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BOUNDARIES.
NORTH: Austria and Russia.
SOUTH: Greece, and the Archipelago.
East: The Black Sea, ard the Sea of Marmora.
West: Gulf of Venice and the Ionian Sea.

DIVISIONS.
(Provinces N. OF THE DAxube.)
Provinces.

Chie, Touns.
Moldavia,

Jassy.
Wallachia,

Bukharest. (PROVINCES S. OF THE DANUBE.) Bulgaria,

Sophia.
Servia,

Belgrade.
Bosnia,

Bosna-serai. Croatia,

Bania-louka. Herzgovinia,

Mostar. (SOUTHERN PROVINCES.) Roumelia,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Albania,

Scutari.
Thessaly,

Yenishehr.
Epirus,

Janina.

ISLANDS.
Names.

Chief Towns.
Candia (Crete).

Candia.
Thaso (Thasos).

Volgaro.
Semendrek (Samothracé), Nubi.
Stalimene or Lemno (Lemnos). Lemno.

SEAS, GULFS, STRAITS, &c.
Gulf of Vence (Adriatir), w. of Turkey.
Archipelago (Æg-an), S. of Turkey.
Sea of Marmora (Propontis), S.E. of Turkey.
Black Sea (Euxine), E. of Turkey.
Ionian Sea, s of the Adriatic.
Gulf of Saloniki, Archipelago
Gulf of Cassandria, Archipelago.
Gulf of Monte Santo, Archipelago.
Strait of the Dardanelles, Hellespont.
Strait of Constantinople, Bo-phorus.
Besika Bay, S. W. of the Dardanelles.

GREECE.
NORTH: Turkev in Europe.
SOUTH: The Mediterranean.
East: The Ionian Sea.
West: The Archipelago.

DIVISIONS.
Nalural Divisions.

Chief Torons.
11'll us, or Nurthern Greece, THENS.
The Morea, or

Naroli di Romania
Peninsular Greece, (Na uplia).
Insular Greece,

Syra.
The Ionian Republic, Corfu.

ISLANDS.
Names.

Chief Towns.
Corfu (Corcyra),

Cor'u.
Zanie Zacynthus),

Zinte.
Theaki (Ith-ca),

Bathi.
Santa Maura (Leucadia), Sta. Maura,
Cephalonia (Cephallenia), Samos.
Cerigo (Cythera),

Modar.
Koluri (Salamis),

Salamis.
Engia (Egina),

Egina.
Hydra (Hydrea),

Hydra.
Spezzia,

Spezzia.
Skyro (Scyros),

Skyro.
Scopelo (Scopelos),

Scopelo.
Ip ara (Ipsera),

Ipsara.
Negropont (Enha),

Egripo,
Audro (Andros),

Andro.
Zea (Ceos),

Ze3.
Thermia (aythenus),

Thermia.
Syra (Syros),

Sura.
Tino (Teons),

Borgo,
Miconi (Myconos),

Miconi.
Siphant. (Siphnos),

Kastron.
Paro (Paros),

Paro.
Naxia (Naxos),

Naxia.
Amorgo (Amorgos),

Amorgo.
Mio (Melos),

Milo.
Argentiera (Cimolus),

Agentiera.
Nio (los),

Nio.
Sikino (Sicinus).

Sikino.
Santorini (Thera),

Pyrgos.

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JOHN CASSELL, LA BELLE SAUVAGE YARD, LUDGATE HILL,

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Is bringing our Fourth Volume to a close, we heartily thank all our Subscribers for their steady and unwearied support. The letters of encouragement and of commendation which we have received during the past sis months, have been more numerous and more gratifying than ever. We have endeavoured to show our sense of these favours, bs laburing more carnestis to impart slid and useful instruction in various important branches of learning; we hare, in fact, considered that we were entrusted by our readers with the responsible task of their education, and we are aimed at fu.fi.ing our daties to their satisfaction. We have given a concise and popular summary of the leading fac:s in several branches of Natural Philosophy, as may be seen by consulting the Index; but many highly useful and interesting departments are soon to forow in their order; these are Calorie and Optics, or the doctrines of Heat and Light, iccading some of their most interesting apprications, as the Steam Engine, the Telescope and Microscope, laguerreotype and Photography; Mazretism and Electricity, including the nature of the Telegraph, the Electrotype, and other useful applications; ard, as soon as possible, Astronomy, which is much in demand.

