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Join BC. Because A B is parallel to

Fig. 33.

EXERCISE I. TO PROPOSITION XXXIY.
CD, and Bc meets them, the aigle A
A B C is equal (I. 29) to the alternate

If the opposite sides, or the opposite angles, of a quadrilateral figure angle BCD. Because AB is equal to

be equal, it is a parallelogram. CI), and B C common to the two triangles A B C and DCk; the two

In fig. 34, let AB DC be a quadrilateral figure; and first, let sides A B and B C, are equal to the

the opposite sides be equal. Then it is a parallelogram. TWO DC and c B, each to each; and

Join C B. Because, in the two triangles A B C and BCD, the the angle abc was proved to he equal to the angle Bod; side A B is equal to the side CD, the side bc is common to both, therefore the base a c is equal (1. 4) to the base BD, and the and the side ac is equal to BD; therefore (I. 8) the angle a bo triangle A B C to the triangle BCD). Also the remaining angles is equal to the angle BCD; and they are alternate angles ; of the one are equal to the remaining angles of the other, each wherefore a B is parallel to CD. In the same manner it may be to each; viz., those to which the equal sides are opposite. shown that a c is parallel to BD; therefore (Def. 36) the quaTherefore the angle ac b is equal to the angle C BD. *Again, drilateral figure a B Dc is a parallelogram. because the straight line ic meets the two straight lines A C

Second, let the opposite angles be equal. Then the figure and B D, and makes the alternate angles A c R and CBD cqual A B D C is a parallelogram. to one another, therefore Acis (I. 27) parallel to BD; and AC

Because all the interior angles of the figure ABD C are equal was proved to be equal to B D. Therefore, the straight lines to four right angles (1. 32, Cor. 8), and that the two angles which, etc. Q. E. D.

BAC and ACD are equal to the two angles A B D and BDC; The enunciation of this proposition is more clearly expressed therefore the two angles B a C and ACD are equal to iwo right thus: "The straight lines which, without crossing each other, angles, and (I, 28) A B is parallel to cd. In ihe same manner join the extremities of two equal and parallel straight lines, it may be shown that a c is parallel to bd. Therefore the are themselves equal and parallel.”

figure (Def. 36) ABDC is a parallelogram, Wherefore, if the Corollary.--A quadrilateral which has two of its opposite opposite sides, or the opposite angles, etc. Q. E. D. sides equal and parallel, is a parallelogram.-See the following definition:

EXERCISE II. TO PROPOSITION XXXIV,
DEFINITION XXXVI.

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other; and if the A parallelogram is a four-sided figure of which the opposite diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, it is a parallelosides are parallel; and the diagonal is the straight line joining gram. the vertices of two opposite angles.

In fig. l, let ARDC be a parallelogram, and let ad and N.B. In naming a parallelogram by letters, it is customary B C be its diagonals. Then, first, the diagonals a D and B C bisect and it is sufficient, to take the two letters only which are at each other. the vertices of any two of its opposite angles.

From the 12th Axiom, it is plain that the diagonals a D and

BC intersect each other.
PROPOSITION XXXIV. THEOREM.

Lei e be the point of their in

tersection. Because :ae straight line 8c meets the parallels The opposite sides and angles of a parallelogram are equal to one another, and the diagonal bisects it, that is, divides it into tuo

Fig. I. equal parts. Let ad, fig. 34, be a parallelogram, of which o cis a diagonal. The opposite sides and angles of the parallelogram are equal to one another; and the diagonal B o bisects it.

Because A B is parallel to cd, and b c meets them, the angle A B C is equal (I. 29) to the alternate angle BCD.

