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known, we have the height h of the column wc. The point b is stationary. Hence the indications of the air-thermometer are
then closed with a little wax, and the barometric pressure is influenced by the pressure of the atmosphere, and thus require
noted. Now, if this pressure be denoted by u', the pressure to be corrected at every observation.
in the reservoir B, is denoted by h'h. The reservoir is now When variations of temperature of considerable extent are
withdrawn from the ice and weighed, in order to ascertain to be measured, the air-thermometer is furnished with a tube
the weight of the mercury which has been introduced into it. similar to that employed in measuring the co-efficient of the
This reservoir is then completely filled with mercury at 0° expansion of gases in the apparatus of M. Regnault (figs. 184
Centiyrade, and the weight p' of the mercury contained both and 18.5). Making experimen's with this tube, as explained in
in the reservoir and the iube is ascertained. Now, if k denoted the description of that apparatus, the quantities r, r', , u',
the co-efficient of the expansion of glass, a that of air, and D and h, which enter into equation (3.) are determined ; and as
the density of mercury at 0° Centigrade, we find a by the a is known, this equation, by reduction, will give the tempe-
following process. The volume of the reservoir and of the rature t, to which the tubé has been raised. According to the

researches of M. Regnault, the air-thermometer sensibly agrees tube at 0° Centigrade is from the formula p=vd formerly with the mercurial thermometer as far as 260° Centigrade, or

500° Fahrenheit; but beyond this point the mercury expands giren; consequently, at lo Centigrade tliis volume, by a pre- more rapidly than the air. p'

Density of Gases. The specific weight or density of a gas ceding problem, is (1 + kit), at the pressure H, which was is the ratio of the weight of a certain volume of the gas to that

of the same volume of air, the gas and the air being both at the pressure when it was hermetically sealed. Therefore at the same temperature and pressure ; and in the use of the Centi. p'(1 + kt)

grade thermometer, this temperature and pressure are 0° Centi. the pressure , it is

; (1.), by the law of Mar-grade and 29.922 inches, which we shall call the standard tempehD

raiure and pressure. According to this definition, the density of iotte

. Again, according to the formula P =vd, the volume a gas is found by determining the weight of a certain volume of of the air which remains in the reservoir is represented by the gas at the standard temperature and pressure; next, the

weight of the same volume of air at the standard temperature at the temperature (° Centigrade and at the pressure and pressure; and then by dividing the former weight by the

latter. In determining the density of gases, a glass vessel or u'—. At the same pressure, but at to, this volume is there- globe, whose capacity is about that of two imperiul gallons, is P'

employed, having a stop-cock at the neck or aperture, which fore (1 + a t); and at the pressure h, it becomes can be screwed to an air-pump. This globe is weighed first

when empty, that is, when a vacuum has been made in it; (5' – P) (1 + at) (H' – u)

second, when full of air ; and third, when full of the gas But the volumes repre. whose density is to be found. The air and the gas are dried

by the same process as that followed in the experiments made sented by the formule (1.) and (2.) are the volume of the with the apparatus represented in fig. 181. By sub ricting the reservoir and the tube at the pressure h; they are therefore weight of the globe when empty from its weights respertively equal. Whence, by suppressing the common denominator, we when full of air and full of the given gas, we have the weighis have the equation

of the same volume of the air and of the gas.

In the case f'(! + kt) = (1-P) (1 + ar) (u — "); (3.) where the experiment has been made at the standard tempefrom which may be deduced the value of a.

rature and pressure, it is sufficient to divide the weight of the By experiments and calculations of this kind, M. Regnault gas by the weight of the air, and the quotient will be the found that from 0 to 100° Centigrade, and for barometric density required. The process of finding the density of a gas pressures between 11.8 inches and 69.1 inches, the co-efficients in general requires numerous corrections, in order to refer it of expansion for certain gases were as follows :

to ihe standard temperature and pressure, as well as to reduce

the temperature of the glass vessel to 0 Centigrade. These TABLE OF THE CO-EFFICIENTS OF EXPANSION FOR corrections are effected by means of the formulæ which we have GASES.

given in this lesson for the solution of problems of this description, but most of these may be avoided by the following

method : Air

0.0036650 Hydrogen

M. Regnault has applied to the preceding process some

0.0036678 Nitrogen


modifications, which dispense with part of the corrections. Fur Sulphurous acid

0 0036696

this purpose, the globe, which is employed to weigh the given Hydrochloric acid

O 0036812

gas, is hung on the one scale of a balance, and it is brought Cyanogen


into equilibrium with another globe of the same volume herCarbonic Acid ...

metically sealed and hung on the other scale.