Chemistry has also been treated in a high!y popular manner, and has converted a great number of our Subscribers into practical Students of that art. The ele çant languages of ancient Greece and of modern Rome have also occupied oar pages, and have been expounded with great care by the authors of the Lessons on these branches of Literature; ror hare we forgot our S:udents in French, as a “ Course of Readings" in that popular language is still appearing at cozrenient intervals. The Mathematics, including Algebra and Geometry, with Instrumental Arithmetic and Alathematical Lastrations, hare aiso been progressing under our own care, and these branches will be still more vigorously jersaed in our next Volume, where some of them, if possible

, wil be brought to a conclusion. Bookkeeping has a resor occupied a portion of our labours, and we shail conclude this brar.ch in a few early Numbers, with the subject of Foreign Trade. The Lessons in Reeding and Elocation will be rendered still more useful and attractive in our rat Voime; but we canno: promise any new langu.ze tiil we have finished one or more of those now in hand; the Gezan, however, is very ritar a concasion. We are preparing for Lessons in Mechanical Drawing, and in various siter bracebes which have been unavoidabis. pstponed, on account of the great demand for those which we have sisen, and which we are now carrying on. In closing these remarks, we can only say that we shall continue to place before our Readers, as we bare aways striven to do, those subjects which are the most in demand, and which are calculared to do the greatest pole good to the greatest possible number."

PAGE

AGB

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
VIII. Reduction and Addition of Fractions

116

Map of France, with the Railways, and Divisions
IX. Subtraction and Multiplication of Fractions 249

into Prorinces and Departments; Map of
X. Division of Fractions ; Simple Equations

270

Turkey in Europe, with Greece and the Ionian
XI. Reduction of Equations by Multiplication, and

Islands; and Division into Provinces and
by Division ; Numerical Substitution

327

Islands; Map of the Austrian Empire, with
XII. Problems in Simple Equations

342

Divisions into Provinces and Population;
XIII. Involution of Powers ; Binomial Theorem 381

Map of Russia in Europe, with Divisions into

BIOGRAPHY.

Provinces and Territories—to be prefixed to the

volume.

XIII. Zarah Colburn, the Calculating Boy

374

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.

XLII. Icebergs.

23

VII. Home Trade ; Memoranda of Transactions.. 108, 126

XLIII. Botanic Agents; Plants and Trees

29
VIII. Subsidiary Books; Cash Book ; Bill Book; Bills

XLIV. Animalculite Contributions to the Formation

Receivable Book; Bills Payable Book

144

of Rocks ...

72

IX. Day Book, from January till June

151

XLV. Agency of Coral Insects in producing Rocks 96
X. Cotton Book; Purchases; Sales; Profits 176

XLVI. Results of the Agency of Man, by Agriculture,

XI. The Journal, from January till June ; with the

etc.

139

General Balance

197

XLVII. Classification of the Rocks in the Earth's Crust 165
XII.XIII. The Ledger; Posting; Balancing; Index to XLVIII. Relative Position of Rocks in their vertical order 231
Ledger A; Ledger A, from January till June;

XLIX. Rocks of Recent Formation ; Rocks in course
Trial Balance

......214, 227

of Formation ; Rocks formed since the Crea-
tion of Man and Animals

262

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.

L. The Tertiaries; their Lithological Character.... 313

II. Materials required; Remarks on Iron and Zinc

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.

III. Zinc; Manganese ; Facts for the Student, etc.. 37

IV. Chemical Tests for Metals; their Application 69

XXIII. Lectures on Euclid, Book 1. Props. XVI.,

V. On Hydrogen; Cavendish's Endiometer........ 77

XVII., XVIII.; with Scholia, Corollaries, and

VI. Application of the Pneumatic Trough

92

Exercises

49

VII. Experiments on Hydrogen and Sulphuretted

XXIV. Book I. Props. XIX., XX.; with Scholia, Corol.

Hydrogen Gases; Resumption of the Metals 113

laries, and Exercises

191

VIII. White Arsenic; Experiments with the Arsenical

XXV. Props. XXI., XXII., XXIII; with Scholia,

Solution

128

and Exercises

254

IX. Experiments on Arsenic; Further Tests for

XXVI. Props. XXIV., XXV., XXVI. ; with Scholia

Arsenic

141

Corollaries, and Exercises..

