constituting one distinct geological period. The oolitic period Impf. ind, ε-τρίβ-ον, opt. τρίβ-οιμι. indicates many great changes, but still the whole formation is

Fut. ind. (τριβ-σω) τριψω, opt, τριψουμι, inf. τριψειν. marked throughout with its own group of plants and animals

Aor. 1. ind. ε-τριψα, subj. τριψω, op. τριψαιμι, imp. τριψον, developed or introduced in succession,

2. The structure of the inferior oοlite shows that the clayey | inf. τριψαι, part. τριψας. bottom of the sea, of the lias period, became sandy—the sand

Perf. 1. ind. (τε-τρίβ-α) τε-τρίφ-α, subj. τε-τρίφ-ω, imp. being loose and micaceous. Such a change in the depth and τε-τρίφ-ε, inf. τε-τρίφ-εναι, part. τε-τρίφ-ως. the nature of the sea bottom rendered it fit only for a distinct Plupf. 1. ind. (ε-τε-τρίβ-ειν) ε-τε-τρίφ-ειν, opt. τε-τρίφ-οιμι. group of fish and she:ls. 3. This sea bottom became sandy, probably og a depression

Middle Voics. or subsidence of the Liassic coast, and by the consequent wear and rear of the neighbouring land. The sand covering

Pres. ind. τρίβομαι, subj. τρίβ ωμαι, imp. τριβ-ου, inf. τρίβ the clays of the lias before they had perfectly hardened, εσθαι, part. τρίβ-ομενος. formed a basis for the great masses of limestone about to be Impf. ind. ε-τρίβ-ομην, opt. τρίβ-οιμην. deposited.

Fat. ind. τρίψομαι, opt. τριψοιμην, inf. τριψεσθαι, part. 4. The sea bottom became now sandy and limy, and accordingly the sea animals became modified and changed in some

τριψομενος. degree. .

Aor. 1. ind. ετριψαμην, subj. τριψωμαι, opt. τριψαιμην, imp. 5. Soon, a deposit consisting nearly of pure carbonate of τριψαι, inf. τριψασθαι, part. τριψαμενος. lime was formed, in a sea which allowed it to collect in round Perf. ind. (TE-Tpuß-uai) Imperative. Infinitive. minute partiles, of an egg-shaped form, now called oolite.

8. τε-τριμ-μαι This form of deposition was not continued unbroken through

(τέ-τριβ-σο) (τε-τριψ-θαι) out the whole period, but was repeated at different intervals,

τε-τριψ-αι τε-τριψ-o τε-τριφ-θαι until strata of about 300 feet were accumulated.

τε-τριπ-ται τε-τριφ-θω 6. Such a condition of the sea was favourable to the existe D. τε-τριμ-μεθον

Participle. ence and development of shell-fish. These grew and abounded

τε-τριμμενος, η, ον for many ages, till their dead and broken shells collected and formed ihick bands of shelly clay, which afterwards hardened


τε-τριφ-θων Subjunctive. into limestone. Ai the same time, the sea abounded with fish Ρ. τε-τριμ-μεθα

τε-τριμ-μενος ω adapted to feed upon such sliell animals.

τε-τριφ-θε τε-τριφ-θε 7. In the earlier ages of the colitic ocean, but very few

τε-τριμ-μενοι εισι τε-τριφ-θωσαν corals were growing on the bottom of the sea; but at the close of the great colite age, the bottom of the ocean abounded with

Or τε-τριφάται Or τε-τριφ-θων Encrinites, or the stone lilies, No. 15.

Plupf. 8. ε-τετριμ-μην D, ε-τε-τριμ-μεθον Ρ. ε-τε-τριμ-μεθα 8. After this, it appears, as if the land that formed the sea


έ-Τε-τριφ-θαν ε-τε-τριφ-θε bottom was again elevated, so as to form a shallow sea. And

ε-τε-τριπ: το ε-τε-τριφ-θην Τε-τριμμένοι ήσαν now the waters of this shallow sea became full of mud, which

Optative, τε-τριμ-μενος ειην. smothered and killed the Encrinites. They seem to have been destroyed in vast multitudes, partly by the muddy contents, Fut. 3. ind. τε-τριψομαι, opt. τε-τριψοιμην, inf. τε-τριψεσθαι, and partly by the force, of the sea current, for their remains lie scattered in all directions in the Bradford clay.

part. τε-τριψομενος.

Passite. 9. It is evident from these clays and sands, that land was not far off, for they were constituted by the degradation of such land, by the weather, and by running water.