These two

globes expanding equally under the same degree of tempera. These numbers show that the co-efficients of the expansion iure, always displace the same quantity of air, whence the of gases difer only by quantities which are extremely small

. variations in the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere 2. Regnault has proved, also, that at the same temperature the have no influence on their weights. Now, when the first glübe is Expansion of any gas is greater in proportion to the increase of successively filled with the air and with the gas whose density pressure ; and that the co-efficients of the expansion of two is required, it is placed in a zinc ve-sel, and surrounded with gases differ more when they are subjected to greater pressures. ice. By this means it is brought to the standard temperature; The Air Thermometer. --This thermometer, as its name indi- and by shutting the stop-cock when the gas introduced into it cates, is founded on the principle of the expansion of air. is at the same temperature, the corrections for temperature are When it is intended to measure small variations of temperature, avoided. Lastly, the two gases can be easily brought to the the same form is given to it as that employed by Gay-Lussac standard pressure by referring the pressure under which the in order to measure the co-efficient of the expansion of the gases experiment is made to the law that the weights are propor(83. 183); that is, it is composed of a glass buib, to which is tional to the pressures. cemented a long capillary tube or stem. The bulb is filled In the case of gases which act upon brass, as chlorine for with air perfectly dry; and there is introduced into the stem, a example, a brass stop.cock cannot be employed. It is then small quantity of sulphuric acid, coloured red, to serve as an necessary to employ a glass bottle with a ground stopper, and index: the instrument is then graduated by comparing its in- to introduce the gas by a bent tube which reaches to the bola dications with those of a mercurial thermometer. The ex

tom; the boitle being held upright or inverted, according as tremity of the stem of this thermomecer must be allowed to the gas introduced into it is heavier or lighter than the air. emain open ; otherwise, the contraction or expansion of When all the air is expelled froin the boule, the tube is rethe air above the index would take place at the same tiine as moved, and it is closed by the stopper. If the bottle be then ibat of the air in the bulb, and the index would remain weighed full of gas, the weight oblained will include the weighs

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of the bottle, plus the weight of the gas, minus the weight of


Melting Points. the air displaced, according to principles formerly explained. Sulphur

111° Cent, or 231°•8 Fahr. Now, the weight of the bottle is easily determined ; and if it Tin


442-4 be gauged by finding the volume of water which it contains, Bismuth


507-2 its volume will thus be found, and consequently the weight of


335 the air which it displaces. If, then, we subtract the weight Antimony


842 of the bottle itself from the weight obtained by weighing it



when full of gas, and add to the remainder the weight of the
air displaced, we have the required weight of the gas. It now

Latent Caloric.-When the temperature remains constant only remains to divide the weight of the gas by the weight of during the period of fusion, while a body passes from the solid the same volume of air, care being taken to make the necess to the liquid state, whatever may be the intensity of the fire, sary corrections for temperature and pressure in order to refer it is evident that in order to change its state, the body absorbs them to the same capacity, and the standard temperature and a considerable quantity of heat, of which the sole effect is to pressure. The following table shows the density of some keep it in the liquid state. This quantity of heat, which does gases which have been thus determined at the standard tem- not act on the thermometer, and which is combined in some perature and pressure above mentioned :

way with the particles of the body, is denominated latent

caloric, or the caloric of fusion. The following experiment will TABLE OF THE DENSITY OF GASES,

give a clear idea of what is to be understood by latent caloric: That of air being taken as unity.

if we mix a pound of water at 04 Centigrade with a pound of Gases.

water at 79° Centigrade, we shall have immediately two Densities.

pounds of water at 390.5 Centigrade, that is, at the mean Air

1.0000 Hydrogen

temperature of the two quantities mixed; this result was to be

0.0692 Protocarburetted Hydrogen

expected, because they are of the same nature, and of an 0:5590

equal quantity. Ammonia

But if we mix a pound of water at 79° Cen

0.5967 Carbonic Oxide

tigrade with an equal weight of pounded ice at O' Centigrade, 0.9674

the ice will instantly melt, and we shall have two pounds of Nitrogen

0.9714 Deutoxide of Nitrogen

water at 09 Centigrade. Thus we see that, without changing 1.0390

its temperature, and solely to effect its fusion, one pound of Oxygen


ice absorbs the quantity of heat necessary to raise one pound Hydrosulphuric Acid

