I tied no

allusion to

in Socrates



heresy. Maris being an exemplary man, and endowed with many virtues, the great Eusebius desired to instal him himself in the episcopal chair, and accordingly went to Dolica. As he was entering the city, a woman who had imbibed the Arian errors threw down a tile from the top of a house upon his head he survived the blow but a short time, and was translated to a better life. When he drew near his end, he made those around him promise upon oath never to seek for the woman who had committed the deed. He thus strove to imitate his Lord, who prayed for those who crucified him, saying, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do" (Luke xxiii. 34). And in the same way Stephen, a fellowlabourer in the ministry, cried out when volleys of stones were cast at him, "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge." Such, after all his numerous conflicts, was the end of the great Eusebius. After having escaped from the hands of the barbarians of Thrace, he suffered by those of impious heretics. But those hands obtained for him the crown of martyrdom. All that I have now related took place after the return of the bishops from exile.

Gratian heard that the barbarians who had burnt Valens had gone into Thrace; and in consequence he left Italy and repaired to Pannonia.


At this time Theodosius was universally held in the highest honour on account of his valour and of his illustrious birth. To evade the envy of those who were his equals in rank, he resided in Spain, the place of his birth and of his education. The emperor, perceiving that the barbarians were highly inflated with their late victory, thought that the most effectual method of arresting the evils of war would be to place Theodosius at the head of the army. Having therefore sent for him from Spain, and promoted him to the rank of general, he sent him with the troops against the enemy. Being encouraged and animated by faith, he marched onwards with corresponding alacrity. As soon as he arrived in Thrace he ranged his troops in order of battle. He fell upon the barbarians with an impetuosity which they could not withstand; he broke their ranks, compelled them to take flight, and hotly pursued

them. Many of the barbarians were slain, not only by the Romans, but also by their own countrymen. The greater number of them fell, while a few succeeded in effecting an escape by crossing the Danube. After obtaining this complete victory, the illustrious general hastened to convey the intelligence of his own achievements, and of the laurels he had gained, to the emperor: but the whole relation seemed so incredible, that the emperor would scarcely give credit to it, while certain persons, stimulated by envy, were led to declare that he had taken to flight, and that the army had been destroyed. To confute his adversaries, he requested that messengers might be despatched to the field of battle, where the dead bodies of the barbarians were lying. "It will be easy,

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said he, "to compute the number of the slain by the spoils left on the field." The emperor assented to this request, and sent persons to inspect the spot, and to ascertain the truth of the report.


In the mean time the admirable general saw a vision which was evidently revealed to him by the God of all. He thought that Melitius, the bishop of the church of Antioch, invested him with the imperial robes, and placed a crown upon his head. He saw this vision during the night; and in the morning he mentioned it to one of his friends, who told him that the dream was certainly neither enigmatical nor ambiguous. After the lapse of a few days the messengers who had been sent to inspect the field of battle returned, and reported that thousands of the barbarians had fallen. The emperor believed their assertion, rejoiced that he had appointed so excellent a general, associated him with himself in the government of the empire, gave to him all the Eastern provinces which had been held by Valens, and then returned to Italy. As soon as Theodosius obtained the imperial government, his first endeavour was to restore concord among the churches. He assembled all the bishops of his part of the empire to Constantinople. The Arian heresy was received in this city alone, all the other regions of the Western empire having been happily preserved from it. Constantine, the eldest son of Constantine, and Constans, the youngest son, had preserved inviolate the faith of

their father, and Valentinian, the emperor of the West, had carefully fostered religion.


THE errors of Arianism had been propagated throughout the greater part of the Eastern empire. Arius was a presbyter of Alexandria, in Egypt, and had there disseminated his blasphemous opinions. The evil seed was watered by Patrophilus and Aëtius of Palestine, by Paulinus and Gregory of Phoenicia, by Theodotus of Laodicea, by George his successor, and, at a subsequent period, by Athanasius and Narcissus of Cilicia. Eusebius and Theognis of Bithynia, Menophantes the Ephesian, Theodore of Perinthius, Maris of Chalcedonia, and others from Thrace, distinguished only by their evil qualities, carefully cultivated the tares, and contributed greatly to their growth. The labours of these wicked husbandmen were forwarded by the weakness of Constantius and by the impiety of Valens. It was on this account that Theodosius commanded only the bishops belonging to his own empire to assemble at Constantinople. When they had assembled to the number of one hundred and fifty, he desired them to point out the great Melitius to him, for he wished to recognise his person by the sole remembrance of what he had seen in his dream. When the whole assembly of bishops had been ushered into the palace, the emperor, without noticing the others, ran up directly to the great Melitius, and embraced him, kissed his eyes, lips, breast, head, and the right hand which had crowned him, and exhibited all those demonstrations of affection which would be shown by a dutiful son on beholding a beloved father after a long separation. He'recounted to him the vision which he had seen. After having spoken with great benevolence to all the other bishops, he besought them, as though they had been his fathers, to deliberate on the subject for which they had met.


