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2. "Your steps were hasty ;-did you speed for nothing ?
LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION. Your breath is scanty; -was it spent for nothing?

Your looks imply concern ;-concern for nothing."
No. XI.

Exception. •Emphasis.'—Exercise 1. “Tell me not of the

honour of belonging to a free country.-I ask, does our liberty
bear generous fruits ?

2. “Was there a village or a hamlet on Massachusetts Bày,
Rising INFLECTION.—Rule 1. High Rising Inflection.'- which did not gather its hardy seamen to man the gun-decks
1. ! say you só ?

of your ships of war? Did they not rally to the battle, as men
2. "Whut ! -confer a crówn on the author of the public flock to a feast?"

3. Is there a man among you, so lost to his dignity and his
3. “ Indeed !--acknowledge a traitor for our sovereign ?"

dùty, as to withhold his aid at a moment like this?" Rule II. Moderate Rising Inflection.'— Irercise 1. “In

Rule V. Penultimate Inflection.'—Exercise 1. “All is
every station which Washington was called to tíll, he acquit- doubt, distrúst, * and disgrace; and, in this instance, rely on
ted himself with honour."

it, that the certain and fatal result will be to make Ireland
2: “ As the evening was now far advanced, the party broke hate the connexion, contemn the councils of England and

de-pise her power.'
3.." Where your tréasure is, there will your hèart be!

2. “I am at a loss to reconcile the conduct of men, who, at also."

this moment, rise up as champions of the East India Com4. "Though we cannot discern the reasons which regulate pany's charter ; although the incompetence of that company the occurrence of events, we may rest assured that nothing can

to an adequate discharge of the trust deposited in them, are happen without the cognisance of Infinite Wisdom.”

themes of ridicule and contempt to all the world; and, ale 3. "Despairing of any way of escape from the perils which though, in consequence of their mismànagement, connivance, surrounded him, he abandoned his struggles, and gave himself and imbecility, combined with the wickedness of their servants

up to what seemed his inevitable doom.'

the very name of an Englishman is detested, even to a proverb,
6. “Had I suffered such enormities to pass unpunished, I through all A'sia ; and the national character is become dis-
should have deemed myself recreant to every principle of graced and dishonoured."
justice and of duty."

3. “It will be the duty of the historian and the sage, in all
Noto and Exception.
Words and phrases of address.'

ages, to omit no occasion of commemorating that illustrious
Exercise. "Listen, Amèricans, to the lesson which seems man; and, till time shall be no more, will a test of the progress
borne to us on the very air we breathe, while we perform these which our race made in wisdom and in vírtue, be derived from
dutiful rights. --Ye winds, that wafted the pilgrims to the the veneration paid to the immortal name of Washington."
land of promise, fan, in their children's hearts, the love of free- Exeeption. Emphasis.'-- Exercise 1. “Let us bless and
dom! Blood which our fathers shed, cry from the ground ;--

hallow our dwellings as the homes of freedom. Let us make
echoing arches of this renowned båll, whisper back the voices them, too, the homes of a nobler freedom--of freedom from
of other days ;-glorious Washington! break the long silence vice, from evil pàssion,-from every corrupting bondage of the
of that votive cảnvass ;-spèak, speak, marble lìps; teach us soul!".

2. “If guilty, let us calmly abide the results, and peaceably

submit to our sentence; but if we are traduced, and really
Role III. Note. -Poetic Series.'—Example 1. “Power, be innocent, tell ministers the truth,-tell them they are
, sensation, mémory, failed in turn."

tyrànts; and strain every effort to avert their oppression."

3. “Heaven has imprinted in the mother's face something 2 "Oh! the dread mingling, in that awful hour,

beyond this world, something which claims kindred with the Of all terrific sounds!-the savage tone

skies,—the angelic smile, the tender look, the waking, watchOf the wild hörn, the cannon's peal, the shower

ful eye, which keeps its fond vigil over her slumbering bàbe.