1.1912 Chlorohydric Acid

of water from the freezing point to 790 Centigrade, or 1640.4

1.2540 Protoxide of Nitrogen

Fahrenheit. This quantity of heat, therefore, represents the

1.5270 Carbonic Acid

caloric of fusion, or the latent caloric of ice. Each body has

1.5290 Cyanogen

its own particular quantity of latent caloric, which may be 1.8600

determined by calculation. Sulphurous Acid

2.2474 Chlorine


Solution.- A body is said to be dissolved, or put into a state Hydriodic Acid...


of solution, when it is liquified by the effect of the mutual at

traction of its particles and those of a liquid. Thus, gum CHANGE OF STATE IN BODIES.

arabic, sugar, and the greater number of salts, are soluble in

water. During solution, as well as during fusion, a greater or The Laws of Fusion. Of the various phenomena which are less quantity of heat is absorbed. This is the reason why the presented by bodies under the influence of caloric, we have solution of a salt, in general, occasions a lowering of temperam only hitherto considered those of expansion. Now, if we first ture. Yet it happens that in certain solutions the temperaturn our attention to solid bodies, it is evident that this ex- ture does not vary, and in others that it even rises. This will pansion has a limit. For, in proportion as a solid body be understood by observing how these two simultaneous and absorbs a greater quantity of caloric, the repulsive force of its contrary effects are produced. The first is the passage from particles is increased; and a period may arrive when the the solid to the liquid state, an effect which produces a lowermolecular attraction is insufficient to preserve the body in the ing of temperature; the second is the combination of the dissolid state. A new phenomenon then takes place; viz. that of solved body and the liquid. Now, every chemical combination fusion (melting), or the passage of a body from the solid to the takes place with the development of heat; consequently, acliquid state. Yet a great number of substances, as paper, wood, cording as one of these effects predominates over the other, or wool, and certain salts, do not melt under the action of an ele- as one is equal to the other, so is cold or heat the result, or the vated temperature, but are decomposed. Of all the simple temperature remains constant. bodies, one only has not hitherto been fused by the action of

Solidification.--Solidification, or congelation, is the passage the most intense sources of heat, and this is carbon.

from the liquid state to the solid. This phenomenon takes The following are the two general laws of fusion to which place according to the following laws, which are the converse bodies are subjected, as discovered by experiment. 1. Every of those of fusion, and are proved by experiment: 1. Solidifi

: body enters into a state of fusion at a certain temperature, cation is produced in every body at a fixed temperature, which which is invariable for each individual substance. 2. What is exactly that of fusion. 2. From the moment when solidifever may be the intensity of the source of heat at the moment cation commences until it be completed, the temperature of when fusion commences, the temperature ceases to rise, and the liquid remains constant. This seeond law is the conseremains constant until the fusion be completed. The following quence of the fact that the latent caloric absorbed during fusion table exhibits the temperatures at which fusion commences in is set free at the moment of solidification. Many liquids, as different substances :

alcohol and ether, are not solidifiable by the greatest lowering

of temperature to which they have been exposed. In general, TABLE OF THE MELTING POINTS OF BODIES.

bodies which pass slowly from the liquid to the solid state Melting Points.

assume determinate geometrical forms called crystals ; such Mercury

40o Cent. or 40. Fahr. as those of the tetrahedron, the cube, the prism, and the rhomIce


bohedron. If the body which solidifies be in a state of fusion, Tallow


its crystallisation is said to take place by the dry method ; but Phosphorus


if the body be held in solution in a liquid, its crystallisation Potassium


is said to take place by the humid method. It is by allowing 57

131.6 Margaric Acid

the liquids which hold salts in solution to evaporate slowly, Stearin


that salts are made to crystallise. Snow, ice newly formed, White wax

145 4

and salts, exhibit fine examples of crystallisation.
Stearic Acid


shall take the first opportunity to bring under the notice of our 90

194 Sodium

students the subject of crystallisation, Alloy (1 lead, 1 tin,

The Formation of Ice.--Distilled water becomes solid at the 94 4 bismuth)

temperature of 00 Centigrade, and is then called ice; but the

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0 + E

congelation takes place but slowly, because that the frozen From this tabular view you may learn how to resolve the
part gives out its latent caloric to the rest of the liquid mass. contracted forms into the uncontracted. In order to do so,

Ice presents this remarkable phenomenon, that it possesses less you have only to reverse the process; I employ the sign
density than water. We have already shown that, by cooling signify that the two are to be separated.
or lowering the temperature, water only contracts in volume
as far as 4o Centigrade, but that beyond this point it expands.

Resolution of Contracted Forms,-Specimen.
Now, this increase of volume remains and increases still more
at the moment of congelation; and we find that the volume of

à -a
ice is 2.075 times that of water at 40 Centigrade, Hence, the


density of ice is only about 0.930, that of water being 1; con-
sequently, ice always floats on the surface of water. The in-
crease of volume which ice assumes in its formation is

accompanied with a considerable expansive force, which fre.

