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EVERY DAY. Unexpected vacaticies occur in good schools' and Colleges. "Mady of them excellent positions, and we always have a chance to fill them. In business 25 years. If not comfortably located, write us. Do it now!

THE ALBERT TEACHERS' AGENCY

378 Wabash Ave., Chicago, III.

HELP WANTED

DURING SPRING

AND SUMMER

We want teachers to become acquainted with our opportunities for promotion. Vacancies in plenty for next school year. We certainly need help. All departments “from the university to the grades.' Ask for our “Illustrative Lists."

B F. CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCY Stoinway Hall, CHICAGO

21st YEAR Peyton Block, SPOKANE, WASH

THE MINNEAPOLIS TEACHERS' AGENCY

S. J. Raco, Manager

Ella K. Smith, Ass't Manager 327a 14th Ave. S. E.

Minneapolis, Minn. Operates in all the Northwestern states. Can assist Wisconsin teachers who are University, College, or Normal School graduates to choice positions.

Needs a large number of well qualified teachers of Music and Drawing, Manual Training, Domestic Science and Commercial subjects.

Recommends the right teachers to school officials.

Write today for full information. Spoak of your education and experience.

C E A C H ERS!

REGISTER FOR PROMOTION. Vacancies now in

all departments. Many needed to begin after the HoliHow to Increase Your Salaries days and Spring Term. Write for particulars. The CHURSTON TEACHERS" AGENCY, 378 Wabash Ave., Chicago

SOUTH DAKOTA

Offers exceptional opportunities for the advancement of teachers, and the South Dakota Teachers' Bureau is proving an excellent medium through which such advancement can be secured. Its managers are men of proven experience in the schoolroom and give personal attention to every case. Their wide acquaintance with employing authorities exercises considerable weight in the hiring of teachers.

Write for 1911-12 announcement and registration blanks.

The South Dakota Teachers' Bureau

Pierre, S. D.

Box 235 x

348557

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EDITORIAL COMMENT

BY PBOFESSOB M. V. O'SHLA, THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN.
THE UNIVERSITY AND THE SCHOOLS.

of the people of the state. In its various departNow and again one hears it said in our state

ments it is carefully and intelligently investigatthat, “The common schools meet the needs of the

ing these needs, and it is providing for them in people, while the colleges and universities are

an effective way. It is not simply transmitting suited only for the select few.” Sometimes men

formal, traditional knowledge to its students; seek to arouse ill-will toward our own university

and it is not adapting its work to a "select few.” by giving publicity to conventional statements of

There is scarcely any phase of life in this state this sort. Now, one could make out a strong case which does not receive attention in the university. if he should attempt to show that the work of the university is closer to the needs of the people

The only sense in which its work is adapted of the state than is the work of any of the schools

to a few is that it requires individuals to have a below it. Wherever one goes he hears men saying

considerable amount of preliminary experience that there is much taught in the grades which

and knowledge in order that they may be able to has neither practical nor theoretical value. It is profit by what is offered in its classes and labora

tories. The "select few” do not come from the taught merely because of the traditional belief that it “trains the faculties." All the work of

leisure or favored classes; they come mainly the elementary school is being subjected to sharp

from homes of moderate means, and often from criticism from a variety of sources.

homes of no means at all. A large proportion of ticularly true of the work of the secondary school.

the students are working their own way through There is a general belief that the high-school cur

the university. The "select few” at Madison are riculum and methods of teaching can be greatly

the intellectually select; they are in no sense the improved, so that its work may become more ef

financially or socially select. They are in the fective in the lives of pupils, and better correlat

main those who have shown ability to perform the ed with the needs of the communities in which it

difficult sort of intellectual tasks which are preis located.

sented in the university, and which must be TRADITION VS. PROGRESS.

solved by some one if our people are to be prosBoth the high and the elementary school look perous. two ways of course,—they look toward the past The spirit of our university is entirely in acand toward the future. Their work is partly tra- cord with the predominant spirit of progress in ditional, but at the same time they are striving the elementary and secondary schools of the state. more or less seriously to shape their curricula in It would be within the bounds of truth to say accordance with the developments which are tak- that the university has led in establishing vital, ing place in society. So the work of any higher dynamic educational ideals in this commonwealth. institution is determined in part by tradition, and Nothing could be farther from the fact than to in part by the effort to keep pace with the changes say that the university is aristocratic and tendtaking place in society. One who is acquainted ing away from the masses. It is drawing ever with the ideals and actual practices of our own closer to them. Its field of investigation and inuniversity knows that it has gone beyond most struction is relating ever more directly to the institutions at any rate in anticipating the needs new problems confronting our people.

SERİING THE PEOPLE.

they should be maintained by those who patronIf any one should be ino doubt regarding the ized them. No one would now defend a proposidemocratic character of learning at the university, tion like this in its application to the elementary he might examine the work of the extension divi- school in our country; but we still hear it adsion. He would find here in a short time suffi- vanced in some places in respect to the high cient evidence to convince him that the university school. But the principle of free high-school edis aiming to serve the state in ways which many ucation is, in spite of occasional protests, a setpeople have never dreamed of, and which no oth

tled one.

However, as men once could not see er schools or institutions have thought of at- that the high school would serve the community tempting. When you tell the man on the street as a whole, so some of them can not now see that the that the university conducts courses at various university is of advantage to all the people of the points for bakers, mechanics, and other groups state. Happily, though, the majority of our peoengaged in occupations of this general character, ple do appear now to see this matter in the right he is surprised to hear that there is anything for light. such persons to learn. And yet the university is At this moment we are witnessing the attempt investigating the needs of all these workers, and

of many persons to get adjusted to the notion of bringing together all that is known in their res

extending the undergraduate course.

