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I set upright,

I support,

I trouble, annoy,

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ning: also evePYETEM, I do well to, I benefit, commonly avoids

the augment in the middle, e.g.

N.B. Tell the part and give the English of each of these

EV-TVYEW, I am fortunale, ηυ-τυχεον, comfnonly ευ-τυχεον

Ηνωρθουν και επαρώνουν και ηνωχλησα και ηνωρθωκα ; εδιηκονεον;
ευ-ωχεομαι, Ioanquet,

ευεργετεω, I serie, ευ-ηργετεον, pf. ευ-ηργετηπα, but διαταομην; ηνειχομην; εμυθολογουν; ωκοδομηκά και ερριπτον ;
commonly ευεργετεόν

ηγoν; ηλπικα , ικετευκα; ώμιληκα και φκτικα και φρεον; ευχομην;

αναλωσα; ειων; είλκυσα; ειπομην; είστιακα; ειχον; εαλωκα; Verbs derived from compound nouns or adjectives take the εάλων και τεθυκα; εγεγραφειν; τεθλακα; εγλυφα και εγνωρικειν και augment at the beginning; l. g.

εξενωκα και εκτικειν και συνειλοχα και ειληφειν και λελεγμαι; ορωρυγμαι ; Imperfect.


εληλεγμαι; αληλιμμαι και ηκηκοειν και εγήγερμην και συνελεγον και συν. μυθολογεω, I narrate, ε-μυθολογου» μεμυθολογηκα

ερριφα; απεβαλλον; προυβαλλον; εγγεγονα και συνεσκευαζον; (from μυθολογος)

δυςηρεστουν και ευεργετηκα και μεμυθολογηκα. οικοδομέω, I build, ωκοδομουν


You must not only give the English and assign the part (from οικοδομος)

(mood, tense, &c.), but explain the formation of each word, ment in both places, that is, in the root and in the preposition, exemplifies, as set forth in what precedes. The task is not an Some werbs compounded with prepositions take the aug- giving the derivation, the manner in which the several parts

are produced, and the rule or remark which the formation 6. 9.

easy one, and you will be tempted to pass it over as unnecesIresent. Imperfect. l'erfect.

Aorist. sary. But if you satisfy yourself with a general view of the ανορθοω,

maiter in your first study of this manual, fail not to return to ήνωρθουν ηνωρθωκα ηνωρθωσα

this part and all the harder parts, and go over them again and

again, until you have mastered them. Depend on it, you only ανέχομαι, ηνειχογήν ηνίσχημαι ηνεσχόμην multiply your difficulties by passing slightly over the harder

and less attractive instructions. Nothing is here given but ενοχλεω, ηνωχλουν ηνωχληκα τηνωχλησα what is necessary to a correct and complete acquaintance with

Greek prose; and if you wish to know the language, you
παροινέω, ,
πεπαρωνηκα επαρώνησα

must, sooner or later, acquire these details ; and from long
experience in learning and teaching, I can assure you that

the sooner you master them, the better.
The analogy of these verbs is followed by two other verbs
which are not formed with the aid of prepositions, but by
derivation from other compounds; e. g.
διαιταω (from διαιτα, σιδεistence), I feed, impf. εδιταον and

MATHEMATICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.-No. V. δισταον, aor. εοιητησα and διχτησα, pf. δεδιφτηκα; mid.

ARITHMETICAL LOGARITIMS. διαιταομαι, fire, διηταυμη». ÖLarovew (froin ĉiakovos, a servant, our deacon), I serve, impf.

COMMON SYSTEM OF LOGARITHMS. ειιηκονεον and διηκονεον, pf. δεδιηκονηκα.

(Continued from p. 48.) As exceptions, some verbs compounded with prepositions take the augment before the preposition : these are verbs in the indices of logarithms are supplied, the following table is

43. As an additional illustration of the principles on which
which the preposition and the verb have so coalesced as to added : it shows the change that takes place on the index of
present the signification of a simple verb; e. g.
αμφιγνοεω (νοεω, I think), impf. ημφιγνοεον

the logarithm of a number, by merely lowering its value in the
decimal scale of notation :

