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GENIAL, GENIALES, an epithet given by edges of the base of the os hyoides. It draws the pagans in certain gods who were supposed the os liyoides forwards to the chin. to preside over generation.
GENIOSTOMA, in botany, a genus of the GENIAL. a. (genialis, Latin.) 1. That con- class pentandria, order monogynia. Corol tributes to propagation (Dryden). 2. That funnel form, the throat bearded; calyx ingives cheerfulness, or supports life (Milton). ferior, five-cleft; stigma cylindrical, grooved; 3. Natural, natire (Brown).
capsule two-celled, many seeded. One species; GENIALLY. ad. 1. By genius į naturally a native of Tama island. (Glanville). 2. Gaily; cheerfully.
GENIPI ALBUM. The plant which GENICULATE. In botany. Kneed. bears this name in the pharmacopæias is the (Knee-jointed, With.) Applied to a stem, Artimisia rupestris; foliis pinnatis, caulibus peduncle of awn, forming a very obtuse angle adscendentibus; Horibus globosis, cernuis; reat the joints, as when the knee is a little bent. ceptaculo papposo, of Livnéus. It has a grateAs in alopecurus geniculatus. In Delin. Pl. ful smell, and is used in some countries in the it is explained to be, internodiis interceplus, cure of intermittents and obstructed catamenia. which is the same with nodosus. There is See ARTEMISIA. this difference, however, that nodous (nodosus) GEMINI VERUM. The plant directed for means knotty, or merely having knots; where- medicinal purposes under this title is the as geniculate implies, that the stem is bent in Achillea; foliis, pinnatis, pinnis simplicibas, an angle at the joint. Flexuous is totally dif- glabris, punctalis of Haller. It has a very ferent from both, for it implies deviation in a grateful sınell, and a very bitter taste, and is curve, not at an angle. See K'NOTTED. exhibited in Switzerland in epilepsy, diarrhæa,
GENICULE. (diinin. from Genu.) In and debility of the stomach. See ACHILLEA. botany. Knee, knot, of joint. Properly a GENISTA. Green-weed. In botany, a joint, where there is a bending, like that at genus of the class diadelphia, order decandria. ihe knee : but is frequently put for a joint in Calyx two-lipped, with iwo short teeth above general; and then is synonymous with nodus. and three longer beneath ; banner oblong, reSee Knor and KNOTTED.
flected back by the pistils and stamens. TwentyGENICULATION. s. (geniculatio, Lat.) five species ; almost all of them natives of Knottiness.
Europe, generally of the south of Europe ; GENII, a sort of intermediate beings, which three only common to our own heaths. of the Mahometans believe to exist between men this genus a few are spinous, but by far the and angelsi of a grosser fabric than the latter, greater number unarmed. Those indigenous but much more active and powerful than the amongst ourselves are: former. Some of them are good, others bad; 1. G. tinctoria: with leaves lanceolate, gla. and they are thought capable of future salva- brous; branches round, striate, erect; legumes tion and damrätion, lıke inen.
glabrous. It is found both on our heaths and GENIO. s. (genio, Ital. genius, Latin.) A in our pastures with a shrubby stalk about man of a particular turn of inind (Taller). three feet high. The Auwers are used by
Gento.(from yvetov, the chin.) In anatomy, dyers for giving a yellow colour to their ma. names compounded of this word belong to terials, whence the plant has obtained the muscles which are attached to the chin. name of dyer's weed, or dyer's broom. Horses
GENIO-HYO-GLOSSUS. (musculus genio- and cattle of all kinds eat it. See the article kyo-glossus, yovuoyhssos ; from ysvetov, the chin, Dyeing. and ywssa, the topgue, so called from its origin 2. G. pilosa. Leaves lanceolate, fascicled; in the chin, and insertion in the tongue.) silky underneath, peduncles axillary very short; This muscle forms the fourth layer between corols hairy: stem tubercled, striate, procumthe lower jaw and os hyoides. It arises from bent. Found on dry heaths; and not disliked a rough protuberance in the inside of the mide by cattle. dle of the lower jaw; its fibres run like a fan, 3. G. anglicana; with simple or compouud forwards, upwards, and backwards, and are spines, flowering branches unarmed; leaves inserted into the top, middle, and root of the oblong, glabrous; racemes leafy; corols glatongue, and base of the os hyoides, near its brous. Found in large quantities on almost cornu. Its use is to draw the tip of the tongué every heath; and too common to require far. backwards into the mouth, the middle down. ther notice. Horses and cattle refuse it; goats, wards, and to render its back concave. It also however, eat it readily. draws its root and the os hyoides forwards, and GENISTA CANARIENSIS. The systematic thrusts the tongue ont of the mouth.
