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PRE FACE.

The Philosophy of the Mind has grown up, like other sciences, from small beginnings. Many propositions, coming too, in many instances, from able writers, have been thrown aside ; truth has been sifted out from the mass of error, until at last a great number of important principles is ascertained. But while it is exceedingly necessary that our youth should be made acquainted with these principles, it is impossible that they should go through with all the complicated discussions which have been held in respect to them. Many of the books in which these discussions are contained have become exceedingly rare; and, if they were not so, no small number of students, who are now in the course of as thorough an education as our country affords, would not be able to purchase them. And besides, by placing before the student a mass of crude and conflicting statements, his mind becomes perplexed. To be able to resolve such a mass into its elements, and to separate truth from error, implies an acquaintance with the laws of the intellect, and a degree of mental discipline, which he is not yet supposed to have acquired; and hence, instead of obtaining much important knowledge, he becomes distrustful of everything.

Now these evils, saying nothing of the loss of time attendant on such a course, are to be remedied in the same way as in other sciences. In other departments of learning, ingenious men discuss points of difficulty ; conflicting arguments are accumulated, until the preponderance on one side is such that the question in debate is considered settled. Others employ themselves in collecting facts, in classifying them, and in deducing general principles; and when all this is done, the important truths of the science, collected from such a variety of sources, and suitably arranged and expressed, are laid before the student, in order that he may become acquainted with them. And this is what is attempted, to some extent, to be done in the present work, which is an abridgment of a larger work on the same subject. In the larger work, the principles of Eclecticism and Induction, which have just been referred to, are applied on a more extensive scale than in the present. I have been obliged necessarily to exclude from the abridgment many interesting and striking illustrations and facts, and some general philosophical views, which would have had a place if our limits had permitted. I indulge the hope, nevertheless, as the abridgment has been made with no small degree of care, that it will answer the purpose for which it is particularly designed ; viz., the assistance of those youth who need some knowledge of Mental Philosophy, but are not in a situation to prosecute the subject to any great extent.

THOMAS C. UPHAM.

Bowdoin College, May, 1840.

CONTENT S.

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THE SENSE OF HEARING.

23. Organ of the sense of hearing

24. Varieties of the sensation of sound

25. Manner in which we learn the place of sounds

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63. Of the subserviency of our conceptions to description

c. 64. Of conceptions attended with a momentary

belief

65. Conceptions which are joined with perceptions.

66. Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations

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CHAPTER IX.

SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXNESS OF MENTAL STATES.

Page

67. Origin of the distinction of simple and complex

83

68. Nature and characteristics of simple mental states

ib.

69. Simple mental states not susceptible of definition

84

70. Simple mental states representative of a reality

85

71. Origin of complex notions, and their relation to simple

86

72. Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings 87

73. The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood 88

74. Illustrations of analysis as applied to the mind

89

75. Complex notions of external origin

90

76. Of objects contemplated as wholes

91

CHAPTER X. .

ABSTRACTION.

77. Abstraction implied in the analysis of complex ideas

92

78. Instances of particular abstract ideas

93

79. Mental process in separating and abstracting them

94

80. General abstract notions the same with genera and species 95

81. Process in classification, or the forming of genera and species 96

82. Early classifications sometimes incorrect

97

83. Illustrations of our earliest classifications

ib.

84. Of the nature of general abstract ideas

98

85. The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers, &c. 99

86. Of general abstract truths or principles

ib.

87. Of the speculations of philosophers and others :

100

CHAPTER XI. 10.

or ATTENTION.

88. Of the general nature of attention

101

89. Of different degrees of attention

102

90. Dependence of memory on attention

103

91. Of exercising attention in reading

104

92. Alleged inability to command the attention

105

CHAPTER XII. X

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ib.

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PART II.

INTELLECTUAL STATES OF INTERNAL ORIGIN.

CHAPTER I. *

INTERNAL ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE.
102. The soul has fountains of knowledge within
103. Declaration of Locke, that the soul has knowledge in itself

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