Logarithms: :
aor. ημφιεσα, pf. m. or p. ημφιεσμάι


4.000868 impf. ηπισταμην


αφιεον and ηφιεoν or υφιειν



•1002 εκαθιζον, pf. κεκαθικα

T"000868 01002

001002 εκαθεζoμην and καθεζομην


00001002 εκαθημην αnd καθημην

etc. εκαθευδον, seldom καθηυδον

44. The preceding tables and remarks clearly show the advan

tages over every other, which the common system of logarithms An apparent exception is offered by those verbs which are the decimal scale of notation.

possesses, in consequence of its being the same as the root of

By merely increasing or sition, but from an already compounded word; e. g. souple, but by a continution of a simple verbe which was prepare diminishing boa unity the index of a logarithm of a number,

the logarithm of a decimal multiple or submultiple of that numImperfect.

ber is immediately obtained. Hence, the calculation of the loga. έναντιοομαι, I oppose, (from εναντιος)

rithm of one number is sufficient for the deterinination of ηναντιοομην

innumerab!2 others; for, by tabulating the decimal parts of επροφητευον

the logarithms of all integers from 1 to 10,000, or from 1 to where evavaloc is made up of ev, in, and avti, against; moon716 decimals, or mixed numbers; the proper indices being supplied


100,000, etc., the complete logarithms of such numbers can
easily be found, whether they be considered as integers,

45. A system of logarithms founded on any other base but 10,

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I put on,





I am in doubt, αμφιέννυμι,

clothe, επισταμαι,

I understand, αφιημι,

I dismiss, send forth, καθιζω,

I set or make to sit, καθεζομαι,

I sit myself, I sit down, καθημαι,

I sit, καθευδω,

I sleep,


: : : : : : : : : : :


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1:000868 5000868 000868 7:000868



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would want all the advantages above-mentioned. The loga- | system : modulus of common system ; but common logarithm of
rithms of all such numbers as are determined by the mere 10-1; therefore, by the rule of Proportion, the fourth term is
change of the index in the common system, would require to
be separately calculated and tabulated with their indices,

The logarithms of all fractions, as well as integers, and the

mod. com. system; logarithms of all numbers of which the factors were powers of

Nep. log. 10 the base, would require the same operation to be performed. that is, the modulus of the common system of logarithms is the For though, in the latter case, the calculation of the logarithms reciprocal of the Neperian logarithm of its base. would be as easy as before, yet their tabulation with indices would still be necessary, as the bare inspection of the numbers variety of curious forms. The following rule, which is a

52. The Logarithmic Series is analytically exhibited in a themselves would noć be sufficient to suggest the proper verbal translation of one of the most useful of these forms, change to be made on the indices, as in the common system. may be employed in the construction of a table, either of The disadvantages of such a system would even be more Neperian or of common logarithms. It is universally applicastrongly felt in the reverse operation of finding from the tables ble, and possesses this valuable property, that the infinite the numbers corresponding to any given logarithms. 46. In addition to the decimal parts of the logarithms of the given number increases in magnitude.

series converges with greater rapidity, in proportion as the common system, which are given in Tables of Logarithms, 53. To find the Neperian, and

thence the common, logarithm of a the average differences of every five logarithms are usually giren number, the Neperian logarithm of the difference between given in an adjoining column, for the purpose of rendering it that number and unity being given. Rule : Divide unity by easy to obtain the approximate logarithms of numbers greater the difference between double the given number and unity, for than those contained in this table. The approximate loga- a first quotient; divide this quotient by the square of that difrithms of such numbers are obtained on the principle, that the ference, for a second quotient ; divide the second quotient by differences of numbers which differ little from each other, are the same square, for a third quotient; divide the third quotient nearly proportional to the differences of their logarithms. by the same square, for a fourth quotient; and so on. "Divide Thus, in Part I. of the Skeleton Table, Art. 31, the successive these quotients respectively by the odd numbers in the series differences of the numbers 1'00036, 1.00028, and 1.00014, are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, etc.; that is, divide the first quotient by .00028 and .00014; and the differences of their logarithms are 1'; the second by 3; the third by 5; the fourth by 7; and so *000122 and .000061 ; now, the following proportion is cor- on. Find the sum of as many of the latter quotients as have rect, as far as the decimals extend :

significant figures two or three decimal places beyond the 00028 : 00014 :: .000122 : 000061,

extent to which the logarithms are required to be accurate ; But were the decimals further extended, this proportion would difference between the given uumber and unity, and the result

then, to double this sum, add the Neperian logarithm of the be found to be only nearly correct. The application of the is the Neperian logarithm of the given number. Lastly, mul. principle thus established, however, is sufficiently correct for tiply this logarithm by the modulus of the common system of all practical purposes.

logarithms, and the produot will be the common logarithm of the NEPERIAN SYSTEM OF LOGARITHMS. given number.