By consulting the table, you will find that the double
quently bursts the vessels which contain it. The rending of
stones after a frost is due to the effect of the water which has vowels and diphthongs have each several values.
penetrated their pores and become frozen. It is the same
ncrease of volume which renders the action of frost so injurious

Values of Double Vowels and Diphthongs.
to plants, because their sap, when frozen, breaks their iissues.
M. Williams, in England, in order to demonstrate the expan-

a to

E + ou
sive force of ice, placed in an atmosphere several degrees below

a + w
ε + ου

0 + y
zero, a bomb-shell filled with water, after he had firmly closed

a tov
0 to

0+ 0
the orifice with a wooden stopper. At the instant of congela-


0+ EL tion, this stopper was forcibly thrown to a great distance, and


0+ ov
an icy border was formed round the edges of the orifice.

ο +η
Retardation of the Freezing of Water.-The temperature of
the congelation of water is retarded by salts or other substances When, then, you meet with w, so as to give you an idea that
which it holds in solution. Sea-water, for instance, does not it is a contracted form, you know that its elements must be
solidify till it be lowered to the temperature of -20.5 Centi- found in the list of its equivalents just given : the same may
grade, or 270.6 Fahrenheit. The point of the solidification of be said of ov and ou.
pure water may be retarded several degrees, if it be deprived The contracted verbs agree with the uncontracted verbs in
of the air which it generally contains, and if it be kept entirely this; namely, that generaliy the characteristic root-vowel of
free from all agitation. Thus, in a vessel surrounded with a the Present and Imperfect is lengthened in the other tenses :
frigorific mixture, and placed under an exhausted receiver, thus we change
the water may be made to fall to -12° Centigrade, or 10°:4
Fahrenheit, and even lower than this before congelation. But

ε into η, as φιλε-ω, Ιιους, fut. φιλησω
if then a slight motion be given to the mass, a part of the liquid

o into 0), »

μισθο-ω, I hire, μισθω-σω will be instantly frozen ; and this remarkable phenomenon will

å into m, Typă-w, I honour, » τιμη- σω be observed, that the remaining part of the liquid will suddenly

ă into ā, દૉ-o, I allow,

rise to De Centigrade, or 320° Fahrenheit. This rise in the
temperature is owing to the latent caloric, which is freed by This lengthening into ā takes place when the vowel is pre-
the formation of the ice.

ceded by E, l, or

rp; as,
εάω, εάσω, aorist ειάσα
μειδιάω, I smile, fat. μειδιά-σομαι
φωρά-ω, I catch,


αλοάω, , I strike, thresh, αλod-σω By John R. BEARD, D.D.

ακροά-ομαι, I hear,

ContractĘD VERBS Pure.

The following take n instead of a :
CONTRACTED Pure Verbs are those which have for their Eyyvå-w, I pledge,


εγγυη-σω characteristic either a, e, or o, and blend those vowels with Boă-tu,

I shout like an ox,

the immediately following mood-vowel. The mixing of the

I utter an oracular response,

vowels takes place in only the Present and Imperfect of the
active and middle (or passive), since only in those two is the

χρά - ομαι, I use,

χρη: σομαι characteristic vowel followed by the modal vowel. The v

τιτρά-ω, Ιoore,

EPEA KUOTikov in the third person singular, Imperfect, active, is
not employed with the contraction.

Observe that lovw, I wash, forms from the simpler verb
The blending of two vowels produces various vowels or λοω, the Middle Present λούται, λουμενος, λού, λούσθαι ;

the other parts are
as appears in the following table, where +, the Imperfect slovuny, elow, edoūro, etc. :
tween which it is placed, melt together to produce another or Contracted Verbs are conjugated. In committing the ensuing
ign of plus in Mathematics, denotes that the two vowet's be regularly formed from lovw.

I must now lay before you an example of the way in which
a diphthong, and =, the sign of equality, is prefixed to the forms to memory, you should repeat first the

uncontracted result, showing that the latter is equivalent to the former.

form, and then the contracted form. The uncontracted form,

to take an instance from the table, is Tipaw, the contracted Vowel Contractions.

