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of the acts had been confirmed, the second synod at Ephesus is summoned.
CHAP. X.-PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND COUNCIL OF Ephesus.
Or this council, Dioscorus, the successor of Cyril in the see of Alexandria, was appointed president, by an intrigue, in enmity to Flavian, of Chrysaphius, who at that time swayed the imperial court.1 There hasten to Ephesus Juvenalis, bishop of Jerusalem, who was present at the former council, with a great number of associate priests, and with him also Domnus, the successor of John at Antioch: and besides them, Julius, a bishop, who was the representative of Leo, bishop of the elder Rome. Flavian also was present with his associate bishops, an edict having been addressed by Theodosius to Elpidius, in these precise terms: "Provided that those who had on the former occasion passed judgment on the most religious Archimandrite Eutyches, be present, but take no part in the proceedings, by abstaining from the functions of judges, and awaiting the resolution of all the most holy fathers; inasmuch as their own previous decision is now a subject of inqui sition." In this council, the deposition of Eutyches is revoked by Dioscorus and his associates--as is contained in the actsand that sentence is passed upon Flavian, and Eusebius, president of the church of Dorylæum. At the same time, Ibas, bishop of Edessa, is excommunicated; and Daniel,3 bishop of and understands by them the prelates of churches. Nicephorus, however, (book xiv. chap. 47,) has rightly explained these words.
In the margin of the Florentine manuscript, a Scholium remarks concerning the "impious" Chrysaphius, that the eunuchs of the bedchamber have always done mischief to the orthodox archbishops. have an eminent instance of this fact in Eusebius, chief eunuch of the bed-chamber, who in the reign of Constantius persecuted Athanasius and the other Catholic prelates. Vales.
2 The Acts of the Second Ephesine Synod state, that a synod being convened in the metropolis, Ephesus, by the command of the most reliligious and most Christian emperors, the most reverend and most holy bishops, Dioscorus of Alexandria, and Bishop Julian, (who was the deputy of the most holy and most blessed Leo, bishop of the Roman church,) sat in the holy church which is called St. Mary's. Baronius, a. c. 449, relates that this Julian was bishop of Puteoli. It would seem from a subsequent passage of Baronius, (A. D. 451,) that he was afterwards bishop of Coë.
3 A little before the second Ephesine synod, Ibas, bishop of Edessa,
Carrhae, Irenæus1 of Tyre, and Aquilinus of Byblus, are deposed. Some measures were also taken on account of Sophronius, bishop of Constantina: 2 and they depose Theodoret,3 bishop of Cyrus, and even Domnus of Antioch. What afterwards befell the last mentioned, I am not able to discover. After these proceedings the second council of Ephesus was dissolved.
CHAP. XI.-AN APOLOGY FOR DIFFERENCES OF OPINION AMONG
AND here let not any one of the deluded worshippers of idols presume to sneer, as if it were the business of succeeding councils to depose their predecessors, and to be ever devising some addition to the faith. For while we are endeavouring to trace the unutterable and unsearchable scheme of God's mercy to man, and to revere and exalt it to the utmost, our opinions are swayed in this or that direction: and with none of those who have been the authors of heresies among Christians, was blasphemy in the first intention;5 nor did they fall from the truth in a desire to dishonour the Deity, but rather from an idea which each entertained, that he should improve upon his predecessors by upholding such and such doctrines. Besides, all parties agree in a confession which embraces the essential points; for a Trinity is the single object of our worship, and
and Daniel, bishop of Carræ, had been accused before the emperor Theodosius by their own clergy. The emperor gave order that cognizance of their cause should be taken in a synod at Berytus, in the presence of Damascius, tribune and prætorian notary.
Long before the second Ephesine synod, Irenæus had been driven from his bishopric, by an edict of the emperor Theodosius, and Photius had been put into his see. It is certain that Photius presided at the synod of Berytus, which had been convened in the year before the second Ephesine synod. But because Irenæus had been ejected only by the emperor's order, and not by the determination of a synod, therefore he was formally deposed in the second Ephesine synod. Vales.
2 A city of Phoenicia.
3 This was the author of the five books of Ecclesiastical History.
In the place of Domnus, bishop of Antioch, Maximus was appointed, and was afterwards confirmed in his bishopric by Pope Leo. Maximus, however, appointed Domnus, as long as he lived, a certain allowance out of the revenue of his church, that, being content with his maintenance, he might in future be quiet.
5 ПIOWтоTUжWс, "originally," or "primarily."