-In the heart of man lies this lovely picture ; it lives in his
Of hissing dărts, the crash of walls o'erthrówn,

sympathies; it reigns in his affèctions ; his eye looks round,
The deep, dull
, tàmbour's beat!"

in vain, for such another object on earth.”
“ All the while,

Falling INFLECTiox. RULEI. Intensive Downward Slide,'
A ceaseless murmur from the populous town,

Exercise 1. “ U`p! all who love me ! Blow on BLOW!
Swells o'er these solitudes; a mingled sound

And lay the outlawed felons Lo'w!"
Of jarring wheels, and iron hoofs that clash

2. “MACGREGOR! MACGREGOR!he bitterly cried.”
Upon the stony ways, and hammer clang,

3. “On! countrymen, ON!-for the day,

The proud day of glory,--is come !"
And creak of engines lifting ponderous bůlks,

4. “To A'RMS! gallent Frenchmen, to A'RMS!"
And calls and cries,* and tread of eager feet

5. “Oh! SHAME on us, countrymen, shame on us ALL ! Innumerable, hurrying to and frò."

If we cringe to so dastard a race !" 4. "Onward still the remote Pawnee and Mandan will

6. "TREMBLE, ye traitors ! whose schemes

Are alike by all parties abhorred, -
beckon, whither the deer are flying, and the wild horse roams, TREMBLE ! for, roused from your parricide dreams,
where the buffalo ranges, and the condor soars, far towards Ye shall soon meet your fitting reward !"
the waves where the stars plunge at midnight, and amid which RULE II._Full’ Falling Inflection, in the cadence of a
bloom those ideal scenes for the persecuted săvage, where sentence.Exercise 1. The changes of the year impatt a
white men will murder no

colour and character to our thoughts and feelings.”
more for gold,

nor startled the game upon the sunshine hills.”

2. “To a lover of nature and of wisdom, the vicissitude of

seasons conveys a proof and exhibition of the wise and bene-
Rule IV. Questions which may be answered by Yes or volent contrivance of the Author of all things!!
No.'—Exercise 1, "Has not the patronage of peers increased ? 3. “He who can approach the cradle of sleeping innocence
is not the patronage of India now vested in the crówn? Are without thinking that of such is the kingdom of heaven," or
all these innovations to be made to increase the influence of see the fond parent hang over its beauties, and half retain her
the executive power ; and is nothing to be done in favour of breath, lest she should break its slumbers,—without a venera-
the popular part of the constitution, io act as a counterpoise ?” tion beyond all common feeling,—is to be avoided in every

intercourse of life, and is fit only for the shadow of darkness,
forms perfect sense, is the same in kind with that which precedes

a period,
of the penultimate indection of a concluding series, or of a clause that and the solitude of the dèsert."
escent in verse and poetic prose, which, in long passages of great beauty,

. See foot-note preceding column.

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Tetain the suspensive slide.

Exception. Modified Cadence.' Exercise ). “This monu- RULE IV. and Note 1. Simple Commencing Series.' ment is a plain shaft. It bears no inscription, fronting the Exercise 1. " The old and the young are alike exposed to the rising sun, from which the future antiquarian shall wipe the shafts of Death." dúst. Nor does the rising sun cause tones of music to issue from iis summit. But at the rising of the sun, and at the set

2. “ The healthy, the temperate, and the virtuous, enjoy ting of the sun, in the blaze of noon-day, and beneath the the true relish of pleasure.” milder effulgence of lunar light, it speaks, it acts, to the full

3. “Birth, rank, wealth, learning, are advantages of slight comprehension of every British mind, and the awakening value, if vnaccompanied by personal worth.” of glowing enthusiasm in erery British heart."