Because AC is parallel to BD, and Bc meels them,

Fig. 31, the angle A C B is equal (I. 29) to the alternate angle CBD. Because in the two triangles A B C and CBD, the two angies A B C and BCA, in the one, are equal to the two angles B C D and CBD in the other, each to each; and one

Ad and cd, the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD (I. 29). side BC, adjacent to these equal angles,

For a similar reason, the angle Bad is equal to the angle a Dc; is common to the two triangles ; therefore their other sides are therefore, in the two triangles B A B and C D E, the two angles equal, each to each, and the third angle of the one is equal to A B E and D A E of the one, are equal to the two angles e cd and the third angle of the other (I. 26); viz., the side A Bio the CDE of the other ; but the side A B is equal to the side CD side CD, the side a c to the side od, and the angle bac to the (I. 34); therefore the triangle A B e is equal to the triangle angle BDC. Because the angle a b c is equal to the angle BCD, CRD (1.26), and the remaining sides and angles of the one are and the angle cup to the angle ace; therefore the whole equal to the remaining sides and angles of the other: angle A B D is equal (Ax. 2) to the whole angle acd; and the wherefore A e is equal to BD, and Be to ec; and the diagonals angle bac has been proved to be equal to the angle BD C; AD and Bc are bisected in e. therefore the opposite sides and angles of a parallelogram are Second, let the diagonals Ad and Bc bisect each other in x; equal to one another.

then the figure ABD c is a parallelogram. Also the diagonal Bc bisects the parallelogram AD. Because Because in the two triangles B A B and CBD, the two sides in the two triangles A B C and DC B, the side a B is equal to the D E and E A are equal to the two sides c E and e p each to each. side

ce, and Bc common, the two sides a B and care equal (Hyp.), and the angle A e B is equal to the angle c ED (I. 15); to the two sides Dc and C B, each to each; and the angle Axo therefore the base Å B is equal to CD, and the remaining angles has been proved to be equal to the angle BCD; therefore the of the one to the remaining angles of the other, viz. the angle triangle A B C is equal (1. 4) to the triangle bcp. Wherefore A B C to the angle B C D, and the angle Bad to the angle ADC the diagonal B C divides the parallelogram a d into two equal (I. 4), But the angles A B C and b c D are alternate angles ; parts. Q. E. D.

Therefore a x is parallel to CD (I. 27); for a similar reason AC Corollary 1.– Ifa parallelogram have one angle a right angle, is parallel to 1d. Wherefore, the diagonals of a parallelogram, all its angles are right angles.

etc. Q. E. D. Corollary 2.-Parallelograms having one angle equal in each, are equiangular.

. This exercise was solved by T. BOCOCK (Great Warley); D. H. (Drilo Corollary 3.- Parallelograms which have one angle and two field': E. J. BRENNBR (Carilsie); 1. 11. EASTWOOD (Middletoni deo od adjacent sides equal in each, are equal in all respects.

QUINTIN PBingle (Glasgow); who also solved the three latter exercises on Corollary 4.-The adjacent angles of a parallelogram are

the 32nd Proposition of the 1st Book.
# This exercise was solved by

those named in the preceding note, and by supplements of each other,

B. 1, Puan (Longsight); and T. WATKINS (Pembroke Dock).

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EXERCISE III. TO PROPOSITION XXXIV.

equal to the whole AC FE (Ax. 2). Wherefore the parallelo

gram AB DC has been bisected by the s'raight line E F, which The diagonals of reclangular parallelograms are equal; and in is drawn through the point E. Q. E. F. *

oblique angle parallelograms, those which join the vertices of the acute angles are greater than those which join the obtuse.

PROPOSITION XXXV. TIIEOREM. In fig. 11, let ARDC be a rectangular parallelogram; tlic Parallıd'ograms upon the same base, and between the same parallels, diagonal a d is equal to the diagonal B c.

are equal to one another.
Tig, m.

In fig. 35, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, let the parallelograms A c and
B

of be upon the same base pc, and between the same parallels
A F and BC; the parallelogram Ac is equal to the parallelo-
gram BF.
Fig. 35, No. 1. Fig. 33, No. 2. Fi:. 35, No.3.

F A E

DE

D F

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AC.