This land was

Aor. 1. ind. (ε-τριβ-θην) ε-τριφ-θην, subj. τριφ-θω, opt. τριφ. clothed with rich vegetation, such as indicates a warm climate, θειην, imp. τριφ-θητι, inf. τριφ-θηναι, part. τριφ-θεις. and abounded with forests. The trees would shelter and feed Fut. 1. ind. τριφ-θησομαι, opt. τριφ-θησoιμην, inf. τριφmany inhabitants, among which would be beetles and fies. θησεσθαι, part. τριφ-θησομενος. Quadrupeds also of the Opossum family occupied the open Aor. 2. ind, ε-τρίβ-ην, subj. τρίβ-ω, opt. τρίβ-ειην, imp. part of the country. The waters were peopled with crocodilian monsters, some of which will be described in our next τριβ-ηθι, ητω, etc. inf. τρίβ-ηναι, part. τρίβεις.

Fut. 2. ind. τρίβ-ησομαι, opt, τρίβ-ησoιμην, inf. τρίβ-ησεσθαι, 10. After the oolitic rocks had been formed in stratided part. τρίβ-ησομενος, η, ον. beds, they became exposed to the action of running water and Verbal adj. (τριβ-τος) τριπ-τος, η, ον, τριπ-τεος, εα, εoν. other agencies, and were, in consequence, extensively destroyed. This is very evident in the west of England, from the numerous

τρεπ-ω, I turn, Active,


Passive. outliers of it which exist, from the deep valleys of denudation Pres. .


τρεπομαι which are found in it everywhere, and from the exceedingly Perf, 1. τε-τροφα winding and sinuous courses, and deep indentations, of its

τε-τραμ-μαι flanks, where it terminates on the lias to the west.

τρεψω τρεψομαι

Aor. 1. ετρεφθην 11. The sandstones of the forest marble are often ripple

Aor. 1. ετρεψα έτρεψαμην marked, and filled with fragments of shells and pieces of drift Aor. 2.

ετραπον ετραπομην wood. This shows that they were formed on a coast. These ripple-marked slabs bear also the impression of foot-prints of

Yerbal adj. τρεπτος, τρεπτέος. animals like crabs, that walked over the sand while it was

() impure characteristic at; ful. ¥w. KOT-T-W, I knock, Active.




κοπτομαι Perf, 1.


κεκομμαι, By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

τετριμμαι Perf. 2.



κοψω κοψομαι 1. Verbs whose characteristic is a p sound (T, B, 0);

Aor. 1.

εκοψα εκοψαμην

Fut. 3. (4) pure characteristic π, β, φ; fut. ψω,


Verbal Adj. κοπτος, κοπτεος. τριβω, I ruo.-Active Voice. 1es. ind. τρίβ-ω, φubj. τρίβ-ω, imp. τρίβ-ε, inf. τρίβ-ειν και So conjugate καμ-π-τ-ω, I bend, fut. καμψω, aor. εκαν

perf, mid, or pass, κεκαμμαι (instead of κεκαμμ-μαι).


Fut. 1. τρεφθησομαι
Aor. 2. ετράπην
Fut. 2. τραπησομαι.

wet and soft.

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Aor. 1. εκοφθην
Fut, 1. κοφθησομαι
Αυγ. 2, εκοπην
Fut. 2, κοπησομαι

part τρίβ-ων.

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brought up their children in rough customs; a beautiful song δι κεκαμμαι

Infinitive. . delights us; the enemy destroyed the city; the city was κεκαμψαι κεκαμψο κεκαμφθαι

destroyed by the enemy; the soldiers abandoned their žanks;

their ranks were abandoned by the soidiers. κεκαμπαι

κεκαμοθω D, κεκαμμεθον

Participle. κεκαμφθον

2. Verbs whose characteristic is a k sound (K, Y. x).- Pure κεκαμφθον κεκαμμένος

characteristics, K, Y, X; iippure characteristics in the κεκαμφθον κεκαμφθων

Present and Imperfect ττ (σσ), τηore rarely ζ. Ρ. κεκαμμεθα κεκαμφθε κεκαμφθε

πλέκω, I knit, fut. πλεξω (πλες-σω); κεκαμμενοι εισι κεκαμφθωσαν οι κεκάμφθων

ταττω (τασσω), 1 set in order, fut. ταξω.
Herbal all}, καμπτος, καμπτεος.


Parsing. ,
Pres, πλεκ-ω πλεκ-ομαι

ταττ-ομαι • Give the parts, and the meaning, and explain the forma

Perf. .

πε πλεχ-α πέ-πλεγμαι τε-ταχα Τέ-ταγμαι tion of

Fut. πλεξω πλεξομαι ταξω ταξομαι
Aor. έ-πλεξα ε-πλεξαμην

εταξαμην Κεκάμμι ; κεκοφα, κεκαμμενοι εισιν και κεκομμαι; τρε πω; Fut. d.