4. “Gentleness, patience, kindness, candour, and courtesy, 2. “I speak not to you, sir, of your own outcast condi'ion. form the elements of every truly amiable character.” --You perhaps delight in the perils of martyrdom. I speak not to those around ine, who, in their persons, their substance,

5. “Sympathy, disinterestedness, magnanimity, generosity, and their families, have endured the torture, poverty, and liberality, and self-forgétfulness, are qualities which univer. irremediable dishonour... They may be week and hallowed sally secure the esteem and admiration of mankind." men, -- willing to endure." 3. “The foundation on which you have built your hopes,

Compound Commencing Series.' may seem to you deep and firm. But the swelling food, and the howling blàst, and the bearing ràin, will prove it to be but weeds of luxury will spring up amid the flowers of art."

Erercise 1. “ In a rich soil, and under a soft climate, the treacherous sànd."

2. “All the wise institutions of the lawgiver, all the docRule IJI. Moderate' Falling Inflection, of complete sense.Erercise 1. "Animal existence is made up of action and slùin- rrines of the sage, all the ennobling strains of the poet, had ber: nature has provided a season for each,"

perished in the ear, like a dream related, if letters had not

preserved them." 2. "Two points are manifest : first, that the animal frame

8. “The dimensions and distances of the planets, the causes requíres sleep; secondly, that night brings with it a silence, and a cessation of activity, which allow of sleep being taken of their revolutions, the path of comets, and the ebbing and without interruption, and without loss."

flowing of vides, are now understood and explained." 3. “Joy is too brilliant a thing to be confined within our 4. "The mighty pyramid, half buried in the sands of Africa, own bòsoms: it burnishes all nature, and, with its vivid has nothing to bring down and report to us, but the power of colouring, gives a kind of factitious life to objects without kings, and the servitude of the people.

If asked for its sense or motion,"

moral object, iis admonition, its sentiment, its instruction to 4. “When men are wanting, we address the animal creation ; and, rather than have none to partake our feelings, we find mankind, or any high end in its erection, it is silent ;-silent sentiment in the music of birds. The hum of insects, and the as the millions which lie in the dust at its base, and in the lowing of kine; lay, we call on rocks and streams and forests caracombs which surround it."

5. " Yes,-let me be fièe;t let me go and come at my own to witness and share our emotions." 5. “I have done my duty :-) stand acquitted to my con

will; let me do business, and make journeys, without a vexascience and my country :- I have opposed this measure think, and do, and speak, what'I please, subject to no limit

tious police or insolent soldiery to watch iny slèps; let me throughout; and I now protest against it, as harsh, "pprés- but that which is set by the common wèal; subject to no law sive, un àlled for, unjùst, -as establishing an infunous prece- but that which conscience binds upon me; and I will bless dent, by retaliating crime against crime, -as tyrannous, – crielly and vindictively tyrannous.”

my country, and love its most rugged rocks, and its most

barren soil." Exception. Plaintive Expression.'

Erception 3. • Poetic and Pathetic Series.'
Exercise 1. " I see the cloud and the tempest neor,

Ex. 1. “Wheresce'er thy lot command,
The voice of the troubled tide I hear ;

Brother, pilgrim, stranger,
The torrent of sorrow, the sea of grief,

God is ever near at hand,
The rushing waves of a wretched life.”

Golden shield from danger.". 2. “No deep-mouthed hound the hunter's haunt betrayed,

2. “Rocks of granite, gates of brass,

Alps to heaven sóaring, No lights upon the shore or waters played,

Bow, to let the wishes pass No loud laugh broke upon the silent air,

Of a soul imploring." To tell the wanderers man was nestling there."

3. “ From the phantoms of the night, 3. “The dead leaves strew the forest walk,

Dreaming horror, pale affright,
And withered are the pale wild flowers ;

Thoughts which rack the slumbering breast,
The frost hangs blackening on the stalk,

Fears which haunt the realm of rest,
The dew-drops fall in frozen showers :-

And the wounded mind's remorse,
Gone are the spring's green sprouting bowers.