54. Example 1. To find the Neperian logarithm of the num47. The system of logarithms, first invented by Napier, and ber 2. Subtract unity from 4, which is double the given sometimes, but improperly, denominated the Hyperbolic, is, number, and divide unity by the remainder 3; then, divide theoretically speaking, the most natural. The base of this this quotient by the square of 3, which is 9, and so on, as in system, which is easily deduced from an analytical formula the following operation :called the Exponential Theorem, is 2.718281828459, etc. ; this number, however, can only be accurately expressed by the fol


lowing infinite series :-

1.00000000—3=•33333333 First
1 1 1

•33333333 =9=03703704 Second

+ 1.2.3

•03703704 9 = 00411523 Third

.004115239 = .00045725 Fourth which may be otherwise expressed, thus :

*00045725 - 95.00005081 Fifth 1 1 1 1

*00005081 - 9= .00000565 Sixth

*00000565 – 9= .00000063 Seventh 24 120

720 18. The mathematical construction of logarithms depends Now divide these quotients respectively by the series of odd on an analytical formula, denominated the Logarithmic Series, numbers, beginning at unity, as follows: in which it is shown that the logarithm of a number in every


Quotients. system can be expressed by the same infinite series, united to

•33333333 1= '33333333 & factor called the Modulus, which is a constant function, or

*03703704 - 3 01234568 invariable modification of the base. This series will be given

00411523 5 00082305 under the head of Algebra.

.000457257 00006532 49. In the Logarithmic Series, the modulus is such a function

00005081 - 9= .00000565 of the base, that if an integer be assumed as the base of a system,

•00000565 - 11= .00000051
the modulus of that system becomes an infinite series, as in the

•00000051 - 13 = .00000005
common system; and if an integer be assumed as the modulus,
the base becomes an infinite series, as in the Neperian system.

Sum •34657359
50. The peculiarity which distinguishes the Neperian system
of logarithms from every other, consists in the simplicity of its To double this sum, which is •69314718, add the Neperian
modulus, which is unity. By the adoption of this modulus, the logarithm of 1, the difference between the given number and
logarithms in this system are evidently rendered independent unity; in this case the result will still be •69314718; for the
of the base ; hence it is called the most natural. This remark logarithm of 1 is 0, in the Neperian, as in every other system.
shows that it was possible for Napier, the original inventor, to Therefore, •69314718 is the Neperian logarithm of the number
construct his logarithms without reference to any assumed 2.
number as a base. The wonder still is, how he made the dis. 55. Example 2. To find the Nepcrian logarithm of the num.
covery half a century before the Logarithmic Series was known. ber 4, which is the square of 2. Multiply 69314718 by 2, the

61. From Art. 48, it is easily seen that the logarithms of index of the square, and the product 1.38629436 is the Nopea
the same number in different systems are proportional to the rian logarithm of 4 (Art, 21).
moduli of those systems respectively. Hence, the modulus of
the Neperian system being unity, the modulus of the common unity by 9, the difference between double 5 and unity; then

56. Example 3. To find the Neperian logarithm of 5. Divide system is found by the following proportion : -As Neperian divide the quotient by 81, the square of 9, and so on, as follogarithm of 10 : common logarithm of 10 :: modulus of Neperianlows :


+ etc.




+ etc.

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behind their countrymen in appreciating the value of the
1.000000000: 9='111111111

preceding Lessons on Arithmetical Logarithms. About a •11111111l :81 = .001371742)

year after the publication of the work first mentioned, we put .001371742:81= '000016935

a copy into the hands of a plain country highlandman from *000016935 : 81 = .000000209

the Hebrides, or Western Isles of Scotland, where he had been

born and brought up all his days. Some time after, we These quotients are now to be divided by the series of odd received a letter, from which the following are extracts; and numbers, as follows:

we give these extracts in the hope that it will encourage many

of our students to go and do likewise.