τε- ταξομαι κεκοψομαι; ετράπον και τετριψαι; ετριψα και τριψαιμι; τετριφάται; τετριψοιμήν και τριφθω και τριπτεος : σπεισω; εσφιγμαι και κεκρυφθαι;

Passive. . κεκωριδάται και οιμωξομαι και εκράγον; πεφευγα, κεκράγα ; τεβραμ

Aor. 1. ε-πλεχ θην. Aor. 1. ε-ταχ-θην. μαι; ελιπόν; εστράφην ; εγραφονή εφράσα; εσφιγμενος και τεταγ.

Fut. 1. πλεχ-θησομαι. Put. 1. ταχ-θησομαι. ααι; ήρμακα και τριπτος,

Αοι. 2. ε-πλακ-ην

Adr. 2. ε·ταγην.

Fut. 2. πλακ ήσομαι,

Fut. 2. tay.rochain

Verbal adj. πλεκτος, πλεκτέος και τακτος, τακτέος.
Ανατρεπω, I turn up, destroy. | Ναυμαχια, ας, ή (ναυς and
Περιτρεπω, I turn round, over, μαχη), a sea-fight.
Πρεσβευτης, ου, o, a messenger;

Inflections of the Perf. Mid. or Pass.
Καλυπτω,I hide, cover ; in the plur. οι πρεσβεις, εων.

ταττω, I arrange, and opiyyw, I compress. κρυπτω, Iconceal.

Επαμεινωνδας, ου, ο, EparmiΚαταλειπω, I leave, I leave nondas. behind.


Ευριπιδης, ου, ο, Euripides.

Προλειπω, I abandon.
Βιοτος, ου, ο, life, living,

S. τεταγμαι

εσφιγμαι θα πτω, Ibury ; συνθα πτω,Ι victuals.


εσφιγξαι τετάξο εσφιγξο bury with or at the same | Poovus, ov, d, envý.

εσφιγκται τεταχθω εσφιγχθω time. θηβαιος, ου, o, a Theban.

D. τεταγμεθον “Ριπτω, I cast, Αιων, ωνος, o και ή, age, an

εσφιγμεθον Αλειφιω, I anoint ; εξαλειφω, I age.


εσφιγχθον τεταγθον εσφιγχθον blot out. Μυχιος, inner ; sup. μυχαι

τεταχθον εσφιγχθον τεταχθων εσφιγχθων Φαινω, I slow,

τατος, μυχέστατος, and Ρ. τεταγμεθα εσφιγμεθα Χορευω, I dance. μυχατος, iningst.

τεταχθε εσφιγχθε τεταχθε εσφιγχθε

τεταγμενοι εισι εσφιγμενοι εισι τεταχθωσαν εσφιγχθωσαν EXERCISES. --GREEK-ENGLISH.

Or τεταχθων θα έσφιγχθων. “Ο παις την επιστολην εγεγραφει. Οι πολεμιοι πρεσβεις εις

Infinit. τεταχθαι, εσφιγχθαι; Partcy. τεταγμενος, εσφιγμένος. την πολιν επεμψαν. θινος και τα κεκρυμμενα φαινει βυσσοθεν.

VOCABULARY. Παν υψος εν θνητο γενει περιστρεψεν η χρονος η φθονος. Τας των σπουδαιων φιλιας ουδ' αν ο πας αιων εξαλειψειεν, Σοφοκλης | θελγω, I soothe, soften. shriek; the Perf, 2. has the μετα την εν Σαλαμινι ναυμαχιαν περι τροπαιον γυμνος αληλιμ- Ορεγω, I reach out the hand; Παραπλαζω, I lead astray,

force of a Present. μενος εχορευσεν. Μυρμηκες γης μυχατους δικούς προλελοιποτες

mid. I desire.

mislead. ερχονται βιοτου κεχρημένοι. Πολλακις οργη ανθρωπων νούν Περιαγω, I lead round, lead | Πενητεύω, I am poor (πενης). εξεκαλυψεν. Το Επαμεινονδου σωματι συνέθαψε την δυναμιν

away, seduce.

Αμαρτια, ας, ή, a sin. των θηβαιων ο καιρος. Της αρετης τον πλουτον ου διαμειψο- Ανορυττω (char. γ), I dig up. Ασθενεια, ας, ή, weakness. μεθα τους χρημασιν. Ευριπιδης εν Μακεδονια τεθαπται. Θεος Αποκηρυττω (chair. γ), I pro- Παραθηκη, ης, ή (comp. Lat. τοις ανθρωπους το μελλον κεκαλυφεν. Οι Λακεδαιμονίοι ετρα- | Διαταττω, I arrange.

claim, disinherit.

depositum),a deposit, pledge

or trust. φησαν εν σκληροις ηθεσιν. Ακουσας καλον μελος τεoφθειης αν. | Συνταττω, I put together in Τυμβος, ου, o, a tomb. Ρημα παρα καιρον ριφθεν ανέτρεψε πολλακις βιον. Οι φωρες order.