name of the tree whose wood is called rhodium. GENIO-HYOIDEUs. (musculus, genio-hyoi. See RHODIUM LIGNUM. deus, yeusvaudalss; from 7:71199, the chin, and GENITALS. s.
s. (genitalis, Lat.) Parts bevanins, the os hyoides, so called from its origin longing to generation (Brown). in the chin, and its insertion in the os hyoides.) GENITING. s. (A corruption of Janelon, This muscle constitutes the third layer between French.) An early apple. See Pyrus. the lower jaw and os hyoides. It is a long, GENITIVE, in grammar, the second case thin, and fleshy muscle, arising tendinous of the declensions of nouns. from a rough protuberance at the inside of the The relation of one thing considered as be. chin, and growing somewhat broader and longing in some manner to another, has octhicker as it descends backward to be inserted casioned a peculiar termination of nouns, called by very short teridinous fibres into both ilie the genitive case.
In English, the genitive case is made by heaven. They were a sort of intermediate prefixing the particle of; in French,
de, or di, powers, who performed the office of mediators &e. though, in strictness, there are no cases at between yods and men. They were the interall, or at most only two, in either of those lan- preters and agents of the gods, communicated guages, inasmuch as they do not express the ihe will of the deities to men, and the prayers different relation of things by different termi- and rows of men to the gods. As it was unnations, but only by additional prepositions. becoming the majesty of the gods to enter into (See Case.) In the Latin, this relation is ex- such trifling concerns, this became the lot of pressed in divers manners: thus we say, caput the genii, whose nature was a mean between hominis, the head of a man; color rosce, the the two, who derived immortality from the colour of a rose; opus Dei, the work of God, one and passions from the other, and who had &c.
a body framed of an aërial matter. Most of GENITUM, in mathematics, a name given the philosophers, however, held that the genii by sir Isaac Newton, in his Principia, to any of particular men were born with them, and quantity which is not made by addition, or died; and Plutarch attributes the ceasing of subduction of divers parts, but is generated or oracles partly to the death of the genii. See produced, in arithmetic, by the multiplication, ORACLE. division, or extraction of roots, of any terms Genius, in matters of literature, &c. a whatsoever, in geometry, by the invention of natural talent or disposition to do one thing contents, and sides, or of the extremes and mean more than another, or the aptitude a man has proportionals. “Quantities of these sorts (says received from the God of nature to perform he) I consider as variable and indetermined, well and easily that which others can do but and increasing or decreasing, as it were, by a indifferently and with a great deal of pains. perpetual motion, or Aux; and I understand The distinguishing characteristic of genius is their momentaneous increments, or decre. invention. A man of genius is fertile in the ments, by the name of moments. Se Fluxe production of new trains of thought, new selecIONS.
tions and groupings of imagery, new expediGENIUS. s. 1. The protecting or rul- ents for the removal of difficulties, &c. Thus ing power of nien, places, or things (Mil- genius may be termed the power of making lon). 2. A man endowed with superior new combinations, pleasing or elevating to the faculties (Addison). 3. Mental power or nind, or useful to mankind. To know the faculties (Waller). 4. Disposition of na- bent of nature is of great importance. Men ture by which any one is qualified for some pe- usually come into the world with a genius deculiar employment (Pope). 5. Nature; dise termined not only to a certain art of science, position (Burnet).