“ You will remember that you had the kindness to present *001371742 : 3 = .000457247

to me your very valuable manual upon the Construction of 000016935 : 5 = .000003387

Logarithms; a thing I had been in quest of for seventeen or •000000209 :7=.000000080

eighteen years past; and having, in vain, consulted many

authors upon this subject, I, in despair, had given it up, as a Sum •111571775

thing far above my narrow comprehension. About August To double this sum, which is .22314355, add 1.88629438, the last, however, having, as deeply as I could, fallen upon the Neperian logarithm of 4, the difference between the given failing as before ; instead of this, your admirably-handled

study of your Rules, I was very pleasantly disappointed of number and unity, and the result 1.60943791 is the Neperian rules diffused such a flood of light upon my mind as will for logarithm of 5. 57. Example 4. To find the Neperian logarithm of 10, add of darkness that for many years hovered over my understanding

ever (while I enjoy the use of my reason) dispel those clouds together the Neperian logarithms of 2 and 5, and the sum 2-30258509 is the Neperian logarithm of 10 (Art. 18). Conse- respecting the noble logarithms. In order that you may have quently, the reciprocal of this number, which is · 4342944819, send you a Table of Logarithms, which I constructed by your

more than a bare statement of what I have said, I herewith is the modulus of the common system of logarithms.

58. Example 5. To find the common logarithms of 2, 4, and 6. rules, taking the number 2 as the base of the system. This I Multiply the Neperian logarithms of these numbers by the suppose will not be disagreeable to you, and will serve to conmodulus of the common system, and the products will be the pleasure, though with more labour than the learned can do."

vince you that I can construct a Table of Logarithms at common logarithms of the numbers, as follows:

In the middle of his letter, the writer here inserts a "Table Numbers. Neperian Logs.

Modulus. Common Logs. of the Logarithms” of all numbers from 1 to 100, with their 2 0.69314718 X 4342944819 = 0.301030 indices, in five columns, calculated correctly and ingeniously

to the base. We do not consider it necessary to insert this 4 1.38629436 X 4342944819 = 0.602060

table here, as at the end of this Lesson, or rather in our next 6 1060943791 X 4342944819 0.698970

number, we shall insert a Table of the Logarithms of all num59. The process of multiplication indicated above may be bers from 1 to 10,000, calculated to the base 10 (that is, the reduced to that of simple addition by employing the following common system), with a description of the manner of using Table, which will be found very useful in the construction and them in arithmetical calculations. We shall also insert a conversion of logarithms :

Table of Antilogarithms, by which the numbers corresponding

to any given logarithm within the same limits can be found.

Our correspondent then adds," I also, by your first rule,

and by Part I. of your third skeleton table, calculated the

common logarithms of all the prime numbers you pointed out Their values to 30 decimal places, being as follows :

in your manual ; and by giving eight or nine decimal places M=0.434294481903251827651128918917

to the natural numbers in the table, I found my answers to
1:M = 2:302585092994045684017991454684

agree exactly with your Tabular Logarithms; but as for your
second rule, and Part 11. of your third skeleton table, I could

not, by them, find such correct answers as I found by the first
Common Modulus.



rule. Pray, tell me, how I can find a large collection of the

logarithms of numbers from unity to hundreds or rather 10.434294481903252 2.302585092994046 1 thousands of millions; and what price will be required for the 20.868588963806504 4.605170185988091 2 same, as I feel a great curiosity to see the logarithms more 31302883445709755 6-907755278982137 3 fully than I have hitherto done; I will now conclude by say. 4 | 1737177927613007 9.210340371976183 4 ing that your very name will, all my lifetime, be dear to me; 6 2:171472409516259 11:512925464970228

not altogether on account of your private lessons on the use of 62.605766891419511 13.815510557964274

the quadrant, but chiefly on account of the discovery which 73.040061373322763 16:118095650958320 7 your manual has unfolded to me about the logarithms-a thing 83.474355855226015 18.420680743952365 8 which you might have kept hid from me, had not 93.908650337129266 20-723265836946411

kindness prompted you to disclose this secret to me.