Because in the parallelogram A B D C, the side ac is equal to the side BD (I. 31), and the side cd is common to the two

First let the sides A D and D f of the paallelograms A c and triangles a cd and BCD, and the angle acd is equal to the BF; opposite to the base B c, be terminated in the same point D, angle B D C (Hyp.) ; therefore the base ad is equal to the base as in No. 1. BC, and these are the diagonals of the parallelogram A B D C.

Because each of the parallelograms A c and B F, is double In fig. 1, let AB DC be an oblique angled parallelogram; and (I. 34) of the triangle B D C, therefore the parallelogram a c is let the angle a co be acute, and the angle Dc obtuse; the equal (4x. 6) to the parallelogram B F. diagonal Bc is greater than the diagonal A D.

Because in the Next, let the sides A D and EF, opposite to the base B C, be parallelogram A B D C, the side ac is equal to the side Bn not terminated in the same point, as in Nos. 2 and 3. (1. 31), and the side cd common to the two triangles Aco and Because Ac is a parallelogram, a d is equal (1. 34) 10 BC. BCD, and the angle BD o greater than the angle A cd; therefore For a similar reason, er is equal to BC; therefore a d is equal the base BC is greater than the base AD (1. 24) i and the (Ax. 1) to Er; and d e is common to both, wherefore the disgonal B C is that which joins the vertices of the acute angles whole, or the remainder a E, is equal to the whole, or the ABD and ACD.

Wherefore, the diagonals of rectangular remainder DF (4x. 2 or 3); and AB is equal (I. 34) to pc. parallelograms, etc. Q. E. D.

But in the triangles E a B and FD c, the side PD is equal to the

side e A, and the side pc to the side A B, and the exterior angle EXERCISE IV. TO PROPOSITION XXXIV.

Fuc is equal (I. 29) to the interior and opposite angle e A B;

therefore the base F c is equal (I. 4) to the base e B, and the To divide a straight line into any number of equal parts.

triangle PD c to the triangle E A B. From the trapezium ABCF, This problem may be solved in the same way as Exercise 11, take the triangle FDC, and the remainder is the parallelogram to Prop. XXX11. was done; and therefore it need not be repeated From the same trapezium take the triangle Ea B and the here.*

remainder is the parallelogram B F. But when equals are EXERCISE V. TO PROPOSITION XXXIV.

taken from equals, or from the same, the remainders (Ax. 3)

are equal. Therefore the parallelogram A c is equal to the To bisect a parallelogram by a straight line drawn through any parallelogram B . Therefore, parallelograms upon the same, point in one of its sides.

etc. Q. E, D.

In Dr. Thomson's edition of Euclid, this highly important In fig. m, let A B D C be a parallelogram, and R a point in one proposition is simplified by the application of Prop. xxvi. of of its sides AB; it is required to bisect the parallelogram this book. It may be sinplified still more in the following A B D C by a straight line drawn through the point E.

manner :-Because A B is equal to CD, and BD to CF (I. 34),

therefore in the two triangles A B E and DC F, the two sides a B
Fig. n.

and B E, are equal to the two sides Dc and cf. But the angle
A B E is equal to the angle v cf (I, 29, Cor. 1). Therefore, the
triangle a B e is equal (I. 4) to the triangle Dor. This equality
being proved, the rest of the demonstration is the same as that
in the text. That part of the demonstration indeed is often
rendered obscure by reference to Axiom I., instead of a new
one, tacitly assumed by Euclid ; viz. that “if equals be taken
from the same thing, the remainder are equal.'