but often to certain parts of it, in which alone Genius, a good or evil spirit or dæmon, they are capable of success. If they quit their whom the ancients supposed set over each per- sphere, they fall even below mediocrity in their son, to direct his birth, accompany him in life, profession. Art and industry add much to and to be his guard. (See Dæmon.) Among natural endowments, but cannot supply them the Romans, Festus observes, the name genius where they are wanting. Every thing depends was given to the God who had the power of on genius. A painter often pleases without doing all things, deum qui vim obtineret rerum observing rules, whilst another displeases omnium gerendarum; which Vossius, de Idol, though he observes thens, because he has not rather chooses to read genendarum, who has the happiness of being born with a genius for the power of producing all things, by reason painting. Censorinus frequently uses gerere for gignere. A man born with a genius for commanding Accordingly St. Augustin, de Civitat Dei, re- an army, and capable of becoming a great lates, from Varro, that the genius was a god general by the help of experience, is one whose who had the power of generating all things, organical conformation is such, that his valour and presided over them when , produced. is no obstruction to his presence of mind, and Testus adds, that Aufustius spake of the his presence of mind causes no abatement of genius as the son of God, and the father his valour. Such a disposition of mind cannot of men, who gave them life. Others, how be acquired by art: it can be possessed only by ever, represented the genius as the peculiar a person who has brought it with him into the or tutelary god of each place; and it is world. What has been said of these two arts certain the last is the most usual meaning may be equally applied to all other professions. of the word. The ancients had their genii of The administration of great concerns, the art nations, of cities, of provinces, &c. Nothing of putting people to those employments for is more common than the following inscription which they are naturally formed, the study of on medals; GENIUS POPULI di the physic, and even gaming itself, all require a genius of the Roman people;" or GenIO POP. genius. Nature has thought fit to make a disROM.“ to the genius of the Roman people;" tribution of her talents among men, in order In this sense genius and lar were the same to render them necessary to one another, the thing; as, in effect, Censorinus and Apulius wants of men being the very first link of soaffirm they were. Sec Lares and De- ciety; she has therefore pitched upon particu
lar persons, to give them aptitude to perform The Platonists and other eastern philoso- rightly some things which she has rendered imphers supposed the genii to inhabit the vast possible to others; and the latter have a greater segion or extent of air between earth and facility granted them for other things, whick
facility has been refused to the former. Na- are produced with any constancy, or any certure, indeed, has made an unequal distribution tainiy, for this is not the nature of chance; but of her blessings among her children; yet she the rules by which men of extraordinary parts, has disinherited none; and a man divested of and such as are called men of genius, work, all kinds of abilities is as great a phenomenon are either such as they discover by their own as an universal genius.
peculiar observation, or of such a nice texture From the diversity of genius the difference as not easily to admit handling or expressing in of inclination arises in men, whom Nature has words. had the precaution of leading to the employ- “Unsubstantial, however, as these rules ments for which she designs them, with more may seein, and difficult as it may be to convey or less impetuosity in proportion to the greater them in writing, they arestill seen and feh in the or less number of obstacles they have to sur- mind of the artist; and he works from them mnount in order to render themselves capable of with as much certainty as if they were emba answering this vocation. Thus the inclinations died, as I may say, upon paper. It is true, of men are so very different, because they fol. these refined principles cannot be always made low the same mover, that is, the impulse of palpable like the more refined rules of art; yet their genius. This, as with the painter, is it does not follow, but that the mind inay be what renders one poet pleasing even when he put in such a train, that it shall perceive, by trespasses against rules, while others are dis- kind of scientific sense, that propriety which agreeable, notwithstanding their strict regu- words can but very feebly suggest." (Sir darity
Joshua Reynolds's Discourses). The genius of these arts, according to the GENOX, a republican state of Italy; abbé dů Bos, consists in a happy arrangement bounded on the north by Piedmont, the Milaof the organs of the brain; in a just conforma- nese, and the Parmesai), on the east by the tion of each of these organs; as also in the states of the duke of Tuscany, on the south by quality of the blood, which disposes it to fer- the Mediterranean sea, and on the west by the ment, during exercise, so as to furnish plenty county of Nice; about 120 miles in length, of spirits to the springs employed in the func- but scarcely in any part more than twenty in tions of the imagination. Here he supposes breadth. The country is mountainous, and that the composer's blood is heated, for that part of it covered with barren rocks, which painters and poets cannot invent in cool blood; serve for its defence. Soine of the mountains nay, that it is evident they must be wrapt into a are covered with wood, and some yield good kind of enthusiasm when they produce their pasture. There is but a small quantity of ideas
. Aristotle mentions a poet who never arable land, so that the inhabitants are obliged wrote so well as when his poetic fury hurried to purchase great part of their corn from Nahim into a kind of phrensy. The admirable ples, Sicily, and other places ; however, they pictures we have in l'asso of Armida and Clo- carefully cultivate every place they can, and tinda were drawn at the expence of a disposi- throughout the year they are supplied with extion he had to real madness, into which he fell cellent legumes and vegetables for the table. before he died. “Do you imagine (says They make a considerable quantity of wine, Cicero), that Pacuvius wrote in cold blood? and have abundance of excellent fruit. No, it was impossible. He must have been Genoa, a city of Italy, capital of a republic inspired with a kind of fury, to he able to write of the same name. It is abont ten miles about, such admirable verses."