Tiuw: the uncontracted form is appended to the common stem
ate = a

in parentheses thus, tuu(a-w); the contracted form stands
o +.0 = ou

immediately after the second parenthesis. This, then, is the
at na E + E = EL 0 +€

way in which I advise you to repeat every part, in order to
& +
0 to ov=ov

commit the whole to memory; namely,
E +
0+ w w

Τιμαω, τιμώ; τιμαεις, τιμάς; τιμαει, τιμά, τιμαετον, τιμάτων και
E to = OV 0 +7=w

τιμαετον, τιμάτων; τιμαομεν, τιμώμεν; τιμαετε, τιμάτε;
a tw
ε + ου = ου
0+ y =

τιμαουσι, τιμώσι.
€ + w=w 0 + ou = 04

Τιμαομαι, τιμώμαι και τιμαεσθω, τιμασθω; μισθοεσθων, μισθουpo et 01 = OL ot el = 01 (ov in σθων; φιλεομενος, φιλουμενος και εφιλεομεθον, εφιλουμεθον και

the infinitive). ετιμαεσθε, ετιμάσθε και εφιλεοντο, εφιλούντο, etc.)

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Indicative Mood.
Characteristic a. Characteristic ε. Characteristic o.
I honour.
I love. .

I let.
Sing. τιμα-ω)ώ φιλ(ε-ω)ώ μισθο-ωω

τιμ(α-εις)ας φιλ (ε-εις)είς μισθο-εις οίς τιμ(α-ει

φιλε-ειλεί μσθίο-ξι οι Du. τιμ(α-εά-τον φιλ(ε-εεί-τον μισθο-ε)ού τον

τιμία ελά-τον φιλε ε)εί-τον μισθο-ελού-τον P. τιμ(a-o)ω μεν φιλε ο)ού-μεν μισθ(0-0)ού-μεν

τιμία-ε)α-τε φιλ (ε-εεί-τε μισθ(ο ε)ου-τε τιμα-ου)-σι φιλε-ουρού-σι μισθο-ουρούσι

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Indicative Mood. Sing. τιμ(α-ο)ώ-μαι φιλ(ε-οού-μαι μισθίο- οδού-μαι τιμα-μα φιλ(ε-ην

μισθίο-ηλοί τιμία-ελα-ται φιλίε-ε)εί-ται μισθ(ο-ε)ού-ται Du. τιμία-ο)ω-μεθον φιλε ο)ου-μεθον μισθίο ο)ου-μεθον

τιμ(α-ενα-σθον φιλίε-ε)ει-σθον μισθο-ε)ου στον

τιμ(α-ε)α-σθον φιλε-ε)εί-σθον μισθίο-ε)ού-σθον ΡΙ. τιμ(α-ο)ω-μεθα φιλίε-ο)ου-μεθα μισθο-ο)ου-μεθα

τιμ(α-ε)ά-σθε φιλ(ε-ε)εί-σθε μισθο-ε)ού-σθε τιμ(α· οω-νται φιλ(ε-0)ούνται μισθο-ο)ού νται

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Subjunctive. Sing. τιμία)ώ-μαι φιλ(ε-ω)ώ-μαι μισθίο-ωω-μαι τιμία-μία φιλ(ε

μισθο-poi τιμ(α-η)ά-ται φιλ(ε-ηλή-ται

μισθο)ω-ται Du. τιμ(α-ωω-μεθον φιλίε-ω)ω-μεθον μισθο-ω)ω-μεθον

τιμ(α-ηλα-σθον φιλ(ε-η) ή-σθον μισθίο-η)ω στον τιμία-η)ά-σθον φιλ(ε-η)ή-σθον

μισθο-η)ώ στον ΡΙ. τιμία-ωω-μεθα φιλ(ε-ω)ω-μεθα μισθ(ο-ω)ω-μεθα

τιμα-η)α-σθε φιλ(ε-η)ή-σθε μισθο-ηλώ-στε τιμα-ω)ώνται φιλ(ε-ω)ώ-νται μισθο-ω)ώνται

Subjunctive. .
Sing. τιμ(α-ω)ώ φιλίε-ω)ώ μισθο-ω)ώ

τιμ (α-μς)ας φιλ(ε- ης Ους μισθο-ης)οίς
τιμα-η 1

τιμα- η) α-τον φιλε η) ή-τον μισθ(ο-η)ω-τον

τιμα ηα τον φιλ(ε-η ή τον μισθ(ο-η)ω-τον PI. τιμ(α-ωω-μεν φιλε ωω-μεν μισθ(ο-ω ιω-μεν

τιμία-η)α-τε φιλε-η) η-τε μισθ(οη ω-τε
τιμα-ω)ώ -σι φιλ(ε- ωω-σι μισθ(ο-ω)ώ-σι

Sing. τιμ(α-ερα φιλ(ε-ε)ει μισθ(ο-ε)ου

τιμία-ε)α-τω φιλε-ε)ει-τω μισθο-ε)ου- τω . τιμία ελά-τον φιλε ε)ει- τον μισθο-εού- τον τιμα εια των

φιλε-ε)ει-των μισθ(ο εου-των Ρι.