268

X. Reinsch's Process of detecting Arsenic ........

155 | XXVII., XXVIII., XXIX; Props. XXVII., XXVIII;

XI. Solution of Antimony

173

with Scholia and Exercises; Discussion on

XII. Hydrochloric Acid; Sulphuret of Antimony.. 191

the Theory of Parallel Straight Lines; Thirty

different methods for removing the difficulty

XIII. Experiments on Tin; the Proto-chloride of Tin;

Bichloride of Mercury; Chloride of Gold.... 201

of the Twelfth Axiom of Euclid's First

XIV. Protoxide of Tin; Experiments

218

Book

295, 311, 321

XV. Persalts of Tin; Formation of Sulphurets 236

LESSONS IN GERMAN.

XVI. Oxygen; its Generation

247 | LXVIII., LXIX. Irregular Verbs; Verbs of the New

XVII. Properties of Oxygen Gas.....

261

Conjugation....

18, 32

XVIII. The Results of Combustion in Oxygen

280 LXX. Paradigm of a Verb of the New Form; the

XIX. Experiments on Silver; Lunar Caustic; etc. 292

Mixed Conjugation; Verbs of the same 75

XX. Method of obtaining Silver from a Metallic LXXI., LXXII., LXXIII., LXXIV., LXXV., Paradigms

Solution.

304

of Irregular Verbs; Passive Verbs 86, 94, 112, 131, 154

XXI. Chloride of Silver ; Mercury, Calomel, etc...... 320 LXXVI. Paradigm of a Passive Verb: Reflexive Verbs 172

XXII. Chloride of Mercury; Calomel; Corrosive Sub LXXVII. Paradigm of a Reflexive Verb; Impersonal

limate; Poison ; Tests and Antidote ... 336

Verbs; Compound Verbs.....

187

XXIII. The Bichloride of Mercury; Detection of Poison 355 LXXVIII. Compound Prefixes Separable ; Paradigm of a

XXIV. Economy of Heat, chiefly in reference to Gas 366

Compound Verb Separable

205

XXV. Principle of the Blast Furnace; The Argand LXXIX. Observations on the Paradigm of a Compound
Gas-Burner; Distillation ; Still and Worm ;

Verb; Inseparable Prefixes,...

219

Flasks and Retorts

380 LXXX. Prefixes, Separable and Inseparable; the Ad-

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.

verbs; the Prepositions

LXXXI. Table of the Prepositions; the Conjunctions ;

LXVII. Agreement of the Subject and Verb

6

The Interjections.

216

LXVIII. Adverbs ; Syntax of the Predicate

14- LXXXII. Syntax; the Articles; the Noun, etc... 309

LXIX. Syntax of Predicate; the Verb; Object :33 (LXXXIII. Rules and Observations relating to Nouns, etc. 325

LXX. Syntax; Prepositions .

48, LXXXIV. The Pronouns; the Adjectives; the Verbs 339

LXXI. Syntax; Conjunctions; Interjections

64 LXXXV. · Use of the Tenses; Rules and Observations.... 358

LXXII. Compound Sentences

79 | LXXXVI. The Tenses; Participles; Adverbs; Preposi-

LESSONS IN FRENCH.

tions; Conjunctions; Interjections

371

LXXVIII. The Infinitive; Government of Verbs ; etc

11

LESSONS IN GREEK.

LXXIX. Governmeni of Verbs; the Past Participle. 26 | VIII., IX., X., XI. The Third Declension ; Paradigms 10,39, 55, 71

LXXX. Remarks on the Foregoing Rules, etc.... 42 XII., XIII. The Second Declension contracted; the Three
LXXXI. Adverbs of Negation; the Preposition ..... 51

Declensions reviewed; Exercises, etc......97, 115

LXXXII. The Conjunction, its regime:i; Collocation of XIV., XV. Comparison of Adjectives ; General View 124, 170

Words....

67 XVI. Adverbs; Comparison of Adverbs ......

185

XVII., XVIII. The Pronouns ; Personal; Rctlective;

FRENCH READINGS.

Reciprocal; Possessive; Demonstrative; Relac

1. Sections I. II., with Exercises, etc.....

287

live ; Indefinite and Interrogative, etc...,209, 222

II. Sections III, IV., and V., with Exercises, etc.

XIX. The Numerals; with Declension of the First' 235
III. Section VI., with Excrcise....

316 XX. Numeral Adverbs ; Remarks ; General View.. 244
IV. Section VII. Le Chateau De Caries; M. De XXI., XXII. The Verb; Voices, Tenses, Moods; the
Lajolais, Section I.