This proposition is the foundation of the mensuration of
plane surfaces and hence of land-measuring. As the area of a
rectangle is determined practically by multiplying its length
by its breadth, or its base by its altitude, and as by this pro-

position, every parallelogram having the same base and altitude From cd, cut off or equal to B B (I. 3) and join & p; then that is, the same perpendicular breadth between the parallels) en divides the parallelogram A B D cinto two equal parts a BPC

with a rectangle, is equal to that rectangle in area; therefore

he area of every parallelogram is found by multiplying the
Join an. Because A B is equal to CD (Typ.), and Be to cf length of its base by its altitude.
(Couse.), therefore a B is equal to DP (Ax. 3). Because in the
two triangles A B G and app, the two angles' E A G and a zo are

EXERCISE TO PROPOSITION XXXV.
equal to the two angles FDG and dra, each to each (I. 29), ) Equal parallelograms upon the same base and on the same side of it,
and the side A ? to the side of; therefore the triangle À EG Í

are between the same parallels.
equal to the triangle D G P (1.26). But the triangle ABD ii

In fig. 0, let ABCD and e f g h be two equal parallelograms
ACD (I. 34); therefore the trapezium ei
is equal to the trapezium A F (Åz. 3), and the whole e BDY

upon the same base BC; they are between the same parallels ;

that is, E F is in the same straight line with AD.
Middleton); E, J, BERXWEB (Carlisle); QUINTIN PRINGLE (Glasgow)
Ni This and the preceding exercise were solved by J. H. EASTWOOD

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This exercise was solved by J H. EASTWOOD (Middleton); E, J. BREDNFB (Carlisle); QUINTIN PRINGLE (Glasgow); and others.

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ends of the earth in communion; has established an inter. Fig.o.

change of blessings, pouring into the steril regions of the nórth all the luxuries of the south*; diffused the light of knowledge, and the charities of cultivated lite ; and has thus bound together those scattered portions of the human race, between which nature seemed to have thrown an insurmount. able barrier !"

Exception 1.-Disconnected Series.'—Exercise 1. " Youth, in the fulness of its spirits, defers religion to the sobriety of màn hood; manhood, encumbered with cares, defers it to the leisure of old age? old age, weak and hesitating, is unable to enter JD an unuried mode of life."

2. “Let me prepare for the approach of eternity; let me For if not, let e a be in the same straight line with a d. give up my soul to meditation ; let solitude and silence aeDecause EG is therefore parallel 10 BC, the figure E BCG is a quaint me with the mysteries of devòtion ; let me forget the parallelogram; and because the parallelograms AB C D and world, and by the world be forgotten, till the moment arrives EBCG are upon the same base e c, and between the same in which the veil of eternity shall fall, and I shall be found at parallels (I. 35), they are equal; but the parallelogram E BCF the bar of the Almighty." is equal to the parallelogram ABCD (Hyp.); therefore the 3. “Religion will grow up with you in youth, and grow parallelogram erca is equal to the parallelogram E BCF (-12. 1) old with you in age ; it will attend you, with peculiar pleasure

, the less to the greater, which is impossible; therefore E G is not to the hovels of the poor, or the chamber of the sick'; it will in the same straight line with AD. In the saine manner, it retire with you to your closet, and watch by your héu, or walk may be proved that no other straight line but e f is in the with you, in gladsome union, to the house of God; it will fol. bame straight line with a d; therefore the parallelograms low you beyond the confines of the world, and dwell with ABCD and x B C F are between the sane parallels. Wherefore, you for ever in heaven, as its native residence." equal parallelograms upon the same base, etc. Q. E. D. * Emphatic Series.'—Exercise 1. " Assemble in your parishes,

villages, and hamlets. Resolve, petition, addrèss.".

2. “This monument will speak of patriotism and courage ; LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.

of civil and religious liberty; of free government; of the moral

improvement and elevation of mankind; and of the immortal No. XII.

memory of those who, with heroic devotion, have sacrificed

their lives for their country.”. ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE.