τιμα-ε)α-τε φιλ ε-ε)είτε μισθο ευου-τε

τιμία-ε)α-τωσαν φιλ(ε-ε)ει-τωσαν μισθο-ε)αυ-τωσαν Οι τιμ(α-ο)ω-ντων οι φιλ(ε- ο)ου -ντων οι μισθο-ο)ου: ντων


τιμα-ειναν φιλ(ε-εινειν μισθο-έν ούν

Participle. .
Nom. τιμ(a-ων)ών φιλε-ων)ών μισθο-υνών

τιμα-ου ω-σα φιλε-ουουσα μισθο-ουρού-σα

τιμία- ον, ών φιλ (ε-ον)ούν μισθο-ονούν Gen. τιμα-οω-ντος φιλ(ε-οού-ντος μισθο-ο)ού ντος τιμία-ου)ω-σης φιλ(ε-ουλου-σης μισθο-ου)ου-σης


Indicative Mood. Sing. ετιμ(α-ον)ων εφιλ(εον)ουν εμισθο-ονουν ετιμ -ες ας εφιλ(ε-ες)εις εμισθ(ο-ες)ους

εφιλε εει εμισθο-ελου Du. ετιμία-ε)-τον εφιλίε-εεί-τον εμισθο-ελού-τον

ετιμ(α-ε)ατην εφιλ (ε-ε)ει-την εμισθο-εου-την ΡΙ. ετιμία-ο)ώ-μεν εφιλίε-ο)ούμεν εμισθο- ο)ού-μεν

ετιμία-ελάτε εφιλίε-ε)εί τε εμισθο-ε)ου-τε
ετιμία-ονων εφιλε-ον)ουν εμισθο-ον)ουν

Sing. τιμ(α-οι)ωμι φιλ(ε-οι)οί-μι μισθίο-οι)οί μι

τιμ(α-οις ως φιλ(ε-οις οίς μισθ(ο-οις)οίς

τιμα οι) φιλ(ε-οι)οί μισθο οιοι . τιμ(α-οι-τον φιλίε-οι)οί-τον μισθίο-οι)οί-τον

τιμία-οι)ω-την φιλ(ε-οι)οι-την μισθίο-οι)οι-την ΡΙ. τιμ(α-οι)ωμεν φιλε οι)οι·μεν μισθιο-οι)οί-μεν

τιμία-οι)ω-τε φιλ(ε οι)οί-τε μισθο- οι)οί-τε
τιμία-οι)ω-εν φιλε-οι)οί-εν μισθο οι)οί-εν

Attic Optative.
Sing. τιμ(α-οι)ν-ην φιλίε-οι)οι-ην μισθο-οι)οι-ην

τιμ(α-οι)ν-ης φιλ(ε-οι)οι-ης μισθίο-οι)οι -ης

τιμ(α-οι)εν-η φιλ(ε-οι)οι-η μισθο-οι)οι - η Du. τιμ(α-οιφ-ητον φιλε οι)οι-ητον μισθίο-οι)οιητον

τιμία οιω-ητην φιλ(ε- οι)οι-ητην μισθίο-οι)οι-ητην ΡΙ. τιμ(α-οι)ω-ημεν φιλ(ε-οι)οι- ημεν μισθο-οι)οι-ημεν

τιμία-οι)φ-ήτε φιλ(ε-οι)οι-ητε μισθο-οι)οι-ητε τιμία-οι)ώ εν φιλ(ε-οι)οϊ-εν μισθο οι)οί-εν

Sing. τιμ(α-ου), φιλ(ε-ουρού μισθίο-ου)ού

τιμία-ε)α-σθω φιλ(ε-ε)ει-σθω μισθο-ε)ου-σθω . τιμ(α-ε)ά-σθον φιλε , Ιεί-σθον μισθο-ε)ού-σθον τιμία- ε)α-σθων φιλ(ε-ε)ει-σθων

μισθίο-ε)ου-σθων ΡΙ. τιμία-ε)α σθε φιλε-ε)εί- σθε μισθο-ε)ού-σθε

τιμία-ε)α-σθωσαν φιλ(ε-ε)ει-σθωσαν μισθίο- ε)ου-σθωσαν Or τιμ(α-ε)α-σθων or φιλ(ε-ε)ει-σθων or μισθίο)ου -σθων