unity the complex one of our glorification, and the Word, who is God begotten before the worlds, and became flesh by a second birth in mercy to the creature: and if new opinions have been broached on other points, these also have arisen from the freedom granted to our will by our Saviour God, even on these subjects, in order that the holy catholic and apostolic church might be the more exercised in bringing opposing opinions into captivity to truth and piety, and arrive, at length, at one smooth and straight path. Accordingly the apostle says most distinctly, "There is need of heresies among you, that the approved ones may be manifested.” 1 And here also we have occasion to admire the unutterable wisdom of God, who said to the divine Paul, "My strength is made perfect in weakness." 2 For by the very causes by which the members of the church have been broken off, the true and pure doctrine has been more accurately established, and the catholic and apostolic church of God has attained amplification and exaltation to heaven. But those who have been nurtured in Grecian error, having no desire to extol God or his tender care of men, were continually endeavouring to shake the opinions of their predecessors, and of each other, rather devising gods upon gods, and assigning to them by express titles the tutelage of their own passions, in order that they might find an excuse for their own debaucheries by associating such deities with them. Thus, their supreme father of gods and men, under the form of a bird, shamelessly carried off the Phrygian boy;3 and as a reward of his vile service, bestowed the cup, with leave to pledge him in an amorous draught, that they might with the nectar drink in their common shame. Besides innumerable other villanies, reprobated by the meanest of mankind, and transformations into every form of brutes, himself the most brutish of all, he becomes bi-sexual, pregnant, if not in his belly yet in his thigh, that even this
3 Allusion is intended to the story told concerning Ganymede, son of Tros, king of Troas. Jupiter, having turned himself into an eagle, snatched up the youth to the skies, and admitted him his cupbearer in the room of Hebe, whom he had displaced.
Semele being great with child by Jupiter, the god swore that he would give her whatever she should ask of him. By a plot of Juno she was induced to request, that he would lie one night with her in the same manner he used to lie with Juno. The god granted her desire, and Semele was
violation of nature might be fulfilled in his person; whence springing, the bi-sexual dithyrambic birth outraged either sex; author of drunkenness, surfeit, and mad debauch, and
all their fearful consequences. To this Ægis-wearer,' this Thunderer, they attach, in spite of these majestic titles, the crime of parricide, universally regarded as the extremity of guilt; inasmuch as he dethroned Saturn who unhappily had begotten him. Why need I also mention their consecration of fornication, over which they made Venus to preside, the shell-born Cyprian, who abhorred chastity as an unhallowed and monstrous thing, but delighted in fornication and all filthiness, and willed to be propitiated by them: in whose company Mars also suffers unseemly exposure, being, by the contrivance of Vulcan, made a spectacle and laughing-stock to the gods? Justly would one ridicule their phalli and ithyphalli, and phallagogia; their Priapus, and Pan, and the Eleusinian mysteries, which in one respect deserve praise, namely, that the sun was not allowed to see them, but they were condemned to dwell with darkness. Leaving, then, the worshippers and the worshipped in their shame, let us urge our steed to the goal, and set forth, in compendious survey, the remaining transactions of the reign of Theodosius.
CHAP. XII.-CONDEMNATION OF THE NESTORIAN DOCTRINE
THEODOSIUS, then, issued a most pious constitution, which is included in the first book of what is termed the Code of Justinian, and is the third under the first title; in which, moved by heaven, he condemned, by all the votes, as the saying is, him to whom he had been long attached, as Nestorius himself writes, and placed him under anathema. The precise terms are as follow: "Further we ordain, that those who favour the impious creed of Nestorius, or follow his unlawful burnt up with thunder; but the boy was taken out of her womb and put into Jove's thigh, whence he was delivered in due time. On which account Bacchus (who was the child thus brought forth) had the name of Bimater, one that had two mothers. See Ovid.
This is an epithet given to Jupiter, either because he wore the sacred ægis, (that is, breastplate,) or because he was the raiser of storms, or perhaps because he wore the skin of the goat Amalthæa, which had been his
doctrine, be ejected from the holy churches, if they be bishops or clerks; and if laics, be anathematized." Other enactments were also promulgated by him relating to our religion, which show his burning zeal.
CHAP. XIII.-SIMEON THE STYLITE.1
IN these times flourished and became illustrious Simeon, of holy and famous memory, who originated the contrivance of stationing himself on the top of a column, thereby occupying a spot of scarce two cubits in circumference. Domnus was then bishop of Antioch; and he, having visited Simeon, and being struck with the singularity of his position and mode of life, was desirous of more mystic intercourse. They met accordingly, and having consecrated the immaculate body,2 imparted to each other the life-giving communion. This man, endeavouring to realize in the flesh the existence of the heavenly hosts, lifts himself above the concerns of earth, and, overpowering the downward tendency of man's nature, is intent upon things above: placed between earth and heaven, he holds communion with God, and unites with the angels in praising him; from earth, offering his intercessions on behalf of men, and from heaven, drawing down upon them the Divine favour. An account of his miracles has been written by one of those who were eye-witnesses, and an eloquent record by
That is, "who dwelt upon a pillar."
2 In early times the presbyters celebrated the church service together with the bishop, and received the holy eucharist from his hand. So in the tenth action of the council of Chalcedon, Bassianus, bishop of Ephesus, in his supplicatory libel to Marcianus the emperor, amongst other things, says, "Having on the day after all of us performed the public service together," &c. The same Bassianus writes elsewhere, "Stephanus my presbyter was with me four years; he performed the public service with me, communicated with me, and received the communion from me, as from his bishop." The same usage also was anciently practised in the Roman church, namely, that the presbyters should every day celebrate the public service together with the bishop of Rome, and receive the communion from his hand. But on Sundays, when the presbyters were necessitated to perform the public service apart in their own parishes or cures, on account of the people committed to their charge, they received the Lord's body sent by the Acolytes from the bishop of Rome, that they might not seem to be separated from the communion of their own bishop, especially on that day, as Pope Innocent informs us in his epistle to Decentius.