There are pective fields, with a view to offering it to them

some who profess not to see that graduate study under conditions which will enable them to keep will be of service to the state. These men once on with their work, and study at the same time. could not see that high-school education would be What other school in the state--elementary, high, of service to the state, and they were hostile to or special—is endeavoring to serve the masses in it as a public institution. With great difficulty such directions as these?

they have accepted the high school and the usual The University of Wisconsin has attracted the

college work; but they resist the idea of providattention of the whole world on account of its ing adequate facilities for advanced work. Every efforts to help every group of workers—whether

step forward is opposed, and always will be, by with their heads or with their muscles in the

persons of this temperament. state. Almost every day one may read

Teachers at any rate should be entirely sympafresh tribute from a careful investigator, who ex

thetic toward the development of graduate study presses his admiration for an institution that

to the fullest possible extent. The sole purpose can adapt itself progressively to the needs of all

of such study is to carry a few individuals, those the people of the commonwealth it serves. Some

who have the intellectual strength, up to the point observers have been in doubt whether the universi

reached by the race in the accumulation of knowlty is located in Madison, or in Milwaukee, or

edge in various fields. No one would be so foolOshkosh, or Superior, or Eau Claire, or La Crosse,

ish as to say that the undergraduates in our color in various other cities. Certain it is that the leges have time to assimilate all that has been disuniversity is developing ways and means of giv- covered in any branch of learning. If there were ing busy, working people in all these places what

no provisions for some students to go beyond the they need, without its being necessary for them undergraduate course, our society would come to to leave their own homes.

a sudden halt in its development. It is exactly GRADUATE STUDY.

the same in principle as if educational facilities One who is familiar with the development of should terminate with the high school. If there the public high school in this country knows that were no colleges or universities, society would be it has won its way only after terrific struggle. a very different thing from what it is today. NaMany among us can remember the time when it tions which have not made provision for advanced was popularly believed that secondary schools study and research can not continue to develop. ought not to be supported at public expense, since Those countries which have made most liberal they did not meet the needs of the masses. Her- provisions for advanced university work are the bert Spencer thought the state should not sup- most progressive in the world today. These are port schools of any grade. He contended that all facts of every-day observation.

some

THE TEACHING OF UNDERGRADUATES. that the best teachers to be found in any instituThose who reason as they run jump to conclu- tion are often men in subordinate positions, who sions from surface indications. Many people fol- have their futures before them, as Dooley says; low this method in their theorizing about teach- who are full of vigor and enthusiasm, and who are ing in the university. They say: "If attention willing to attend to minutiae which would annoy is given to advanced work, the elementary work older men, whether in the high school or the uniwill be neglected, and the undergraduates will versity. The advantages of youth in teaching outnot receive any intelligent attention. The strong- weigh the disadvantages in most cases. Often an est men will be drafted off to do the graduate assistant in a large department in the university work, and the elementary students will be put in is chosen for a position as full professor in a small the hands of callow youths, who do not know how college or in a normal school, and not infrequentto teach, and who have little interest in students.” ly he at once attracts marked attention as a teach

It is undoubtedly true that some men in the er. He was doing just as good work in the uniuniversity are mainly interested in the more ad- versity, but it was not a matter of comment, bevanced phases of their work, and they give their cause it was just a part of the general order of attention primarily to graduate students. But it things. is entirely untrue to say that the energy of the Of course, this is not true of every teacher in university is mainly turned in the direction of the university. Nothing is universally true anythis advanced work. Most of the effort and a where. On the whole there is good teaching in large part of the best ability in the institution the normal schools; but there are exceptions. The are devoted to the welfare of the undergraduate normal school endeavors to secure men who understudents. The most capable teachers are often stand the art of teaching, and who are enthusiyoung men who have recently come from study astic in their business, but normal-school presithemselves, who are thoroughly interested in dents are not always successful in their search teaching, and who are enthusiastic in their work. for such men. The university is probably as suicMany of them have had experience in secondary cessful as the normal school in this matter; it schools, and when they come to the university certainly is as successful as the high school or they really are experienced teachers. They are the elementary school. In an earlier day, little familiar with the conditions in the high schools, attention was paid in the college to the art of and they can appreciate the interests, the limita- teaching. The instructor handed out facts, and tions, and the needs of the undergraduate student. the pupil was expected to memorize them and

render them back in examination. But in our EXPERT TEACHING THE AIM. Often one hears it said by persons who do not

own university this mode of teaching is being genknow the situation that the older and able men,

erally abandoned. The dominant aim in the unithe full professors in the university, never teach

versity to-day is to make knowledge vital and effreshman and sophomore classes, but turn these

fective in the lives of undergraduate students. over to green novices. As a matter of fact, the

THE SPIRIT OF RESEARCH. beginning classes in many departments of the in- It is on the whole of marked advantage to efstitution are taught by the full professors. This fective teaching in the university that the spirit is generally true of all the large freshman and of research is in the air. In any department in sophomore classes in every department. But of which there is no interest in investigation, the course it is financially impossible to provide older, teaching is likely to become formal and devitalhigh-salaried men for all the small classes, such ized. It is essential in order that a university as must of necessity be found in the languages, teacher should have a genuine interest in what mathematics, and the like. Even if the state he is teaching, that he should be making additions would foot the bills, it would be utterly impos- to the knowledge in his field, or at least that he sible to get full professors enough to do the busi- should be seeing new applications of it. A uni

versity teacher in order to be effective must feel And even if it were feasible it would not be de- the value in his own life of the knowledge he is sirable. We want to insist upon the proposition presenting, and he is not apt to experience much

ness.

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