3. "I have roamed through the world, to find hearts noEXERCISES ON INFLECTIONS.

where warmer than those of New England, soldiers nowhere

bràver, patriots nowhere pùrer, wives and mothers nowhere Simple Concluding Scries.

trùer, maidens nowhere lovelier, green valleys and bright Exercise 1. "It is a subject interesting alike to the old, and rivers nowhere greener or brighter; and I will not be silent, to the young."

when I hear her patriotism or her truth questioned with so 2. “Nature, by the very disposition of her elements, has much as a whisper of detraction.” commanded, as it were, and imposed upon men, at moderate handful of men, free themselves, should execute the most base

4. " What is the most odious species of tyranny? That a intervals, a general intermission of their toils, their occupá- and abominable despotisin over' millions of their fellow-crda. jions, and their pursuits."

tures; that innocence should be the victim of oppression; that 3. " The influence of true religion is mild, and soft, and industry should toil for ràpine ; that the harmless labourer nóiseless, and constant, as the descent of the evening dew on should sweat, not for his own benefit, but for the luxury and the tender herbage, nourishing and refreshing all the amiah,le rapacity of tyrannic depredàtion :-in a word, that thirty miland social virtues; but enthusiasm is violent, sudden, rattling lions of men, gifted by Providence with the ordinary endowas a summer shower, rooting up the fairest flówers, and wash- ments of humanity, should groan under a system of despolisin, ing away the richest mould, in the pleasant garden of society." | unmatched in all the histories of the world."

Exoeption 3.- Poetic Series,'
Compound Conoluding Series,

Ex. 1. “He looks in boundless majesty abroad,
Exercise 1. “The winter of the good man's age is cheered

And sheds the shining day, that burnished plays
with pleasing reflections on the past, and bright hopes of the
future."

On rocks, and hills, and towers, and wandering stréams, 2. “It was a moment replete with joy, amazement, and

High-gleaming from afar." 2.

“Round thy beaming car, anxiety." 3. "Nothing would tend more to remove apologies for in

High-seen, the Seasons lead, in sprightly dance
attention to religion than a fair, impartial, and full account of Harmonious knit, the rosy-fingered Hours,
the education, the characters, the intellectual processes, and The Zephyrs floating loose, the timely Rains,
the dying moments of those who offer them.”

Of bloom ethereal, the light-footed Déws,
4. 's Then it would be seen that they had gained by their And, softened into joy, the surly Storms."
scepticism no new pleasures, no tranquillity of mind, no peace 3. “ Hear him compare his happier lot, with his
of conscience during life, and no consulation in the hour of

Who bends his way across the wintery wolds,
death."

A poor night-traveller, while the dismal snow 6. “Well-doing is the cause of a just sense of elevation of

Beats in his face, and dubious of his paths, character; it clears and strengthens the spirits; it gives higher

He stops and thinks, in every lengthening blast, reaches of thought; it widens our benévolence, and makes the current of our peculiar affections swift and deep."

IIe hears some village mastiff's distant howl, 6. * A distant sail, gliding along the edge of the ocean, was And sees, far streaming, some lone cottage light; sometimes a theme of speculation. How interesting this frag

Then, undeceived, upturns his streaming eyes, ment of a world, hasiening to rejoin the great mass of existence! What a glorious monument of human invention,

And clasps his shivering hånds, or, overpowered that has thus triumphed over wind and wave; has brought the Sinks on the frozen ground, weighed down with sleep

From which the hapless wretch shall never wàke." This exercise was solved by J. H.EASTWOOD (Middleton); J. JENKINS (Pembroke Dock); QUINTIN PRINGLE (Gligow); and others.

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4. “There was neither tree, nor shrub, nor fičld, nor house,

Yet, though thou wear'st the glory of the sky,

Wilt thou not keep the same beloved name, nor living créatures, nor visible remnant of what human hands and reared."

The same fair thoughtful brow, and gentle eye,

Lovelier in heaven's sweet climate, yet the same? 5. “And I, creature of clay, like those here cast around, I Shalt thou not teach me, in that calmer home, travel through life, as I do on this road, with the remains of

The wisdom that I learned so ill in this,past generations strewed along my trembling påth ; and,

The wisdom which is love,-till I become whether my journey last a few hours more or less, must still,

Thy fit companion in that land of bliss ?" like those here deposited, shortly rejoin the silent tenants of some cluster of tómbs, and be stretched out by the side of

Both Inflections, in conncxion. some already sleeping corpse."

