cruelty already mentioned,) to a place named Diocæsarea, inhabited by the Jews, who had slain the Lord. But, like hell, the persecutors were not satisfied, although they had slain so many of our brethren; and in their folly and infatuation they determined to leave throughout the earth monuments of their cruelty. They banished to Neocæsarea, a town of Pontus, some clergy of the catholic church of Antioch, who had, with some pious monks, resolved to protest against the artifices which they resorted to in the propagation of their evil heresy. These holy men died soon after their banishment; perhaps the ungenial climate of their place of exile occasioned their death."

Such were the tragical incidents of this period. Although they deserve to be buried in oblivion, yet they have been handed down to posterity in various written documents, to the condemnation of those who used their tongues against the only Begotten One, and who not only blasphemously opposed the Ruler of the universe, but who also waged implacable war against his faithful servants.



Ar this period the tribes of Ishmaelites ravaged the provinces situated on the frontiers of the empire. They were led by Mavia, who, notwithstanding her sex, possessed masculine intrepidity. After several engagements, she made peace with the Romans; and having received the light of the knowledge of God, she requested that a certain man named Moses, who dwelt on the borders of Egypt and Palestine, might be ordained bishop of her nation. Valens acceded to the request, and desired that the holy man should be conveyed to Alexandria, and that he should there receive the holy rite of ordination; for this city was nearer his place of residence than any other. After his arrival at Alexandria, when he found that Lucius desired to lay his hands upon him for the purpose of ordination, he said, "God forbid that I should receive ordination at your hands; for the grace of the Spirit is not given in answer to your prayers.' "Upon what ground," said Lucius, "do you hazard these conjectures?" "I say what I positively know," replied he, "not what I conjecture. You oppose the apostolical doctrines, and you speak against

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disturb the assemblies of the church? Which of the eminent men have you not exiled? What inhumanity can be compared, in point of cruelty, to that exhibited in your daily actions ? Lucius was deeply incensed, and wished to put him to death; but, not daring to renew a war which had but just been terminated, he ordered him to be conveyed to the other bishops by whom he desired to be ordained. After having received, in addition to his fervent faith, the archiepiscopal dignity, he, by his apostolical doctrines, and by the working of miracles, led many to the knowledge of the truth. Such were the crimes perpetrated by Lucius in Alexandria, and thus did Divine Providence frustrate his designs.

CHAP. XXIV.-CRIMES PERPETRATED AT CONSTANTINOPLE. THE Arians of Constantinople, after having made the pious presbyters embark on board an unballasted ship, sent them out to sea. They desired men of their sect, who sailed in another vessel, to set fire to that in which the presbyters were embarked. When this order was executed, the presbyters, having to contend against flames and billows, found a grave in the deep, and obtained the crown of martyrdom. Valens remained during a long period at Antioch, and gave permission to the Greeks, to the Jews, and to those of all other religions, as also to those who assumed the name of Christians, to preach anything they pleased contrary to the evangelical doctrines. The Greeks celebrated those superstitious ceremonies from which they had formerly been reclaimed, and restored the worship of demons, which had been abolished by Jovian after the death of Julian. The festivals

of Jupiter, Bacchus, and Ceres were no longer celebrated by stealth, in secret places, as ought to be the case under the reign of a religious emperor; but they were held in the centre of the market-place. Valens was only opposed to those who preached the doctrines of the apostles. He first drove them from their churches, although Julian had presented them with newly erected churches: when they afterwards assembled at the foot of a mountain to hear the word of God and sing his praise, although they had to contend with the inclemency

of the weather, and were exposed to rain, snow, and frost, they were not permitted to enjoy even this privilege, obtained as it was at the cost of much labour; for Valens sent his soldiers to drive them away.