And the tempter's secret fórce,

Hide us 'neath Thy mercy's shade."
Gone summer's rich and mantling vines;

4. “From the stars of heaven, and the flowers of earth, And Autumn, with her yellow hours,

From the pageant of power, and the voice of mirth, On hill and plain no longer shines."

From the mist of the morn on the mountain's brów, 4. “What is hüman lite, but a waking dream,--a long reverie,-in which we walk as ' in a vain show, and disquiet

From childhood's song, and affection's row; ourselves for naught?' In childhood we are surrounded by a

From all save that o'er which soul I bears sway,

There breathes but one record, - passing away! dim, unconscious present, in which all palpable realities seem for ever to elude our grasp; in youth, we are but gazing into the far future of that life for which we are consciously pre being, like "enumera in, cumulative in ifles, and corresponder version

• All emphatic series, even in suppe sitive and conditional expression, paring; in manhood, we are lost in ceaseless activity and fore; to climax in style, are properly

read with a prevailing down "sed enterprise, and already looking forward to a season of quiet energetic expression, and avoids, accordingly, the low Inflection or cadence and repose, in which we are to find ourselves, and listen to a al a period. voice within ; and in old age, we arc dwelling on the shadows slide for the slight - suspensile "one But the tone, in such cases, weil sitio

Emphasis, and length of clause, may substitute the 'moderate' falling of the past,* anul gilding them with the evanescent glow which b perfect y free from the descent of a cadence, which belongs only to the emanates from the setting sun of life.”


• The infec:ion of any clause always lies on the emphatie word; and, if • Falling slide of contrast to the preceding clauze.

that word is a polysyllable, on the accepted syllable chiefly, although not always exclusively

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5. " When the summer exhibits the whole force of active

HISTORICAL MS. MAGAZINE. nature, and shines in full beauty and splendour ; when the SIR, --1 was very much pleased with the letter of "T. J." pub. succeeding season offers its 'purple stores and golden grain,' lished'in No. 105 of the P. E., and think his plans excellent. This or displays its blended and softened tints; when the winter note suggested to me the idea of starting a manuscript Magazine puts on its sullen aspect, and brings stillness and repose, af

on the subject of HISTORY, commencing with the history of our fording a respite from the labours which have occupied the own dear isle. Perhaps, sir, you will be so obliging as to publish preceding months, inviting us to reflection, and compensating this letter in the P. E, as I wish it to meet the eyes of several for the want of attractions abroad, by fireside delights and young persons who are desirous of studying the science of history

in the manner proposed. Any person wishing to join this magahome.felt jóys; in all this interchange and variety, we find zine is requested

to communicate with the editor by letter, directed, reason to acknowledge the wise and benevolent care of the Sigma, Post-office, 103, Tottenham-court-road, London." God of seasons."

Before I conclude, I must thank you for your generous and dis. 6. "In that solemn hour, when exhausted nature can no interested labours for the education of your countrymen; and longer sustain itself, when the light of the eye is waxing dim, wishing you everv success I remain your constant reader,

Σίγμα. when the pulse of life is becoming low and faint, when the

. breath labours, and the tongue fálters, when the shadow of

SELF-EDUCATION. death is falling on all outward things, and darkness is begin- SIR, -Fourteen months ago a friend placed in my hands a num. ning to gather over the faces of the loved ones who are weep- ter of the P. E. I had a great desire to improve myself, so I ing by bis bédside, a ray of immortal Hope is beaming from bought all the back numbers; and I have since continued to take his fiatures : it is a Christian who is expiring.'

in the monthly parts regularly. I first began my studies with Ds. Note 2.--Erercise l.