Κλωψ, ωπος, o, a thief. ημιν τα χρηματα κεκλoφασιν. Οι πολεμιοι την πολιν ανατετρο- Ευτακτος (ταττων), vell- κλοπιμος, η, ον, thievish.

ordered. φασιν, Οι στρατιωται τας ταξεις κατελιπον.

Θεμιστοκλης, εους, o, Themi

Καταπληττω (char. γ), Istrike stoclés.

down, Isiound, frighten | Ανέλπιστος, ον, unexpected. The letter has been written by the boy; the boy was writing

(ar. 2. pass. κατεπλάγην ; | Αστεγος, ον, roofless (στεγος, και

fut. 2. Ρειss, καταπλίγησο- cuvering, roof, house). the letter ; the boy wrote the letter; the boy has written μας). the letter; the letter had been written ; the letter will have | Μεταλλαττω (char. γ), I e

Διχομυθος, ον, douby speak

ing. been written ; the let:er may be writter.; the letter might be change, ater. written. Ambassadors were sent into the city by the enemy; Tomartw (char. v), I disturb.

Ηπιος, ον, mi!ά. ting will send ambassadors into the city; wine often Tapaxn, is, i, disturbance,

LEVOG, a stranger; as a noun, · what man has concealed in his heart; with the body of

a guest.

nondas was the power of the Thebans buried ; the Quattw (char. 7), I guard;

Αφρων, ον, mindless, senseless,

has been hidden from men by God; God has hidden
ature; God will hide the future; the Lacedaemonians | Κραζω, I croak, cry out,

mid. I guard myself against Agav, very, very much.

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err, sin.



VOCABULARY. Ων ο τροπος, etc.: change the order thus, ο βιος συντετακται Πειθω (with acc.), I persuade, Ασια, ας, ή, Agia. τουτοις ών ο τροπος εστιν ευτακτος.

convince ; perf. mid., ΙΕυφροσυνη, ης, ή, joy, glad

trust, yield myself. EXERCI8E8.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

“Αρπαζω, I rob, plunder. Πληγη, ης, ή, a stroke.

Μαλακιζω, Ιεoften (μαλακος, Μιθριδάτης, ου, ό. Mithridates. Πολλακις ηπιος μυθος και αφρονα αιδρα εθελξεν. Μη τυμβων soft).

Εφηβος, ου, o, a youth. τεθαμμενου ανορυξης, Αι φρενων ταράχαι παρεπλάγξαν και σπαζω, I cause to follow, ολβος, ου, ο, riches, prosperity,

bestow: σοφον. Ο πλουτος πολλακις περιηγαγεν εις ασθενειαν. θεμι

happiness. Σκεδαζω, I scatter.

Εγκώμιον, ου, τo, eulogy ; our στοκλέα, τον Αθηναιον, ο πατηρ απεκηρυξε δια τας εν τη νεοτητα Σπανιζω, I make rare, I am enconium. αμαρτίας. θεός πάντα έν τη φύσει αριστα διατεταχεν. Πλουτον

Δρακων, οντος, o, Draco. εχων, σην χειρα πενητέυουσιν όρεξον. Εαν εχωμεν χρηματα, Συναρμοζω, I put together, | Διψος, ους, τo, thirst.

fit, accommodate. έξομεν φιλους. Οι πολεμιοι εις την πολιν πεφευγάσιν. Ξενον σιγάν

Ριγος, ους, τo, stiffness, cold.

Φραζω, I declare, speak. Αυθις, again. κρειττον (sc. εστιν) ή κεκραγέναι. Ελπιζε τιμων τους γονεας

Στρεφω, I turn back.

Ετι, yet ; ετι δε, further. πραξειν καλως. Λιαν φιλών σεαυτον, ουχ έξεις φιλον. "Ων ο Αμαρτάνω, I miss the mark, | Ηδη, already.

Oi τροπος εστιν ευτακτος, τουτοις και ο βιος συντετακται.

Μετεπειτα, afterwards, here: πολεμιοι εδιωχθησαν. Πολλά μεν ανελπιστα πραττεται, πολλα Πανω, I cause to cease; I free after.

from ; mid. I cease. δε πεπρακται, πολλα δε πραχθησεται. Ει πολεμων και πραγ

Hy (for eav), if. ματων φροντιζεις, ο βιος σου ταραχθησεται. Πεφυλαξο τους

EXERCISES,-GREEK-ENGLISH, ανθρωπους οι γλωτταν διχομυθον έχουσιν. Αστεγον εις οικον δεξαι. Φωρων μη δεξι κλοπιμην ανδρων παραθηκην' αμφοτεροι Παυσον με, ω φιλε, πονων, σκεδασον δε μεριμνας, στρεψον δε κλωπες, και ο δεξαμενος και ο κλεψας. Πονου μεταλλαχθεντος, αυθις εις ευφροσυνας. Σπανιούσιν οι τοις χρημασιν ου χρωνται. οι πονοι γλυκεις. Η πολίς υπο των πολεμιων κατεφλεγη. Οι Μιθριδάτης Ασιαν ήρπακεν. Λογισου προ εργου, οι θεοι τοις βαρβαροι καταπλαγέντες απεφυγον.