Infinitive. τιμία-εγά-σθαι φιλ(ε-ε)εϊ-σθαι


Participle. Non. τιμ(α-ο)ω-μενος φιλ(ε-ο)ου-μενος μισθο-ο)ου-μενος

τιμία-ο)ωμενη φιλ(ε-οου-μενη μισθ(ο-ο)ου-μενη

τιμία-ο)ω-μενον φιλ(ε-ο)ου-μενον μισθ(ο· ο)ου-μενον Gen. τιμ(α-ο)ω-μενου φιλ(ε-ο)ου-μενοι μισθίο-ο)ου-μενου

τιμία-ο)ω: μενης φιλ(ε-ο)ου-μενης μισθίο-ο)ου-μενης


Indicatire Mood. Sing. ετιμία-οω-μην εφιλ(ε-ο)ου- μην εμισθο-οου μην ετιμία-ου) εφιλε ου)ου

εμισθο-ουλου ετιμία-ε)α το εφιλ(ε-εεί-το

εμισθο-ελού-το Du. ετιμία-ο)ω-μεθον εφιλε-ο)ου-μεθον εμισθο-ο)ου-μεθον

ετιμία-ε)-σθον εφιλ(ε-εεί-σθον εμισθο-ε)ού-σθον ετιμ(α-ε)α-σθην εφιλ(ε-ε)ει-στην

εμισθο-ελου-στην ΡΙ. ετιμία-ο)ω: μεθα εφιλ(ε-ο)ου-μεθα

εμισθο-ο)ου-μεθα ετιμία-ε)α-σθε εφιλ(ε-εεί-σθε εμισθο ε)ού-σθε ετιμία-ο)ω-ντο εφιλ(ε-ο)ού-ντο εμισθο ο)ού-ντο

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αποχρη (abbreviated from αποχρη), it is sufficient, inf. αποχρών,

Impf. απεχρη5 χραω, χρώ, 1 give an oracle, χρυς, χρή, inf. Sing. τιμία-οι)ω-μην φιλίε- οι)οι-μην μισθίο-οι)οι-μην χρύν.

τιμία-οι)ώ ο φιλ(ε-οι)οί-ο μισθίο-οι)οϊ-ο R specting the use of the Attic forms of the Opta ive in nv,

τιμία-οι)ω-το φιλ(ε-οι)οί-το μισθ(ο οι)οί-το observe that in the singular of the verbs in ew and ow the form . τιμ(a-οι)ω-μεθον φιλ(ε-οι)οι-μεθον μισθο-οι)οι-μεθον οιων is preferable to the ordinary form, and in the verbs in

τιμία-οι)ώ-σθον φιλ(ε-οι)οί-σθον μισθο-οι)οι-σθον aw is almost exclusively to be employed; but in the dual and

τιμία-οι)ο- στην φιλ(ε-οι)οι-στην μισθο οι)οι-σθην the plural the ordinary form in all three kinds of verbs is more ΡΙ. τιμ(α οι)ω-μεθα φιλ(ε-οι)οι μεθα μισθ(ο- οι)οι μεθα usual. The third person plural has regularly the shorter

τιμ(α-οι)φ-σθε φιλίε-οι)οί-σθε μισθίο- οι)οι σθε form. .
τιμία-οι)ω-ντο φιλε-οι)οί-ντο μισθίο-οι)οί-ντο

State what is the part, and what the English, of the words in

the following

Sing. τετιμημαι

πεφιλημαι μεμισθωμαι Ετιμησα; μισθωθην και τιμηθησομαι; φιλητέος; τετιμηκα; πεφωράμαι

τιμητέος; τιμώμι; φιλοιων και φιλοξεν; τιμώμην, τιμώμεθα ; Pluperfect.

τιμω; τιμήεν; φιλοΐτον; μισθοίτε και τιμώμεθα; ετιμων: ετιμα; Sing. ετετιμημην επεφιλημην εμεμισθωμην

εφιλει ; εμισθου; ετιμάτο; εφιλείτο; μισθούτο; ετιμώμεν; επεφωράμην

εφιλείτε; εμισθουτε; ετιμάσθε ; εφιλείσθε , εμισθ, ύσθε , τιμών και Future.

τιμώσα; φιλουντος και μισθουσης και τιμ υμενη; φιλουμένου και μισ

θούσθαι; μισθοί; φιλώμαι ; φιλουμαι; φιλο; φιλούνται;
Sing. τιμησομαι
φιλησομαι μισθωσομαι

φιλήται και φιλείσθαι.
Aorist. .

Give the contracted form for these
Sing. ετιμησαμην

εφιλησαμην εμισθωσαμην

Third Future.