RULE I.--Excercise 1. “It is not a parchment of pédigree,-

it is not a name derived from the ashes of dead men, that make 6. "I am charged with’pride and ambition. The charge is true, the only charter of a king. Englishmen were but slàves, if, and I glory in its truth." Who ever achieved any thing great in giving crown and sceptre to a mortal like ourselves, we ask in letters, arts, or arms, who was not ambitious ? Caesar was not more ambitious than Cicero. It was but in another way.

not, in return, the kingly virtues.” All greatness is born of ambition. Let the ambition be a noble sist in unbounded indulgence,* or luxurious case, in the

2. "The true enjoyinents of a reasonable being do not conone, and who shall blame it? I confess I did once aspire to be tumult of passions, the languor of indolence, or the flutter of queen, not only of Palmyra, but of the East. That I am, I now aspire to remain 60.

light amusements. Yielding to immoral pleasures corrupts Is it not an honourable ambition ? the mind; living to animal and trifling ones, debàses it: both; Does it not become a descendant of the Prolemies and of Cleo- in their degree, disqualify it for genuine good, and consigu it patra? I am applauded by you all for what I have already over to wretchedness.” done. You would not it should have been less. "But why pause here? Is so much ambition praiseworthy,

3. "What constitutes a state? and more criminal? Is it fixed in nature that the limits of Not high raised båttlements, or laboured móund, this empire should be Egypt on the one hand, the Hellespont

Thick wall, or moated gite; and the Euxine on the other? Were not Suez and Armenia Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned, more natural limits? Or hath empire no natural limit, but is

Not bays and broad-armed párts, broad as the genius that can devise, and the power that can win. Where, laughing at the storm, proud návies ride; Rome has the West. Let Palmyra possess the East. Not

Not starred and spangled courts, – that nature prescribes this and no more. The gods prospering, Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to príde! and I swear not that the Mediterranean shall hem me in upon

No!-mèn, -high-minded men, the west, or Persia on the east. Longinus is right,-I would

Men who their duties know,
that the world were mine. I feel, within, the will and the power But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain.”
to bless it, were it so.

Note. “Concession and Unequal Antithesis.'
"Are not my people happy? I look upon the past and the
present, upon my nearer and remoter subjects, and ask nor

Ex. “The clouds of adversity may daikenover the Christian's
fear the answer. Whom have I wronged -what province páth. But he can look up, with filial trust to the guardian
bare I oppressed – what city pillaged

?what region drained care of a beneficent Father.”
with taxes ?—whose life have I unjustly taken, or estates

2. “I admit that the Greeks excelled in acuteness and ver-
coveted or robbed :—whose honour have I wantonly assailed ? satility of mind. But, in the firm and manly traits of the
whose rights, though of the weakest and poorest, have i Roman character, I see something more nòble, more worthy
frenched upon –I dwell, where I would ever dwell, in the of admiràtion."
hearts of my people. It is written in your faces, that I reign helpless tools: we war against our opplèssors, -nut against

3. “We war against the leaders of evil,—not against the
not more over you than within you. The foundation of my
throne is not more power than love."

our misguided bréthren.”
4.

“Still, still, for ever
7. "How shall I know thee in the sphere which keeps

Better, though each man's life-blood were a river,
The disembodied spirits of the dead,

That it should flow, and overflow, than creep
When all of thee that time could wither, sleeps,

Through thousand lazy channels in our veins,
And perishes among the dust we tread?