θνητοις ολβον υπασαν. “Ο θεος άπαντα συνηρμοκεν. Ην συ

κακως δικασης, σε θεος μετεπειτα δικασέι. Τους συνετους αν τις ENGLISIL-GREEK.

πεισειε ταχιστα ευ λεγων. Εν τοις Δρακοντος νομοις μια άπασιν The barbarians were pursued (dor.) by the Greeks; the 1 ώριστο τοις αμαρτάνουσι ζημια, θανατος. Πλουτω πεποιθως, barbarians Hed into the city; the barbarians pursued by the αδικα μη πειρώ ποιειν. Υπερ σεαυτου μη φρασης εγκωμια. Οι Greeks fed into the city; the life is well ordered of those των Ελληνων εφηβοι ειθισθησαν φερειν λιμον τε και διψος και whose character is well ordered; the enemy burnt down the ity; the city has been burnt down by the enemy; the city ριγος, ετι δε πληγας και πονους αλλους. Ει πολεμων φροντιείς, being burnt down, the enemy Hed; the barbarians terrified the o βιος σου ταραχθήσεται. Οι Αθήναιοι αει θαυμασθήσονται. citizens ; the citizens were terrified by the barbarians; thou πλουτω πολλοι ηδη εμαλακισθησαν. attendest (carest for, gen.) war; thou carest for business ; caring for war and business thou art troubled ; the Greeks did

ENGLISH-GREEK. many fine deeds; many fine deeds were done by the Greeks ;

Cares are scattered ; cares have been scattered ; cares will I will guard myself against the men who have a doubly speak; be scattered; he will be in want who does not use his wealth; ing tongue; the women frightened by the enemy (aor. 2. pass.) happiness is bestowed by the gods on mortals; the gods be

stowed happiness on mortals; all things have been well put 3. Verbs whose characteristic is a t sound (8, 7, 6).— Pure together by God; Draco appointed one punishment, (namely) characteristic 7, 8, 0; imputé characteristic in the Present death, for all sins ; riches have already weakened (aor.) many :

we shall always admire the Athenians; the Athenians have and Imperfect ζ, more seldom σσ.

been always admired; the Greeks accustomed their youth to πειθ-ώ, I persuade, fat. σω;

bear all labours; Socrates was admired on account of his φραζ-ω, I male known.

wisdom; the song has scattered all our cares. Active, Middle.

Active . hiddie. . πειθω

φραζω φραζομαι πε- πεισ-μαι πε-φρά-κά πε-φρασ-μαι I have persuaded.

LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.–No. XXV. Perf. 2. πε-ποιθ-t, 1 trust.

πεί-σω πει-σομαι

φρα- σω

of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the Italian and German ΑΟΥ, 1, επει-σά

έ-φρά-σα πε-φα-σομαι. Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. Passive.

Conditional past (têm-po cor-di-cio-nu-le pus- ští - to). ΛΟΥ. 1. ε- πεισ-θην έ-φρασ-θην

I'-o sa--i stá-to,-a, I should have been

Tu sa--sti stá-lo,-a, thou wouldst have been.
Fut. 1. πείσ-θησομαι

E'-gli sa-réb-be sta-to, he would have been.
Verbal adj. πειστεον, φραστεος, α, ον.

El-la sa-réb-be stu-tis, she would have been.

Nói sa-rém-mo std-li,- €, we should have been.
Inflections of the Perfect Mid. or Pass,

Vói sa-ri-ste stá-ti,-e, you would have been,

Ε' -gli-no 3α- γh-be-ro sti-ti,

E’l-le-no sa-réb-be-ro stuzte; } they would have been.

IMPERATIVE MooD (Μό-do im-pe-ra-ti-vo).+
πε πείσ.θω

Si-i or si-a tu, be thou. D, πε-πεισ-μεθον

Participle. πεπεισθον πε-πεισ.θον

πεπεισμένος . Also : fu-li-ro per-fét-to con-di-zio-na-le. πε-πεισθον πε-πεισ θων

+ A milder form of the imperative mood is the future tense, which parΡ.

ticularly is in use when what is ordered is not immediately to be done, but ισ-μεθα

after some other act, e. g; por--te qué-sta lét te-ra ál-la po sta, pôπέ-πεισ-θε

on-de--te spe-zie-ri-la, e pran de-réole di-e on-ce di, carry πε-πεισ-θε

this letter to the post, then you will go to the apothecary's shop, and take πε-πεισμενοι εισι(ν) πε-πεισ-θωσαν οι πε-πεισ-θων. tro ounces of bark,

shrieked (aor. 2.)