Beard's Lessons in English, the Lessons in Arithmetic, and Mr. * Repeated and Heightening Rising 1: Hection. “I ask, will you in silence permit this invasion Bell's Lessons in Phonetic Short-hand. I feel satisfied with the of your rights, at once wánton, mischievous, uncalled for, and progress I have made; but I have no person to guide or instruct

me in my endeavours to improve myself. I am a married man, unnecessary d' Will you patiently tolerate the annihilation of 29 years of age, and a policeman on a railway; part of my time is all freedom,--the appointment of a supreme dictátor, who may, I spent on night duty, and it is when I have been walking to and fro at his will, suspend all your rights, liberties, and privileges ? on my dreary post, that I have committed to memory the principal Will you, without a murmur of dissent, submit to a tyranny portion of Dr. 'Beard's Greek and Latin stems. which nearly equals that of the Russian autocrat, and is second I feel anxious to commence the study of the Latin Lessons; but, to that of Bonaparte* ?"

before doing so, I wish to have your opinion of my hand-writing 2. Repeated and increasing Falling Inflection.' + "Was and the composition of this letter. I know my hand-writing is it the winter's stórm, beating upon the houseless heads of capable of improvement; but since I have taken in the P. E. it is women and children ; was it hard labour and spare mèals ;

improved very much, from practice in writing out the exercises. was it discuse,—was it the tòmahawk; was it the deep inalady Lessons; but do you not think it will be sufficient if I go through

I can hardly yet venture to discharge myself from the English of a blighted hòpe, a ruined enterprise, and a broken heart ;

them again with the Latin Lessons? I can write Mr. Bell's system was it some, or all of these united, that hurried this forsaken of short-hand, and can read it afterwards; and I hope soon to be company to their melancholy fate?"

able to report a sermon, when I go to a place of worship, which I 3. "Yes, after he has destroyed my belief in the superin- don't do very often, as I only get one half Sunday in four, having tending providence of God, -after he has taught me that the to be on duty all the rest of the time. If Mr. Bell has published prospect of an hereafter is' but the baseless fabric of a vision, his sys'em, or vocabulary of reporting logograms, I should like to –afier he has bred and nourished in me a contempt for that procure them. With grateful thanks for the benefit I have resacred volume which alone throws light over this benighted ceived from the P. E., I remain your obedient servant, Hòrld, -after having argued me out of my faith by his sophis

G, C. (Leamington.) tries, or laughed me out of it by his ridicule,-after having [In answer to this interesting letter, an example to many, we thus wrung from my soul every drop of consolation, and dried say that his does him great credit, although capable

? my very spirit within me ;--yes, after having accomplished of improvement; that it will be sufficient to go through the English this in the season of my health and my prosperity, the sceptic Mr. Bell's Phonetic Short-hand is truly praisescorthy; and that Mr.

Lessons again along with the Latin ; that his perseverance with would come to me while I mourn, and treat me like a drivelo Bell has not yet published his Vocabulary of Logograms.] ling idiot, whom he may sport with, because he has ruined me, and to whom, in the plenitude of his compassion,- too late, and too unavailing, -he may talk of truths in which he himself does not believe, and which he has long exhorted me, and has at

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. last persuaded me, to cast away as the dreams and delusions

E. J. BREYXER (Carlisle) : Received the solution of 50 of the Centenary of Problems ; very well done.--ANGLO-SAXON (Longporl): Thanks for his broad hints.-DUTCHMAN: We should be glad to oblige him.-B. B. (Dublin): Certainly.-Q. PRINGLE (Glasgow): Received.-J. Sterle (Man

chester): We don't know any good Italian grammar, CORRESPONDENCE.

ancient Greek would be some help to the modern, but how much we can't

A modern Greek Testament can be had of the British and Foreign THE “WORKING MAN'S FRIEND" AND P. E.