THE bishop who had formerly ruled the church of Nazianzus1 was at this period residing at Constantinople, zealously

According to Valesius, we are not to understand Gregory here, but some coadjutor bishop of the see.

opposing the Arian blasphemies. He fed the people of God with doctrines of the gospel. He sought out those who had wandered from the flock, and reclaimed them from the pernicious pasturages; and thus the sheep under his care rapidly increased in numbers. On perceiving his assiduity, the holy Melitius, who was well acquainted with the spirit of those canons1 which, for the purpose of frustrating ambitious schemes, prohibited the translation of bishops, confirmed the most divine Gregory in the bishopric of Constantinople. A short time. afterwards Melitius entered upon that life which is exempt from sorrow; and funeral orations were delivered in his praise by all who possessed the gift of oratory. Timothy,2 bishop of Alexandria, who had succeeded Peter the successor of Athanasius, ordained Maximus in the office of the admirable Gregory. This Maximus was a cynic, and had long hair, similar to that worn by all philosophers of his sect, but it was cut off by order of Timothy. He held the pernicious doctrines of Apollinaris. The bishops who were then assembled at the council did not approve of this extraordinary proceeding. They were all exemplary men, and full of divine zeal and wisdom. Helladius, the successor of the great Basil, Gregory and Peter, the brothers of the same Basil, Amphilochius, bishop of Lycaonia, Optimus, bishop of Pisidia, and Diodorus, bishop of Cilicia, were among them. There were also present Pelagius, bishop of Laodicea, Eulogius, bishop of Edessa, Acacius, bishop of Beroa, Isidore, our own bishop, Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem, Gelasius, bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, a man distinguished by the purity of his doctrine and the sanctity of his life, and many others of extraordinary virtue. All these bishops had withdrawn from communion with the Egyptians, and held their sacred assemblies in concert with the great Gregory. This bishop exhorted them to unity, and told them that, as they had assembled for the purpose of restoring peace to the church, they ought to seek concord among each other above all individual considerations. "By this means," said he, "I shall be delivered from many anxieties; I shall enjoy the repose which I desire, and you, after a

He alludes to the 15th canon of the Council of Nice, which forbids the translation of bishops, priests, and deacons, from one church to another.

2 Theodoret is mistaken here, for it was Peter, and not Timothy, who ordamed Maximus.

long and distressing war, will secure the blessings of peace. For it would be most absurd if, now that we have just escaped from the weapons of our enemies, we were to fall upon each other, and destroy our own strength, thus causing those who hate us to rejoice. Seek then for a man of virtue and of wisdom, capable of directing the multitude, and of bearing the weight of so great a responsibility, and place him in the archiepiscopal office." These excellent pastors acquiesced in these suggestions, and elected Nectarius, a man of noble birth and extraordinary virtue, bishop of the metropolis of the empire. They condemned Maximus to be deprived of the archiepiscopal dignity, because he had embraced the errors of Apollinaris. After having framed some canons for the regulation of ecclesiastical discipline, and after having confirmed the Nicean confession of faith, they separated and returned to their respective places of residence. The following summer many of them were again obliged by some ecclesiastical affairs to assemble in the metropolis. They there received a letter from the bishops of the West, inviting them to attend a general council about to be held in Rome. But these bishops refused to undertake a journey from which no advantage could accrue to them. They however wrote to them, described the storm which had been excited against the church, and gently reminded them of their neglect. They also wrote a brief summary of the doctrines of the apostles. To show the virtue and wisdom of the writers, I shall insert the letter.


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"To our most honoured lords, and most religious brethren and fellow-ministers, Damasis, Ambrose, Brittonius, Valerian, Ascholius, Anemius, Basil, and to the other holy bishops assembled in the great city of Rome, the orthodox bishops, who are convened in the great city of Constantinople, send greeting in the Lord.

"It would be useless to describe to you, as if you were ignorant of the facts, the innumerable evils which we have suf

He was the only bishop from the West who was present at the council held at Constantinople.

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