341

Participle; Numbers; Conjugations; Prefixes,

V. M. De Lajolais, Section II...

373

Sufixes, Stems; the Verb to be ...... 282, 307

233

289

XXIII. Conjugation; Augment; Characteristic Let XIV., XV. Capillary Attraction; its Effects; Laws of
ters; Flexional Terminations

337

the Ascent and Depression of Liquids in Capil-
XXIV., XXV. Conjugation of a Pure Verb in w; Para-

lary Tubes, between Plates of Glass, in Siphons;
digm of the Active Personal Voice; Termi-

of Liquids in Contact with Solids, etc... 203, 213
nations of the Active Voice ; Paradigm of

XVI. Endosmose, Absorption, and Imbibition; Ab.
the Middle Voice

352, 365
sorption in Plants and Animals

234
XVII. Pneumatics; Gases and the Atmosphere ; Mag.

INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC.

II. The Plane Scale; its construction and use

13

deburgh Hemispheres; Measure of Atmo-

III. The Plane Scalé and Protractor ; Principles of

spheric Pressure; Torricellian Experiment;

Pascal's Experiment
89

241

Trigonometry

XVIII. The Atmosphere ; its Pressure ; the Barometer,

375
IV. Scales of Various Equal Paris to an Inch...

Cistern, Portable, and Siphon; Variations in

KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES.

the Height of the Barometer; its Relation to

Lessons XLVI, to L.

57

the Weather; the Wheel and Aneroid Baro.

Lessons L, to LI.

meters ; Measurement of Heights, etc.

257

Lessons LII. to LITI...

119

XIX. The Elastic Force of Gases; Experiments of

Lessons LIII. to LVII.

135

Boyle ; Mariotte's Law; Manometers

276

Lessons LVII. to LXI.

163

XX. Mixture of Gases and Liquids ; Aerostation;

KEY TO THE LESSONS IN GREEK.

Balloons; the Parachute, etc.

Lessons II. to VII......

161

XXI. Pneumatic and Hydraulic Machines; the Air-

pump; its Uses; the Fountain in a Vacuum;

LESSONS IN ITALIAN.

the Atmospheric Railway

301

I. Introduction ; Pronunciation

8

XXII. The Condenser; Condensing Syringe; Condensed

II. Pronunciation of Vowels and Consonants; First

Air Fountain ; Air-gun; Hero's Fountain;

19

Pronouncing Table

Intermittent Fountain ; Siphons

317

III. First Pronouncing Table continued; Semivowels

41

XXIII. Pumps; the Suction-Pump, Forcing-Pump,

IV. Pronunciation continued; Second Pronouncing

Litt- and - Force Pump; Valres; Bramal's

Table

52

Press; Mariotte's Bottle

333

V. Of Diphthongs; Third Pronouncing Table

65

XXIV. Acoustics: Production, Propagation, and Reflec-

VI, Fourth Pronouncing Table

83

tion of Sound; Intensity of Sound; Sarart's

VII., VIII. Fisth Pronouncing Table

103, 110

Apparatus for Increasing Sound; Effect of

IX. Sixth Pronouncing Table, Accents, etc...

133

Tubes; Velocity of Sound; Laws of Reflected

X. On the use of the Apostrophe

117

Sound

319

XI., XII. The Articles; Declension of Nouns

159, 178

XXV, Echoes and Ringing Sounds; the Speaking and
XIII., XIV., XV. Use of the Preposition or case-sign

Hearing Trumpets; Vibrations of Cords; the
Di; etc.

192, 211, 232

Monochord; Nodes and Nodal Lines; Savart's
XVI. Use of the Particle a; Vocabulary

253

Toothed Wheel; the Siren; the Blowing

XVII., XVIII. Use of the Preposition Da; etc.

...... 265, 284

Machine.