Bible Society; and by inquiry there, information may be had about

modern Greek grammar.-T. W. (Leeds): The French Dictionary is com SIR, --I have, until this day, been deprived of the advantage of pleted; see our Literary Notices. possessing your valuable " EDUCATOR;" but having now pro- to curing bad spelling in any other way than by consulting a dictionary or

J. G. F. R.: The map of European Russia was published in No. 102. A cured the four volumes already published, and cursorily inspected books, we know it not; and we would scarcely recommend to his trial the thern, I cannot refrain from expressing

my delight and astonish- printer's advice to his devil, viz. to boil a small copy of Johnson's Dicment at the valuable and extensive information therein contained. tionary in milk, and eat it over night for his supper, in the hope that he Doubtless you have experienced the loss of a “ friend," and can would be able to spell next morning, therefore imagine with what regret I parted from my late compa

W. R. TURNER: Thanks for his hints; some of the corrections have been mbing and instructor" (" The Working Man's Friend", than made.-M. J. DE COGAN (Liverpool): Inquire no more about the which a more useful work for the operative classes never ap- the sum of two numbers is not their product.

The ANCHORITB (Roehampton): His discovery is very like a mare's nest;

in the which was promised a raluable substitute in the “P. E.," and I yields 3 per cent. per annum to its possessor. W. 1. T. (ackneyThe be amply compensated by cultivating the acquaintance of the news. ham): The spire question might be answered if the data were Wita sit cere repect, I am, sir, jours respectfully,

plete; the nature of the cavity is not stated, whether it is also pyramidal or Tenterden, April 27th, 1854.

otherwise.-H, R. (Jewin-crescent) will be kept in view.-J. AILD(MacclesHENRY DRIVER. field): We really cannot tell.-Poor SCHOLAR (Glasgow): See vol iv.

p. 375 col. 2, line 27.-J. F. R. SMITH: 1. No. 2. No. 3. If a degree can de este infection of any clause always lies on the emphatic word ; and, p. 163

, vol. ti.- 1'au (York) asks too much; he may answer all his questions -, on the accented syllable chietly, although nothinself by studying our Lessons in Geometry in the P. E., and Cassell's nepraleis , ita Bection both begins higher, and ends lower, every time it is Cluss" (but where he does not say), is informed, in answer to the

of human folly."

We believe thit the


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question brought before the class, that, in the opinion of the Editor, if any one

always exclusively.

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desirous of becoming a civil engineer or a chemist, we would recommend | is of very litte moment.--S. A. G. (Bishop's Stortford): We may point out
him first to apply his inind to the Lessons in the P. E. on Mathematics, a few errors in his poetry--wiled for whiled; gems for flowers; and sun-
Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Logarithms, and branches connected witk shining for hearen's bliss. We have heard a proverb to the effect indicated
these, as well as to “Cassell's Arithmetic and Algebra," b fore he reads the by the lat er phraseology, but we thought it sounded profane.-T, C. and
books published by the first men of the day.-11. J. COCKBURN (Dews- J.C. (Bedlori): 11 Cleworth be the same as the Welsh Glewarth, it means
bury): The petition was received and will be presented.--JAMES NEVILLE: a bold bear. If ipps was originally applied to a curler-headed person, it
The greatest common measure of the fraction in question 10, p. 373, vol. iii., may have come from Crisp: and is to a cunning hidden character, from
is 3x2 18+5; and or that in question 11, is 4x2–4.5+6: but the operation Crypt. Johnson says that Gar, in Saxon, means a Weapon; of course Gar.
requires the use of large numbers.-G. G. (Brechin): 21858 is right. side is Weaponside, or the man ready to fight with his weapon by his side.-

MARK ANTONY (Woolwich): A very good solution of the Problem J. G. (Manchester) should consult Hutton's Mensuration, where the dis.
No. 108, but not without the rule for Quadratics.-J. TIMMs (Chesterfield): ferent forms of casks are explained; and there are practical books on
The same may be said of his solution of the same problein. His solution gauging.
of the Four. Ball Question under consideration - E. J. BODRN (Kingsland)
very properly calls our attention to the fact that there is a "Debiting Club"

held at ine “ Lamb Tavern As:embly Rooms," and fearing lest our corres-
pondent, W. Beck, may stumble on this club, instead of a proper Literary

