of object
636
The true amount of the gains of France by the war stated and those of Great Britain by the peace
637
Desirableness of peace on any terras consistent with honour
638
Fidelity and generosity of Great Britain toward her allies
639
Definitive treaty signed at Amiens
640
Reflections on the peace which appears to have been expedient
641
Advantages of the peace
642
Public debts of the two countries
645
Exports and imports of both
646
Reflections on the immense efforts made by England during the war
647
Compared with the niggardly exertions at its commencement
648
Disastrous effects of this parsimonious spirit in the outset
649
Great part of this prosperity was owing to the paper currency
650
Vast increase of the paper currency during the war
651
Glorious state and character of England at the conclusion of the contest
653
Appendix
655
His letter falls into the hands of the English who forward it to Napoleon
659

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Side 536 - Again! again! again! And the havoc did not slack, Till a feeble cheer the Dane To our cheering sent us back;— Their shots along the deep slowly boom:— Then ceased— and all is wail, As they strike the shatter'd sail; Or in conflagration pale, Light the gloom.
Side 522 - By the festal cities' blaze, Whilst the wine-cup shines in light ; And yet amidst that joy and uproar Let us think of them that sleep, Full many a fathom deep, By thy wild and stormy steep, Elsinore.
Side 483 - The right is. equally clear in practice ; for practice is uniform and universal upon the subject. The many European treaties which refer to this right, refer to it as pre-existing, and merely regulate the exercise of it. All writers upon the law of nations unanimously acknowledge it, without the exception even of Hubner himself, the great champion of neutral privileges.
Side 421 - On Linden, when the sun was low, All bloodless lay the untrodden snow ; And dark as winter was the flow Of Iser, rolling rapidly. But Linden saw another sight, When the drum beat at dead of night, Commanding fires of death to light The darkness of her scenery.
Side 534 - ViceAdmiral Lord Nelson has been commanded to spare Denmark when she no longer resists. The line of defence which covered her shores has struck to the British flag; but if the firing is continued on the part of Denmark, he must set on fire all the prizes that he has taken, without having the power of saving the men who have so nobly defended them. The brave Danes are the brothers, and should never be the enemies of the English.
Side 532 - I have only one eye, — I have a right to be blind sometimes...
Side 245 - French nation in prosperity at home, and in consideration and respect abroad : such an event would at once have removed, and will at any time remove, all obstacles in the way of negotiation or peace. It would confirm to France the unmolested enjoyment of its ancient territory ; and it would give to all the other nations of Europe, in tranquillity and peace, that security which they are now compelled to seek by other means.
Side 515 - ... can be given with a prospect of success. They may be assured that Mr. Pitt will do his utmost to establish their cause in the public favour, and prepare the way for their finally attaining their objects.
Side 259 - The last and distinguishing feature is a perfidy which nothing can bind, which no tie of treaty, no sense of the principles generally received among nations, no obligation, human or divine, can restrain. Thus qualified, thus armed for destruction, the genius of the French Revolution marched forth, the terror and dismay of the world. Every nation has in its turn been the witness, many have been the...
Side 242 - How can the two most enlightened nations of Europe, powerful and strong beyond what their safety and independence require, sacrifice to ideas of vain greatness the benefits of commerce, internal prosperity, and the happiness of families?

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