and defended towards the land by a double We by no means wish it to be understood, wall. Several bastions are erected along the from any thing said above, that genius is in- sea shore, on rocks which rise above the water. dependent of method, or derives no aid from The streets are in general narrow, but clean it. On the contrary we are persuaded that the and well pared; two, called the Strada Nuora man of philosophical genius pursues his investi- and Strada Balbi, are filled with magnificent zations, the poet courts his muse, the painter palaces, fronted with marble. It is the see of sits down to his cantas, the inventive mechan- an archbishop. The cathedral is built in the ist tamis to his instruments, each by some me- Gothic style, and paved with black and white thod peculiar to himself ; each following some marble, in the treasury of which is preserved a role, which though he is most probably in- curious hexagon dish, said to be of a single tapable of imparting or even of explaining to emerald, found at Cesarea in the time of the another, be nevertheless invariably conforms crusades, which the Genoese received as their to. The following remarks which a truly philo- share of the plunder. Besides the cathedral, it sophical artist has applied to painting, may be contains thirty-two parish churches, many of extended, with some trifling alterations, to all which are magnificent, and adorned with the different employments of our intellectual sculptures and pictures by the best masters. powers.
The doge's palace is large, without decoration, “What we now call genius, begins, not except iwo statues of John Andrew Doria and where rules abstractedly taken end, but where Andrew Doria, larger than the life, at the enknown, vulgar, and trite rules have no longer trance. The arsenal contains arms for 34,000 any place. It must of necessity be, that works men, machines, models for bridges, the armour of genius, as well as every other effect, as they worn by a number of Genoese women in the must have their cause, must likewise have their crusades, a shield containing 120 pistols, made tules : it cannot be by chance that excellencies by Julius Cesar Vacche, for the purpose of assassinating the doge and senate at one time, &c. The different species are scattered over the Other public buildings are the Albergo, which globe, but the greater number are Alpine serves as a poor house and house of correction, plants; and five indigenous to the pastures and where is a beautiful relievo, the Virgin supó mountains of our own country. Those of porting a dead Christ, by Michael Angelo; chief note are, and the assumption of the Virgin, in white 1. G. lutea. Corols about five-cleft, wheel. marble, by Puget, an inimitable piece of sculp- shaped, whorled; the whorls somewhat cymell; ture; a large hospital for the sick of all nations calyx spathaceous. It has a long, cylindric and religions; the Conservatory, for educating root, which affords the common gentian of and portioning 300 poor girls; and a great the dispensatories. This root has little or no number of palaces belonging to the nobilily. smell, but to the taste evinces great bitterness, They reckon at Genoa sixty-nine convents of on which account it is in general use as a men and women. The number of inhabit- tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, emants is estimated at 150,000. Lat. 14. 25 N. nienagogue, and febrifuge. The officinal prem Lon. 8. 41 E.