DAVID: Volii, p. 397, col. 2, line 10, for D E read D F.
Debaring society, warns him of its danger in the following words :-" In J. Wardle Dean Mill): Vol. iv. p. 329, line 32 from tıp, for the whole
consequence of this club being held where it is, it is to be doubted whether read one-half of the whole.
few, or any, of those who may attend its meetings will abstain from the
'stimulating liquors' that are there to be had. Tihink you will agree with
me, Mr. Editor, when I say that stimulating liquors' are not required in

debating clubs. When we see that a bigotted attachment to a party or a
creed 100 frequently engenders a malignant feeling, and a bitterness of heart
completely alien to the calm spirit in which truth should be investigated, it

becomes necessary to warn every one as to the probable consequences of a
person, with beer or spirits in bis head, essaying to take a part in the

Now Ready.
discussion of any question whatsoever." We certainly agree with the objec.
tions of our correspondent in reference to all " debating clubs" held at

tiverns, and we would strongly warn our readers against joining any such

In Two Parts :- 1. French and English ; 2. English and French. The
society; to this warning we may add another reason, taken from some
homely verses just sent us by JOHN BEWLEY (Larigi), entitled the

French Department carefully edited by Professor De LOLME, and the

lingilsh Department by Professor WALLACE and K. BRIDGEMAX, Esq. In " Temperate Man's Admonition to the Drunkard :"

one large handsome Octavo Volumo, price Is. 6d. etrongly bound.
" You waste your precious hours of time,

CASSEll's LESSONS IN FRENCH. Parts I. and 11.- By Professor Fas.
Amongst the lowest grade ;

QULLLE. Price 2s, each in paper covere, or 23. 6d. bound in cloth. The
Whilst you o'erlook your purse, your health,

Two Paris bound in One Volume, price 48. 6d.
Your family and trade."

A KEY TO CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, containing Translations of all
W., who says he is ours respectively instead of respectfully, has not the Exercises. Price ls. paper covers, or ls. 60. cloth.
Bolved the Quadratie Equations without ihe rule for Quadralies, which was

required.-J. P. HEATER (Crag): We rejoice in bia prop €89 in Algebra :

LOLME. Price 38. Heatly bound.
his solution of the Problems 40 and 32 aie right. The Lessons in English
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A SERIES OF LESSONS IN FRENCH, on an entirely Novel and Simple Plan.
him to in ag er his own language. He should make limself better acquainted Reprinted in a revised form fm “ The Working Man's Friend." Price beiden
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mise Dutch so soon as he would like.--AN IGNONANT YOUTH should begin German and English ; 2. English and German. In Ntimbers, 3d. each; and
with the "Lessons in English," in the P. E., and with the "Lessons in Parts 1s. The German-English Division is now ready, price 69. in paper
Arithmetic ” lu the same.-A. BOYD (Glasgow) has not solved the Equation covers, or 38. Cd. neat cloth. The complete Dictionary will be ready
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with the fourth vol. We find that the proposed exchange can't be effected.- Cassell's LESSONS IN GERMAX. Parts I. and 11.-Price 28. each, in
IONO-UMPIRE (Pontne wynydd): We think Bristol lies the highest; but we

paper covers, or 2s.6d. in cloth. Two Parts bound together, price 4s. 64.
have no table at hand to refer to.-A. W.A. P.(Chelineford): We can't tell.
--A SUBSCRIBER (Wells, Norfolk): Analysis of 100 parts of cow's milk-

* A key to the above Lessons is in the Press.
water 87 4 parts; butter 4:0; sugar of milk (lactin) and soluble salts 500;

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Formation of Vapou's in a Vacuum.- In the preceding experiON PHYSICS, OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

ment, the passage of the liquid into the state of vapour takes

place slowly. The same thing happens also when a volatile No. XXXVI.