Dammed, like the dull canal, with locks and chains,

And moving, as a sick man in his sleep,
For I shall feel the sting of ceaseless pain,

Three paces, and then faltering . betier be
If there I meet thy gentle presence not ;

Where the extinguished Spartans still are free,
Nor hear the voice I love, nor read again

In their proud charnel of Thermòpyla,
In thy serenest eyes the tender thought.

Than stagnate in our marsh."
Will not thy own meek heart demand me there?

Exception. •Emphatic Negation.'
That heart whose fondest throbs to me were given?

Exercise 1. “I'll keep them all;
My name on earth was ever in thy prayer,

He shall not have a Scot of them ;
Shall it be banished from thy tongue in heaven?

No, if a Scot would save his soul, he shall not."
Ia meadows fanned by heaven's life-breathing wind 2. “Do not descend to your graves with the disgraceful
In the resplendence of that glorious sphere,

censure, that you suffered the liberties of your country to be
And larger movements of the unfettered mind,

taken away, and that you were mutes as well as cowards. Wilt ihou forget the love that joined us here? Come forward, like mòn: proièst against this atrocious atThe love that lived through all the stormy past,

3. “I am not sounding the trumpet of war. There is no And meekly with my harsher nature bore,

man who more sincerely deprecates its calamities, than I do." And deeper grew, and icnderer to the last,

4. “Rest assured that, in any case, we shall not be willing Shull it expire with life, and be no more?

to rank last in this generous contest. You may depend on A happier lot than mine, and larger light,

us for whatever heart or hand can do, in so noble a cause." Await thee there; for thou hast bowed thy will

5. “I will cheerfully concede every reasonable demand, for In cheerful homage to the rule of right,

the sake of péace. But I will not submit to dictation." And lovedst ali, and renderedst good for ill.

Rulk II. · Question and Answer.'--Exercise 1. “Do yor

think these yells of hostility will be forgotten ?-Do you supi
me, the sordid cares in which I dwell,

their echo will not reach the plains of my injured and insul
Shrink and consume the heart, as heat the scroll;
And wrath hath left its scar,--that fire of hell

• The penultimate inflection falls, when a sentence ends with the risi.
Has left ils frightful scar upon my soul.

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ends of the earth in communion ; has established an interFig.o.

change of blessings, pouring into the steril regions of the north all the luxuries of the south*; diffused the light of knowledge, and the charities of cultivated lite ; and has thus bound together those scattered portions of the human race, between which nature seemed to have thrown an insurmountable barrier !"

Exception 1.--Disconnected Series.'—Exercise 1. "Youth, in the fulness of its spirits, defers religion to the sobriety of màrhood; manhood, encumbered with cares, defers it to the leisure of old age? old age, weak and hesitating, is unable to enter un an uniried mode of life.'

2. “Let me prepare for the approach of eternity; let me For if not, let BG be in the same straight line with a d. give up my soul to meditàtion ; let solitude and silence acDecause eo is therefore paraliel to Bc, the figure e BCG is a quaint me with the mysteries of devotion ; let me forget the parallelogram; and because the parallelograms ABC D and worln, and by the world be forgotten, till the moment arrives EBCG are upon the same base BC, and between the same in which the veil of eternity shall fall, and I shall be found at parallels (1. 35), they are equal; but the parallelogram E BCF the bar of the Almighty." is equal to the parallelogram ABCD (Hyp.); therefore the 3. “Religion will grow up with you in youth, and grow parallelogram ERCO is equal to the parallelogram E BCF (Ax. I) old with you in age; it will attend you, with peculiar pleasure, the less to the greater, which is impossible; therefore e G is n10t to the hovels of the poor, or the chamber of the sick; it will in the same straight line with a d. In the same manner, it retire with you to your closet, and watch by your héd, or walk may be proved that no other straight line but E F is in the with you, in gladsome union, to the house of God; it will fol. same straight line with AD; therefore the parallelograms low you beyond the confines of the world, and dwell with A B C D and E B CP are between the sanie parallels. Wherefore, you for ever in hèaren, as its native residence." equal parallelograms upon the same base, etc. Q. E. 1. * Emphatic Series.'—Exercise 1. " Assemble in your parishes,

villages, and hamlets. Resolve, petition, address,"

2. “This monument will speak of patriotism and coùrage ; LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.

of civil and religious liberty; of free government; of the moral

improvement and elevation of mankind; and of the immortal No. XII.

memory of those who, with heroic devotion, have sacrificed

their lives for their country.” ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE.

