variely to the modulation.* Notwithstanding this diversity of practice there are certainly proper boundaries, within which this emphasis must be restrained, in order to make it meet the approbation of sound judgment and correct taste. It will doubtless have different degrees of exertion, according to the greater or less degrees of importance of the words upon which it operates ; and there may be very properly some variety in the use of it: but its application is not arbitrary, depending on the caprice of readers.

As emphasis often falls on words in different parts of the saine sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify both the parts of this position: “If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase kis stores, but to diminish his desires.?? - The Mexican figures, or picture writing, represent things not words: they exhibit images to the eyes, not ideas to the understanding."

Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphatical : as, “ Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains !" or, as thåt pathetic expostulaLion in the prophecy of Ezekiel, “Why will ye die !"

Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator pf quantity.) Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed, in words separately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are arranged in sentences; the loug being changed into short, the short into long, according to the im. portance of the word with regard to meaning. Emphasis Also, in particular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This s demonstrable from the following examples. He shall increase, but I shall decrease.” “ There is a difference between giving and forgiving.” “In this species of coinposition, plausibility is much more essential than probability.” In these examples, the emphasis requires the uceent to be placed on syllables, to which it does not commonly belong.

In order to acquire the proper management of the emphasis, the great rule to be given, is that the reader study to aitain a just conception of the force and spirit of the senti.. ments which he is to pronounce . For to lay the emphasis with exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention. It is far from being an inconsiderable at

By modulation is meant that pleasing variety of voice, wbich is perceived in uttes. 18 a sentence, and which, in its nature, is perfectly distinct from emphasis. and the 10.49 of emotion and passion. The young reader should be careful to render his moduAation correct and easy; and for this purpose should form it upon the model of the most judicious and accurate speakers.


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tainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true af just taste; and must arise from feeling delicately ourselve and from judging aceurately of what is fittest to strike feelings of others.

There is one error, against which it is particularly pro er to caution the learners namely, chat of multiplying e phatical words too much, and using the emphasis indiseri

at is only by a prudent reserve and distinetion the use of them, that we can give them any weight. they recur too often; if a reader attempts to render eve thing he expresses of high importanee, by a multitude strong emphases, we soon learn to pay little regard to the (To crowd every sentence with emphatical words, is lil crowding all the pages of a book with Italic character which, as to the effect, is just the same as to use no su distinctions at all.


TORES. Tones are different both from emphasis and pauses, com sisting in the notes or variations of sound which we emplo in the expression of our sentiments. Emphasis affects pa ticular words and phrases, with a degree of tone or inflecti of voice but tones, peculiarly so called, affect sentene paragraphs, and sometimes even the whole of a discourse.

To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only serve, that the mind, in communicating its ideas, is in a co stant state of activity, emotion, or agitation, from the d ferent effects which those ideas produce in the speak Now the end of such communication being, nut merely lay open the ideas, but also the different feelings whil they excite in him who utters them, there must be oth signs than words, to manifest those feelings ; as words, tered in a monotonous inanner, can represent only a simil state of mind, perfectly free from all activity and einotid As the communication of these internal feelings, was much more consequence in our social intercourse, than mere conveyance of ideas, the Author of our being did n as in that conveyance, leave the invention of the langua of emotion to man; but impressed it himself upon our ture, in the same manner as he has done with regard to rest of the animal world; all of which express their varig feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the super rank that we hold, are in a high degree more comprehg' sive ; as there is not an act of the mind, an exertion of kanev, or an emotion of the heart, which has not its peculi

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or note of the voice, by, which it is to be expressed ; and which is suited exactly to the degree of internal feeling at is chiefly in the proper use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty, and harmony of delivery consist.

The limits of this introduction, do not admit of examples, to illustrate the variety of tones belonging to the differn ent passions and emotions. We shall, however, select one which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of David over Saul and Jonathan, and which will, in some degree, elucidate what has been said on this subject. “The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places: how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath; publish it not in the streets of Askelon ; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice ; lest the daughters of the uncircumcised trinmph. Ye inountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings ; for there the shield of the mighty was vileiy cast away; the shield of Saul, as though he had not beein anointed with oil.” The first of these divisions expresses sorrow and lamentation : therefore the note is . low. The next contains a spirited command, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic address to the mountains where his friends had been slain, must be expressed in a note quite different from the two former; low as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.

The correct and natural language of the emotions is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imagine, If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliyer the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people, who speak English without a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in -earnest discourse. And the reason that they have not the same use of them, in reading aloud the senti. ments of others, maybe traced to the very defective and erroneous method, in which the art of reading is taught ; whereby all the various, natural, expressive tones of speech are suppressed; and a few artificial, unmeaning reading notes, are substituted for thein.

But when we recomiend to readers, an attention to the tone and language of emotions, we most be understood to do it with proper

limitation. Moderation is necessary in this point, as it is ju other things. For 19 a:ling becomes strictly imitative, it assumes a theatrical paiger, and must


be highly improper, as well as give offence to the hearers because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty, which are indispensable on such occasions. The speaker who delivers his own emotions must be supposed to be more vivid and animated, than would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.

We shall conclude this section with the following rule, for the tones that indicate the passions and emotions. reading, let all your tones of expression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in some degree, more faintly charaeterized. Let those tones which signify any disagreeable passion of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions; and, on all occasions, preserve yourself so far from being affected with the subject, as to be able to proceed through it, with that easy and masterly manner, which has its good effeets in this, as well as in every

other art."

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PAUSEs or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total ees. sation of the voice, during ų perceptible, and, in inany cases, a measurable space of time Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the hearer,' To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in delivery; and that he may, by these temporary rests, relieve the organs os speech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued action: do the hearer, that the ear also may be relieved from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a continuity of sound; and that the understanding may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several members.)

There are two kind of pauses: first, emphatical pauses; ani next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical pause is generally made after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Soinetimes, before such a thing is said, we usher it in with a pause of this nature., Such pauses have the same effect as a strong emphasis ; and are subject to the same rules; especially to the caution, of not repeating them too frequenily. For as they excite uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointment and disgust.

But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses a to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breath; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses, is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery.). In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to obliga us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, and without the least separation. Many a sentence is miserably mangled, and ihe force of the emphasis totally lost, by divisions being made in the wrong place. To avoid this, every one while he is reading, should be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he is io utter. It is a great mistake to imagine, that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period; when the voice is allowed to fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and by this management, one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper interruptious.

Pauses in reading must generally be formed pon the manner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible

which conversation and not upon the stiff, artificial manner, is acquireil- from reading books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be sufficient, to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses, which ought to be made in reading. A me. chanical attention to these resting places, has perhaps been one cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and an uniform cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is to assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction; and it is only as a secondary object, that they regulate his pronunciation. On this head, tho following direction may be of use : “ Though in reading, great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense; and their correspondent times occasionally lengthened beyond what is usual in common speech.”

(To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not. only be made in thi, right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pause is intimated a much more than by the length of them, whiclı can seldom de exactly measured. Sometiines it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper ; some

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