parations of this root are infusum gentiana The government of Genoa was aristocratic, compositum of the London pharmacopæia, none but the nobility having any share in it. and insusum amarum, vinun amarum, tinctura These were of two sorts, the old and the new, amara of the Edinburgh pharmacopæia ; towhence there were eighty persons chosen, who gether with an extract, for which a formula is made the great council, in which their sove- given in both pharmacopeias. This plant is reignty resided. Besides these, there was a se- a native of the Alps, and some parts of Gernaie, composed of the dege and twelve sena- many. tors, who had the administration of affairs. 2. G. acaulis. Long-flowered gentian. The doge continued in his office but iwo Corol campanulare, five-cleft, as long as the years.
In the year 1798, the French con. stem ; stem quadrangular. It is a native of trived, by intrigues and force, entirely to change the Alps, but frequently found in our flowerthe old government, and to erect the Genoese gardens, to the beauty of which it contributes territory into what they called the Ligurian re- in vo small degree by its elegant and variable public, governed after the manner of their little azure Howers. See Nat. Hist. Plate own, by two councils and a directory: the CXXIII.
country likewise was divided into departments. 3. G. niralis. Corols five-cleft, funnelAt present Genoa is subject to the dominion of form ; angles of the calyx equal, acute; a son-in-law of Bonaparte, who has assumed branches alternate, one-flowered. It is found the title of king of Italy.
wild both in our own country and on the Al GENSENG, in botany. See Panax. pine mountains.
GENT. a. (gent, old French.) Elegant; The centaurium minus, or lesser centaury, soft; gentle; polite: not in use (Spenser). is arranged by Linnéus and Hudson as a species
GENTEEL. a. (gentel, Fr.) 1. Polite; of this genus : more minute examination, howelegant in behaviour ; civil (Addison). 2.
2. ever, has since established it to be a monogynian Graceful in mien (Tatler). 3 Elegantly rather than a digynian plant; and hence on the dressed (Law).
authority both of Withering and Curtis, we GENTE'ELNESS. s. (from genteel.) 1. have transferred it to the genus chironia. Sec Elegance ; gracefulness ; politeness (Dryden). CHIRONIA CENTAURIUM. 2. Qualities befitting a man of rank.
The root of this GENTES, in botany, nations, great tribes, plant, laserpitium latifolium; foliis cordatis, or rather casts of vegetables. Linnéus makes inciso-serratis, of Linnéus, possesses stomanine of them. 1. Palmæ. 2. Gramina, or chic, corroborant, and deobstruent virtues. It grasses. 3. Lilio. 4. Herbæ. 5. Arbores, is seldom used. See LASERPITIUM.
6. Filices, ferns. 7. Musci, mosses. GENTILE, Gentilis, a pagan, or person 8. Algæ. 9. Fungi. The only difference who adores false gods. The Hebrews applied between this arrangement and that of families the name on, genies, nations, to all the people is, that the third, fourth, and fifth divisions of of the earth who were not Israelites or Hethe former are included in the seventh of the brews. latter.
Gentile, in the Roman law and history, GENTIA'NA. Gentian. In botany, a a name which sometimes
what the genus of the class pentandria, order digynia. Romans otherwise called barbarians, whether Corol one-petalled, tubular at the base, with- they were allies of Rome or not; but this out nectariferous pores; capsule superior, two- word was used in a more particular sense for all valved, one-celled, many-seeded. Fifty-six strangers and foreigners not subject to the Rospecies : which may be thus sub-arranged. man empire. A. Corols from five to nine-cleft; some- GENTILESCHI (Horatio), an Italian what canıpanulate.
painter, was born at Pisa in 1563. He paintB. Corols funnel form, naked, five or ten- ed in many cities of Italy, in France, and in clefi.
England, with great repute. His finest work C. Corols four or five-cleft, with capillary, abroad was the portico of cardinal Bentivoglio's
many-cleft acute scales at the orifice. palace at Rome; and in England, the cielings D. Corols four or five-cleft, salver-shaped, at Greenwich and York-house. He died in with the orifice naked.
this country at the age of eighty-four.