Perf. 1. πε-πέι-κά

πειθ, ομαι

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S. πε-πείσ-μαι

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Non és-se-re, * do not (thou.) be.
Si-a éagli, let him be.
Si-a él-la, let her be.
Sa- mo nói, let us be.
Sia-te gói, be ye.
Si-a-no or siê-no é-ghi-no, f) let them be.


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Tempo presente : 4-vé-re, to have.

passato : A-ve-re a-vu-to, to have had.
futuro : A-vé-re ad a-vé-re, és-80-re per a-ré-re, to

be about to have.
Participio presente : 4-ven-te, having.

passato : 4-vu-to, had,
Gerundio presente : A-vén-do, * having.

passato: A-vén-do a-vú-to, having had.
futuro: A-ven-do ad a-pe-re, or e-set-do per d-ve-

re, being about to have.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD (Mo-do con-giun-ti-vo).

Present (tém-po pre-sên-te).
I'-o si-a, I may be.
Tre si-i or si-a, I thou mayst be.
E-gli si-a, he may be.
E'l-la si-a, she may be.
Si si-a, one may be
Nói siả- no, we may be.
Với sa-te, you may be.

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E-gli-no si-a-no or site-90;} they may be.

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Tempo presente.
H0,t I have.
Hai, thou hast.
Ha, i he (she) has.
Ab-bia-mo, ß we have.
A-ve-te, you have.
Han-no, they have.

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Past (têm-po pas--lo).
I'-o si-a sta- to,-a, I may have been,
Tu si-i, or si-a stu-to,-a, thou mayst have been.
E'-gli si-a sta-to, he may have been.
E'l-la si-a sta-ta, she may have been.
Nói sid-mo slu-ti,—e, we may have been.
Voi sia-te stá-ti,-e, you may have been.

Tempo presente di passato.
A--va, a-ve-vo, or a-vé-a, || I had,
4•vé-vi, thou hadst.
A-vé-va, or a-vé-a, he (she) had.
A-ve--ino, we had.

A-ve-vd-te, 1 you had,
A-ve-va-no, or a-ve-a-no, they had.

Tempo passato remoto.
fb-bi, I had.
A-vé-sti, thou hadst.
Åb-oe, he (she) had.

A-vém-mo, ** 'we had,
A-ré-ste, you had.
Eb-be-ro, ft they had.

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E’l-le-no si-a-no sta.te

; } they may have been.

Pluperfect (têm-po tra-pas-sa-lo).tt

Ab-bien-te for arente, ab-biu-to or au-to for a-ri-to, and ab bién-do for arendo, are obsolete forme,

+ The purists write, è, di, a, and anno, in the place of ho, hai, ha, and I'-o fós-si sta-to,--a, I might have been.

hanno, as I mentioned already. Baretti says : They save some ink by so Tu fós-si stá-to,ếa, thou mightst have been,

doing. A’b-bo and ágagio, for , I have, are regular, but now obsolete E'-gli fós-se sld-to, he might have been.

forms. Dante and Petrarca made use of them. E’lla fós-se stá-ta, she might have been.

Have, for ha, is used in poetry, and also in the familiar language of some

Nói fos si-mo stu-tin-6, we might have been.

A-ré-mo, for abbiamo, is nised in familiar language. Also Petrarca has
Vói fo-ste stá-li,-e, you might have been,

It in his poetry. The ancients wrote, likewise, ag giả-mo for abbiamo, but
E-gli-no fos-se-ro sta-ti
; they might have been.

it is now quite obsolete. In Tuscany they also say, a-viá-mo for abbiamo.

|| The terminations of the imperfect tenses of all Italian verbs in eva
E’ fós-se-ro stá-te, 5

have a close e, thus : é-ta, e.g., fa--va, I did; di--va, I said, etc. Va
is the termination of the first and third person, and vi of the second person

singular in the imperfect tense of all conjugations, e. g. • The infinitive with the particle non before it is the negative form of the

1st Conj, a-ma-ra, a-ma-vi, a-ma-ra, I loved, thou lovedst, he loved.