3. "I have roamed through the world, to find hearts noEXERCISES ON INFLECTIONS,

where warmer than those of New England, soldiers nowhere

bràver, patriots nowhere pùrer, wives and mothers nowhere Simple Conducing Series.

trùer, maidens nowhere lovelier, green valleys and bright Exercise 1. "It is a subject interesting alike to the old, and rivers nowhere greener or brìghter; and I will not be silent, to the young."

when I hear her patriotism or her truth questioned with so 2. "Nature, by the very disposition of her elements, has much as a whisper of detraction.” commanded, as it were, and imposed upon men, at moderate

4. “What is the most odious species of tyranny? That a intervals, a general intermission of their toila, their occupá- and abominable despotisin over' millions of their fellow-crèa.

handful of men, free themselves, should execute the most base jions, and their pursuits."

tures; that innocence should be the victim of opprèşsion; that 3. " The influence of true religion is mild, and soft, and industry should toil for ràpine; that the harmless labourer nóiseless, and constant, as the descent of the evening dew on should sweat, not for his own benefit, but for the luxury and the tender herbage, nourishing and refreshing all the amiable rapacity of tyrannic depredation :-in a wòrd, that thirty miland social virtues ; but enthusiasm is violent, sudden, rattling lions of men, gifted by Providence with the ordinary endowas a summer shower, rooting up the fairest flowers, and wash- ments of humanity, should groan under a system of despotism, ing away the richest mould, in the pleasant garden of society.” unmatched in all ihe histories of the world.” Compound Concluding Series.

Exoeption 3.—Poetic Series.'

Ex. 1. “He looks in boundless majesty abroad,
Exercise 1. “The winter of the good man's age is cheered

And sheds the shining day, that burnished plays
with pleasing reflections on the past, and bright hopes of the

On röcks, and hills, and towers, and wandering stréams, fùture." 2. “It was a moment replete with joy, amazement, and

Iligh-gleaming from afàr.” 2.

"Round thy beaming car,
anxiety.”

High-seen, the Seasons lead, in sprightly dance
3. "Nothing would tend more to remove apologies for in-
attention to religion than a fair, impartial, and full account of Harmonious knit, the rosy-fingered Hours,
the education, the characters, the intellectual processes, and The Zephyrs floating loose, the timely Rains,
the dying moments of those who offer them.”

Of bloom ethereal, the light-footed Déws,
4. "Then it would be seen that they had gained by their And, softened into joy, the surly Storms."
scepticism no new pleasures, no tranquillity of mind, no peace 3. “Hear him compare his happier lot, with his
of conscience during life, and no consulation in the hour of

Who bends his way across the wintery wolds,
death."

A poor night-traveller, while the dismal snow 6. “Well-doing is the cause of a just sense of elevation of

Beats in his face, and dubious of his paths, character; it clears and strengthens the spirits ; it gives higher

He stops and thinks, in every length." reaches of thought; it widens our benévolence, and makes the

IIe hears some village mastif
current of our peculiar affections swift and deep.”

6. “ A distant sail, gliding along the edge of the ocean, was And sees, far streaming,
sometimes a theme of speculation.-How interesting this frag- Then, undecei-. *
ment of a world, hastening to rejoin the great mass of

And cl
existence! What a glorious monument of human invention,

Si that has thus triumphed over wind and wave; has brought the

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This exercise was solved by J. I. EASTWOOD (Middleton); J. JENKINS (Pembroke Dock); QUINTIN PRINGLE (Glasgow); and others.

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