FLAVIAN and Diodorus stationed themselves as bulwarks to restrain the violence of the billows of persecution. The pastor of the city having been compelled to relinquish his post, they undertook the care of the flock during his absence; and by their courage and wisdom defended it from the attacks of wolves. After having been driven away from the foot of the mountain, they led the flock beside the banks of a neighbouring stream. They did not, like the captives of Babylon, hang up their harps upon the willows; for they sang praises to their Creator in every part of his empire. But the enemy did not long permit these pious pastors, who preached the Divinity of the Lord Christ, to hold assemblies in any place; and they were soon compelled to lead the flock to spiritual pasturage in the gymnasium in which the soldiers performed their exercises.2 The wise and courageous Diodorus resembled a large and limpid stream, which furnishes plentiful supplies of water to those who dwell on its banks, and which at the same time ingulfs adversaries. He despised the advantages of high birth, and underwent the severest exertions in defence of the faith. Flavian was also of illustrious birth, yet he considered that piety alone constitutes true nobility. At this period Flavian did not preach in the public assemblies, but he furnished Diodorus with the subjects of his discourses, and supplied him with Scriptural arguments, thus anointing him, as it were, for the conflicts of the spiritual gymnasium. They thus jointly attacked the Arian blasphemy. In their own private dwellings, as well as in public places, they disputed with the Arians, easily confuted their sophistical reasoning, and proved its futility. Aphraates, whose life I have written in my history, entitled "Philotheus," joined them about this period. He considered the deliverance of the flock to be 1 See Psal. 137. 1, 2.

2 A sort of Campus Martius on the outside of the walls of the city.

of greater moment than his own individual repose, and he quitted his monastery to labour in the cause of the church. I think that it would now be superfluous to describe his great and numerous virtues, as I have enlarged on the subject in another of my works. I shall merely relate one of his actions, it being connected with the events recorded in this history.


THE palace of the city of Antioch is washed on the north by the river Orontes on the south there is a large portico with two stories which touch the walls of the city, and which have two high towers. Between the palace and the river is a public road leading from the city to the suburbs. One day as Aphraates was passing along this road on his way to the military gymnasium, where he then tended his flock, he attracted the notice of the emperor, who was then on the top of the portico, and who, remarking an old man clad in a rough goat-skin garment, was told, upon inquiry, that that was Aphraates, and that he possessed great authority over all the inhabitants of the city. The emperor then said to him, "Where are you going?" Aphraates with great wisdom replied, "I am going to pray for the preservation of your empire." "But you ought," said the emperor, "to remain at home, and to pray according to the monastical rules." To this the holy man replied, "Your observation, O emperor, is just ; and, indeed, while the flock of Christ remained at peace, I pursued the line of conduct which you recommend. But now that the flock is involved in so many perils from the attacks of wild beasts, I am compelled to use every effort for the rescue of the sheep. Tell me, O emperor," he continued, "how a damsel ought to act under the following circumstances:-We will suppose that while she is sitting in her chamber, her father's house, of which she is left in charge, is set on fire what ought she to do? Ought she to remain within her apartment, allowing the flames to spread until they reach and consume her? Or ought she not rather to run hither and thither to fetch water and to extinguish the flames? You will surely admit that she ought to adopt the latter course; for she would thus be acting according to the suggestions of prudence. I am now, O emperor, doing the same thing. I am running to extinguish


the flames which you have kindled in my Father's house." While he made these statements, the emperor remained silent. But one of the members of the imperial household had the insolence to threaten the holy man; and vengeance in consequence speedily overtook him. It was his office to prepare the baths; and directly after he had addressed these menaces to Aphraates, he went to get one ready for the emperor. As soon as he reached the spot, he lost his senses, threw himself into the hot water, and almost immediately expired. After some time had elapsed, the emperor, who was sitting waiting for him to announce that the bath was ready, sent to ascertain the delay. Those who were sent on this message found him

dead in the hot bath. When this was announced to the emperor, they recognised the power of the prayers of Aphraates, yet did not renounce their impious sentiments. The emperor hardened his heart like Pharaoh, and became yet more prejudiced against piety.


ABOUT the same time the celebrated Julian, of whom I have already spoken, was compelled to leave the desert and go to Antioch. The Arians, who had been long habituated to falsehood, and to the invention of calumnies, declared that this holy man had joined their party. Flavian, Diodorus, and

Aphraates, who were illustrious defenders of the truth, sent the faithful Acacius, who was afterwards raised to the government of the church of Bercea, to this celebrated man, beseeching him to have pity upon so many millions of men, and to confute the falsehood of the enemy by bearing witness to the truth. The miracles which he performed during his journey, and after his arrival in the city of Antioch, I have fully related in my history, entitled "Philotheus," where those who desire information respecting them may easily obtain it. That all the inhabitants of this populous city crowded to our assemblies,' will not be doubted by those who are acquainted with human nature; for men are generally attracted by whatever is strange and marvellous. Even the enemies of truth ac

1 Some understand these words to refer to the conversion of the entire people; but Valesius understands them of the multitude of people who flocked to the church to see Julian.

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