2nd Conj. te-me-va, te-mé.vi, te-mé-ca, I feared, thou fearedst, be feared. second person singular in the imperative mood, e. g. non an-dár ví-a, do not (thou) go away! non far qué-sto, do not (thou)

do that! non te--re. The first (but not the third) person singular of this tonse has, not only in

3rd Conj. dor-mi-va, dor-mi-vi, dor-mi-va, I slept, thou sleptst, he slept. do not (thou) sear! This form is strictly limited to the second person of the the verb avere but in all Italian verbs, the terminations pa and do. The singular, and in addressing any body with the sacond person of the plural latter is more in use in familiar writings and conversation, but at the one must say, non an--te vi-a, non fá.te qué-slo, non te--le, etc. Il is, moreover, evident that the infinitive, as the negative form of the impera- Italian literature, Dante, Petrarca, and Boccaccio, never employed it. It

same time quite correct; though, as far as I recollect, the fathers of tive mood, can only be used in addressing person of an inferior position, very likely came in use from the wart of distinguishing between the first e. g. children, apprentices, servants, etc.; and to address persons

in this and third person singular of this tetise. For the purpose of softening the way who cannot be ordered to do anything, is unbecoming, and, perhaps, round, the

letter v in the first and third person is often omitted, e.g. for even arrogant. The emission of dé-vi, thou must, explains

the use of this aréra-aréa, for leméva-leméa, for dormiva-dormía. This omission, howform, e.g., non (de-vi) és-se-re, do not be, 1. e. thou must not be; non (dé-ri) ever, is only allowable in the second and third conjugations, and never in a-ré-re, do not have, i. e. thou must not have; non (de-vi) a -se, do not

the first, where the coming together of two a's-é... amaa for amava, I love, i.e. thou must not love. + Siino, for sieno or siano, and sii, for sia egli or ella, are erroneous.

loved; mangiaa for mangiava, I ate; parlaa for parlava, I spoke-would Some ancients wrote si-e for sía, thou maist be. Poets appear to prefer place in the termination vo of the first person, but only in the termination

produce an unpleasant hiatus. Moreover, this omission can never take sia to sii, to prevent the jingling of the two i's.

va; for teméo and dormio are obsolete terminations of the third person Also: pas--to im-per-for-to con.di-zio-na-le, because this tenge, as singular and of the indeterminate preterites of these verbs. The terminastated before, generally preceded by se, if, goes together with the conditionaltion vi of the second person has the letter o thrown out in the Florentine present.

! Fussi, fussi susse, sussimo, juste, fussero, for fossi, fossi, fosse, fossimo, dialect, and only rarely in poetry, e. 8. te-me-i for te-me-vi, thou didet foar:
soste, fossero, is frequently found in ancient writers, but is now obsolete, creodé.i for cre-de-vi, thou didst believe; sa-pé-z for sa-pe-ri, thou didsi
as fusti and fusle, for fosti and foste.
* Pós-so-no, in familiar language, is also in use for fossero, but the latter

11 A-vé-ei, for avevate, is a Florentinism just like eri for eravate. Is the better form.

* Éb-ba-mo, for avemmo, is a Florentinisin, Éb-bi-mo, for avermo, is in ** Also; pas--lo per-fêt-to de-ter-mi-na-to.

use, but not quite correct. ++ Also; tru-pas-to con-di-zio--le, because, as I stated before, this ++ Eb-bo-no, for ebbero, was once much in use on account of euphons, and tense goes together with the conditional past.

is a form similar to for a-vr&b-be-ro.





Tempo passuto prossimo.

Ab-bid-te, have you.
Fló a-vu-to, I have had.

Ab-bia-no, • let them have.
-i a-ru-to, thou hast had.

Ha a--to, he (she) has had.

Tempo presente.t
Ab-bia-mo a-vu-to, we have had.
A-ve-te a--to, you have had.

4'b-bich I may hare.
Han-no a-vu-to, they have had.

A'b-bi, or db-bia, thou mayst have.

A'b.bia, he (or she) may have.
Tempo trapassato prossimo.

Ab-bid-mo, we may have.

Ab-bia-te, you may have.
A--ra a-vu-to, I had had.

A'b-bia-no, they may have.
A-ve-vi a-vú.to, thou hadst had.
A-ré-va a-vu-to, he had had.

Tempo presente di passaío.
4-te-td-mo a-tu-to, we had had.

A-vés-si, I might have.
4-de-va-te a-vu-to, you had had.

A-vés-si, thou mightst have.
A-vé-va-no a-vu-to, they had had.

A-vés-se, || he (she) might have.

A-vés-si-mo, we might have,
Tempo trapassato remoto.

A--ste, you might have.
Rb-bi a--to, I had had.

A-vés-se-ro, ** they might have.
A--sti a--to, thou hadst had.
Éb-be a-cu-to, he (she) had had.

Tempo passato.
A-vém-mo a-to, we had had.

A'b-bia a-vu-to, I may have had.
A-ve-ste 2-vu-to, you had had.

A'b-bia, or a--to, thou mayst have had.
Eb-be-ro a-vu-to, they had had.

A'b-bia a-vi-to, he may have had.

Ab-bid-mo a--to, we may have had.
Tompo futuro.

Ab-bid-te a-vu-to, you may have had.
A-vrò, • I shall have.

A'b-bia-no a--to, they may have had.
A-vrd-i, thou wilt have.

Tempo trapassato.
4-ord, he (she) will have.
A-vré-mo, we shall have.