liquid is freely exposed to the air, In both cases the atmo

spheric pressure is an obstacle to the vaporisation ; but it is no (Continued froin page 129.)

longer so when the liquids are placed in a vacuum. The

elastic force of vapours then meeting with no resistance, their
Vapours.-Aeriform fluids which arise from liquids by the formation is instantaneous. To show this, several barometric
absorption of caloric are called vapours; such as those produced tubes are placed in the same cistern, fig. 187. These tubes
from ether, alcohol, water, and mercury. Those liquids which
possess the power of passing into the aeriform state are called
volatile ; and those which give out no vapour at any tempera-

Fig. 187.
ture are called fixed, as the fat oils. There are some solids, as
ice, arsenic, camphor, and generally odorific substances, which
give out vapours at once without passing through the liquid
state. Vapours, like gases, are usually transparent and colour-
less; there are only a few coloured liquids whose vapours are
also coloured,

Vaporisation. The passage of a body from the liquid to the
vaporous state is known under the general name of raporisation ;
but by this term is particularly understood the slow produc-
tion of vapour at the surface of a liquid ; and by coullition, a
rapid production of vapour in the mass itself. 'l'he latter is
produced, under the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere, in
the same manner as fusion, at a determinate temperature for
each liquid. In the case of evaporation, the effects are differ-
ent; for this process goes on at various temperatures in the
same liquid. Yet beyond a certain point of refrigeration, all
vaporisation appears to cease. Mercury, for example, gives
out no vapour below -10° Centigrade; and sulphuric acid
none below 30° Centigrade.

Elastic Force of Vapours.-Like gases, vapours have an elastic force, in consequence of which they act with a certain degree of pressure on the sides of the ressels which contain them. To prove the tension of vapours, and at the same time to render them sensible to the eye, a glass tube of siphon shape inverted is half filled with mercury, fig. 186, then a drop of

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Fig. 186.

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being filled with mercury, one of them, the tube A for instance, is employed as a barometer; then drops of water, alcohol, and ether, are introduced into the tubes B, D, and E respectively. It is observed that at the moment when the liquid enters the barometric vacuum in each of the tubes, the level of the mercury sinks, as shown in the figure. Now, it is not the weight of the liquid introduced which depresses the mer. cury; for this weight is only a very small fraction of that of the mercury displaced. There is therefore, in the case of each liquid, an instantaneous production of vapour, of which the elastic force acts upon the mercurial column. From this experiment it is also evident that the depression of the mercury is not the same in the three tubes; it is greater in the tube where the alcohol is, than in that where the water is ; and greater in the tube where the ether is, than in either of the other two. We are thus enabled to state the following laws on the formation of vapours:

1st. In a vacuum, all volatile liquids vaporise instantaneously.

2nd. At the same temperature, the vapours of different liquids do not possess the same elastic force.

As an example of the second law, the tension of the vapour of ether is nearly twenty-three times greater than that of the

vapour of water. ether is pasked into the shorter branch, which is closed, and Maximum of Tension. When a very small quantity of a the tube is then immersed in a water-bath about 45* Centi- volatile liquiă, such as ether, is introduced into a barometric grade. The mercury will now sink in the smaller branch, the tube; it vaporises instantaneously and completely, and the space as will be alled with a gas having entirely the appear- column of mercury does not experience all the depression of weight of the column of mercury CD, as well as the pressure introduced, the depression will increase

. By continuing this ether. If we cool the water in the vessel, or if we withdraw duced into the tube will cease to vaporise and will remain the tube from it, which will produce the same effect, the in the liquid state. There is therefore, for a given temperathe drop of ether will reappear. If, on the contrary, the water in a given space. In this case, the given space is said

to be both be heated more and more, the Tevel of the mercury will saturated. Moreover, at the instant when the vaporisation of tink below the point B, and thus the tension wili be increased. I the ether ceases, the depression of the mercury ceases. There


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