The Art of Tanning Leather ...

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Baker & Godwin, printers, 1857 - 262 sider
 

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Innhold

I
13
II
37
III
59
IV
69
V
81
VI
91
VII
96
VIII
109
X
133
XI
149
XII
167
XIII
185
XIV
195
XV
217
XVI
243
XVII
249

IX
121
XVIII
253

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Side 251 - PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, have caused these letters to be made Patent, and the Seal of the GENERAL LAND OFFICE to be hereunto affixed.
Side 116 - sweating," the character of the hides and the temperature are essential, but ever-varying, considerations. As a general rule, however, the milder the process of preparing the hides for the bark, the better. Unnecessarily severe or prolonged treatment is inevitably attended with a loss of gelatine, and a consequent loss of weight and strength in the leather. Too high a temperature is particularly to be avoided.
Side 115 - In the impossibility of adopting fixed rules to the innumerable variety of cases, nothing can be depended upon but the judgment of the practical tanner. In softening hides, and preparing them for the process of tanning, a great deal also depends upon the judgment of the person superintending the operation, inasmuch as the diversities in the qualities and characteristics of hides render it impossible to subject them to anything more than a general mode of treatment. In " sweating," the character of...
Side 237 - In the world's broad field of battle, In the bivouac of Life, Be not like dumb, driven cattle! Be a hero in the strife!
Side 237 - Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time; Let us, then, be up and doing, With a heart for any fate; Still achieving, still pursuing, Learn to labor and to wait.
Side 113 - Much care and judgment is requisite in proportioning the continually increasing strength of the liquors to the requirements of the leather in the different stages of this process. The liquors should also be kept as cool as possible, within certain limits ; but ought never to exceed a temperature of eighty degrees. In fact, a much lower temperature is the maximum point, if the liquor is very strong — too high a heat, with a liquor too strongly charged with the tanning principle, being invariably...
Side 96 - Most of the substances belonging to our globe are constantly undergoing alterations in sensible qualities, and one variety of matter becomes, as it were, transmuted into another. Such changes, whether natural or artificial, whether slowly or rapidly performed, are called chemical. Thus, the gradual and almost imperceptible decay of the leaves...
Side 251 - City, this fifth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the eighty-first.
Side 249 - The applicant shall also make oath or affirmation that he does verily believe that he is the original and first inventor or discoverer of the art, machine, composition, or improvement, for which he solicits a patent, and that he does not know or believe that the same was ever before known or used; and also of what country he is a citizen; which oath or affirmation may be made before any person authorized by law to administer oaths.
Side 112 - On the other hand, however, the effects of an early application of " ooze," that is too strong and too warm, to green hides, is very injurious. It contracts the surface fibres of the skin, tanning at once the external layers, so " dead," as it is termed, as to shut up the pores, and prevent the tanning from penetrating the interior.

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