A-vés-si a-vu-to, I might have had.
A-vré-te, you will have.

A-vés-si a-rú-to, thou mightst have had.
4-orán-no, they will have.

A-vés-se a-vu-to, he might have had.

A-vés-si-mo a-vu-to, we might have had.
Tempo passato di futuro.

A--ste a--to, you might have had.
A-vrò a-vu-to, I shall have had,

A-vés-se-ro a--to, they might have had.
A-vrd-i a-vu-to, thou wilt have had.

4-vrà a--to, he (she) will have had,
A-cré-mo a-vu-to, we shall have had.

I. Both a-vé-re and és-se-re are irregular verbs of the second
A-pré-te a--to, you will have had.

conjugation, and the compound tenses of both these verbs are
A-prán-no a-vu-to, they will have had.

taken from themselves without the aid of another verb, with

this difference, however, that essere has its past participle Tempo condizionale presente.

taken from the verb sta-re, which, by a long usage, has or a-vri-a, I should have.

come its property, while the original past participle, essuto or A-pré-sti, thou wouldst have.

suto, is quite obsolete. A-créb-be or a-vri-a, he (she) would have.

II. Essere is an intransitive verb, denoting being or existence ; A-vrem-mo, we should have.

avere is a transitive or active verb, denoting possession of a A-pré-ste, you would have.

thing, and capable of being employed in a passive form, which A-rréb-be-ro, a-vréb-bo-no, or a-vri-a-no, s they would have. aid of which the passive form of all Italian verbs is conju.

is not the case with essere, though this is the auxiliary, by the Tempo condizionale passato.


III. In essere the participle stato changes with the gender
A-vre-i a-vu-to, I should have had.

and number of the person or thing to which it refers, e. g.,
A-vré-sti a-vu-to, thou wouldst have had.

{-o (-mo) -no std-to, i-o (đôn-a) so-no sta-ta, nói (mi-chi, a-vu-to, he would have had.

males) sid-mo sta-ti, vói (féin-mi-ne, females) siê-te stă-te, etc.
4-orém-mo a-vú.to, we should have had.

This is also the case with all passive, intransitive, and reciprocal
A-pré-ste a-vu-to, you would have had.

verbs, which are conjugated by means of the auxiliary essere.
A-vréb-be-ro a--lo, they would have had.

In the compound tenses of avere, on the contrary, the parti

ciple avuto does not change its number and gender, e. g. 1-0 MODO IMPERATIVO.

(Auô-mo) a-va-to, tu (đôn-na) ha-i a-vu-to, nói (md-sch) ao-biaAb-bi, or db-bia, have thou.

mo a- -to, sói (em-mi-ve) a-ve-te a-vu-to.. This is also geneNon a-vé-re, l| do not thou have.

rally the case with the past participles of all active verbs which A’b-bia, let him (or her) have.

are conjugated by the aid of avere. Sometimes, however, the Ab-bia-mo, let us have.

· A'b-bi, for the third person singular (áb-bia, let him or her have), and Strictly speaking, a-re-rò, a-ve-rá.i, a-ve-ra, a-vo-tó-mo, a-be-rô-16, rather vaigar; though, as a familiar form, the Tuscans frequently say abbino G-te-sán-no, for apro, etc., is the regular form of the future of avere, while for abbiano, and even apply this form to all verbs of the second conjugation; used by ancient writers, but must be considered as obsolete.' 4-rd, arki, used it.

and, it must be added, that the best writers of the sixteenth century people of Florence, and was also sometimes used by ancient writers, but

+ See the preceding note-of equal application here. doricated people ought neither to say nor to write ix. a "The Ancients said gation (to which

avere belongs) ending in essi, always have a close e, thus,

The imperfect tenses of the subjunctive mood, and of the second conju. Acesé., a-ve-ré-sti , etc., for avrei, avresti, etc., are the original forms

és-si, e. 5. te-més-si, I might fear; cre-dés-si, í might believe ; etc. Genetinio tenee, and must be considered probosohale, though

they are still in sively of the subjunctive

mood; while avesti, thou hadst, is exclusively of the mouths of the people. A-vré is a contraction for avrei or avrebbe.

the indicative mood and of the indeterminate preterite. Morf.a-mo, or 4-orió-mo, for avremmo, are poetical forms.

A-vrésdismo is the usual Romanism, and the usual Florentinism


|| In low style dressi is sometimes used for avesse.

In low style avessemo, for atessimo, has been used by old poets. 4-orie-no, for avrebbero, is a poetical form.

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** A-rés-so-no, in the place of avessero, for the sake of exphony, is a form Por non devi a-vé-re, thou must not have, as I explained before. ,

which occasionally is appliied to all verbs, A-vés-si-no, for avessero, is a Florentinism, liko abbino,

apremimo. Both are, of course, erroneous.

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