Τιμαεις; φιλεω και τιμαομεν και τιμαετε και τιμαε ; φιλεομεν ; Sing. τετιμησομαι πεφιλησομαι μεμισθωσομαι τιμιoυσι ; εφιλεον; εμισθοε ; ετιμαεσθον και ετιμαοντο; εφιλεομην; πεφωράσομαι

εμισθοετο; εφιλεεσθε και μισθοομενος και τιμαοιμι ; τιμαοιεν και φιλεοι

μεν, μισθοοι; μισθοοιμι; τιμαοιμην; τιμαοιτο; μισθοοιντο; PASSIVE VOICE.

τιμαοιημεν; φιλεoιην ; φιλεοιημεν ; μισθοοιητον και μισθοοιητε; Aorist,

φιλεοιτο, φιλεoιντο.
Sing. ετιμηθην


Write out in full, according to the paradigms, the following εφωράθην

verbs, first in an uncontracted form, and then in a contracted Future.

form, and then again in the two forms combined : Sing. τιμηθησομαι φιληθησομαι μισθωθησομαι

φοβεω, I frighten, φοβησω, πεφοβηκα, πεφοβημαι. φωράθησομαι

χωρεω, I yield, χωρησω, κεχωρηκα, κεχωρημαι. Verbal Adjectives.

ποιεω, I make, ποιησω, πεποιηκα, πεποιημαι. τιμη-τεος, τεα, τεον, φωρά-τεος, τεα, τεον και φιλη-τεος, τεα,

αγαπαω, Ιιοιε, αγαπησω, ηγαπηκα, ηγαπημαι. τεον και μισθω-τεος, τεα, τεον.

νικαω, Iconquer, νικησω, νενικηκα, νενικημαι.

δηλοω, I shou», δηλωσω, δεδηλωκα, δεδηλωμαι. REMARKS ON THE CONTRACTED Verbs.

χρυσοω, Igild, χρυσωσω, κεχρυσωκα, κεχρυσωμαι. The verbs in Ew with monosyllabic stems, as thew, I sail,

In order that you may not blindly copy, I give a specimen PVw, I breathe, bew, I run, etc., admit only the contraction of another arrangement, which I advise you to follow, as well in el (made up of eel or ee), and in all the other forms remain as that which precedes :

Active,- Present Tense, Indicative Mood.
Pres. Ιnd. πλεω, πλείς, πλεί, πλεομεν, πλείτε, πλεουσι.

τιμ- honour.

φιλ- ιους,

χρυσο, gild Conj. πλεω, πλερς, πλεη, πλεωμεν, πλεητε, πλεωσι.



Imper. πλει. Inf. πλείν, Ρart. πλεων, πλεουσα, πλεον.

ας εεις

Imp!. Ιnd. επλεον, επλεις, επλει, επλεομεν, επλείτε, επλεον.


Opt. πλεοιμι, πλεοις, πλεοι, etc.

ώμεν εομεν ούμεν ουμεν ούμεν 2 ατον είτον

ούτον Middle.


ούτον Pres. Ιnd. πλεομαι, πλες, πλείται, πλεομεθον, πλεισθον, etc.

Pl. 1 αομεν
ώμεν εομεν ούμεν


ούμεν Inf. πλείσθαι, Ρart. πλεομενος, Impf. επλεομην.


The verb dew, I bind, admits contraction in all its forms,


especially in its counpounds, as, το δούν, του δούντος, διαδούμαι,
κατεδούν; but not δει, it is necessary, nor δεομαι, I must.

Observe that the first person dual is nothing else than a re.

rules : petition of the first person plural ; accordingly in the area ALE , QEL, an, ay, become n and y, instead of a and ą; as, Law,

paradigm it is altogether omitted. ζω, I live, ζής, ή, ήτον, ήτε, inf. ξήν, imperat. ζή, imperf. εζων, ης, ή, ήτον, ηταν, ήτε : also, πεινα-ω, πεινώ, I am λιμηgry, inf. πεινήν, etc.; διψα-ω, διψώ, I am thirsty, inf. διψήν. Further, Il n'est pas d'alliance, ni de société plus belle, plus douce et άω, ενώ, I scratch, inf. κνήν; σμαω, σμώ, I wash, inf. σμήν; | plus heureuse qu'un bon mariage. C'est une joie de voir deux vous, this, I rub, int

. Çiv; Xpáopian, zeamai, use, need, "xoz, époux vivre unis et en paix ; mais aussi rien de plus amer et de Χρήται, inf. χρήσθαι : 20 αποχρωμαι, Υwate, int αποχρήσθαι; | Ι άοσμreux que quand de leu se acchite-hor

uncontracted; as,

Sing. 1



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Dr. 1 αομεν



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