361

XIX. Use of the Preposition In; ctc.

298

XXVI. Physical Theory of Music; Quality of Musical

XX. Use of the Preposition Con; etc.......

306

Sound; Unison : Gamut; Diatonic Scale;

XXI. Use of the Preposition Per, and Exercises...... 356

Intervals, Sharps aud Flats; Harmony, Dis.
LESSONS ON MUSIC.

cord; Pulsation ; Tuning Fork; Vibrations

XX. Introduction to the Old Notation ; Relative

of Róds, Plates, and Membranes

377

Length of Notes; Absolute Length of Notes

LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.

and Speed of Movement; Pauses of the Voice;

Time Signatures ; Absolute Pitch and Clefs;

I. Punctuation ; Characters employed .......... 251

Keys and their Signatures......

181

II. The Period; the Note of Interrogation; the

XXI. Or accidendal Flats and Sharps, and Rules

Note of Exclamation; Rules and Examples.. 285

3.0

III. The Comma; Rules and Examples
for recognising on the Staff the Notos of Tran-
sition, the Distinguishing Notes of Minar

IV, The Semicolon ; the Colon; the Parenthesis,

370

Crotchets, and Brackets; Rules, etc.

Keys, and Chromatic Notes; other Symb ils

of frequent occurrence

225

SKELETON MAPS.

XXII. Minor Tunes; Exercises ; Remarks on the Com-

IV. Description of the Skeleton Map of Africa, with

273

mon Scale; Conclusion

Table of Latitudes and Longitudes; Table of

LESSONS IN NATURAL PHILOSOPIIY.

the Length of Degrees in Different Latitudes 7

1. Object of the Science; Definitions

1

V. Description of the Skeleton Map of South Ame-

II. General Properties of Material Bodies; Prelimi-

rica, with Table of Latitudes and Longitudes 295

nary Notions on Force and Motion.

21

SKETCHES FOR YOUNG THINKERS,

III. On the Composition and Resolution of Forces.. 35

IV. Milton : Intellectual Excellence, etc. ....

IV. On Gravity, and Molecular Attraction; on Den-

sity, Weight, Centre of Gravity, Equilibrium 45

V. Alfred the Great ; Sir Isaac Newton ; Wesley;

51

Dr. Erans ; Simonides

y. Laws of Falling Bodies, Intensity of Grasily,

Inclined Plane, Atwood's Machine, Morin's

vi. Moral Excellence; Cyrus; Confucius; Socrates;

61

Apparatus, etc....

81

Ignatius ; Polycarp

VI. Laws of Gravity; the Pendulum.

81 VII. Louis IX ; Salmasius; Cæsar Borgia ; Pascal 143

VII. Molecular Forces; Particular Properties of

VIII. Lord Bacon ; Locke ; Boyle ; Lyttleton; West;

100

Solids ; Tenacity of Metals, etc. ...

175

Addison

VIII. Hydrostatics; Properties of Liquids ; Piesome-

MATHEMATICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

ters; the Principle of Pascal; Pressure in

Liquids from Gravity; Hydrostatic Paradox 10.5

!. Asymptotes to Curves; the Conchoid; the Conic

119

Sections, etc.
IX. On the Equilibrium of Liquids, in single and
communicating vessels; the Hydraulic Press;

MISCELLANEA.

Levels and Levelling; Fountains and Arte-

sian Wells

121 On Preparing Shells, 87. Poe'ry: “Look Aloft," 13. French

X. Bodies immersed in Liquids ; Principle of Sentences, 176. University of London. Nos. IV., V., and VI , 2 7,

Archimedes ; Hydrostatic Balance; Meta 220, 288, 345. Poetry : " Čuriosity,” 293. Mr. Cassell's Publica-

centre; Specific Gravity; the Areoneter .... 137 | tions, 317.

XI. Specific Gravity; Tables of the Specific Weighis

CORRESPONDENCE.

of Solids and Liqnids ; use of ihese Tables 157 On Bathing when Heated, 27. Arithmetic, 59. Sloane's Bar
XII. Areometers; Nicholson's and Baumé's Arcome.

lance, Solutions, 60. The Gift of Oratory, 1:20. University of

ters; Gay-Lussac's Densimeter

168 London: Lectures to Schoolmasters, 224. 'Industry and Charity;

XIII. IIydrodynamics ; Efflux of Liquids ; Liquid

240. The Blowpipe, 288. Tonic Sol-Fa Association, 300. Mutual

Veini Vena Contracta; Theorem of Torri. Instruction Classes, 331. University of London : 'Classical Sub-

celli; Discharge, Georetical and effective, etc. 188 | jects, Calendar, 347.

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