We have now disclosed this secret to our students, and we The preceding arithmetical illustrations of the method of hope they will make as good use of it as our grateful corres. finding

the logarithms of numbers, is principally taken from a pondent did, whose letter is dated Jura, 25th February, 1837. work written and published by the editor, ai Glasgow, in 1834, entitled "The

Mathematical Calculator, or Tables of Logarithms of Numbers, and of Logarithmic Sines and Tangents; with other useful Tables and an Introduction Theoretical and

LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION. Practical.” This work, in its original form, has been long out

No. VII. of print. Subsequently, the tables were published, along with their description, in the form of “The Practical Mathemati

ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE. cian's Pocket Guide;" and afterwards, the Theoretical

and If we observe attentively the voice of a good reader or speaker, Practical Introduction, in the form of " The Universal Calcula- we shall find his style of utterance marked by the following tor's Pocket Guide." The author has the satisfaction to traits. His voice pleases the ear by its very sound. It is think that his simplification of this abstruse subject has been wholly free from affected suavity; yet, while perfectly natural, Well received by the public; as both books, but especially the it is round, smooth, and agreeable. It is equally free from Tables, are indeed the pocket companion of many thousand the

faults of feebleness and of undue loudness. It is perfectly Workmen, particularly in her Majesty's dockyards, etc. He distinct, in the execution of every sound, in every word. It is believes the students of the Populat EDUCATOR will not be free from errors of negligent usage and corrupted style in London, by Hall and Co. Paternoster Row, price 1s. 6d, each. da dobese works are published in Glasgow, by W. R. Macphun; and in pronunciation. It avoids a measured, rhythmical chant, on the

one hand, and a broken irregular movement, on the other. It


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ness ;

renders expression clear, by an attentive observance of appro- | arms, the tomahawk and scalping knife of the savage?—to call priate pauses, and gives weight and effect to sentiment, hy into civilized alliance the wild and inhuman inhabitant of the occasional impressive cessations of voice. It sheds light on woods ?-to delegate to the merciless Indian the defence of the meaning of sentences, by the emphatic force which it gives disputed rights, and to wage the horrors of this barbarous to significant and expressive words. It avoids the "school war against our brethren ?--Jly lords, we are called upon as tone of uniform inlections, and varies the voice upward or members of this house, as men, as Christians, to protest against downward, as the successive clauses of a sentence demand. It such horrible barbarity! - I solemnly call upon your lordships

, marks the character of every emotion, by its peculiar traits of and upon every order of men in the state, io stamp upon this tone; and hence its effect upon the ear, in the utterance of infamous procedure the indelible stigma of the public adhor. connected sentences and paragraphs, is like that of a varied rence!” melody, in music, played or sung with ever-varying feeling ar expression. The analysis of the voice, for the purposes of instruction

2. Smoothness of Voice, or " Purity' of Tone. and practice in reading and declamation, may be extended, in

Smoothness of voice, in reading and speaking, is the same detail

, to the following points, which form the essential proper-quality which, in relation to vocal music, is termed “purity' ties of good style in reading and speaking.

of tone. 1. Good Quality' of Voice ; 6. Appropriate Pauses;

This property of voice consists in maintaining an undisturbed 2. Due Quantity,' or Loud- 7. Right Emphasis ;

liquid stream of sound, resembling, to the ear, the effect pro8. Correct Inflections ;'

duced on the eye bjæhe flow of a clear and perfectly trans3 Distinct Articulation ; 9. Just Stress ;'

parent stream of water. It depends, like every other excellence 4. Correct Pronunciation ; 10. •Expressive Tones ;'

of voice, on a free, upright, and unembarrassed attitude of the 6. True Time; 11. Appropriate "Modulation.' body,--the head erect, the chest expanded. It implies natural

and tranquil respiration (breathing); fuil and deep inspira$ 1.-QUALITY OF VOICE.

tion' (inhaling, or drawing in the breath); and gentle 'expiraThe chief properties of a good voice are,

tion' (giving forth the breath); a true, and firm, but moderate

exercise of the larynx' (or upper part of the throat); and a 1. Roundness,

3. Versatility, 2. Smoothness,

4. Right Piich.

careful avoiding of every motion that produces a jarring, harsh,

or grating sound. 1. Roundness.

Pure' tone is free from, 1. the heavy and hollow note of This property of voice is exemplified in that ringing fulness the chest ;-2, the "guttural,' choked, stifled, or hard sound of of ione, which belongs to the utterance of animated and ear; harsh," reedy," and grating style, which comes from too

the swollen and compressed throat ;--3. the hoarse, husky, nest feeling, when urobstructed by false habit. It is natural forcible expiration,' and too wide opening of the throat ;--; and in the properly cultivated style of public reading and against the nasal passage, and, at the same time, partially speaking,

To obtain roundness and fulness of voice, it is exceedingly closing it; -5. the wiry, or fulse ring of the voice, which unites important that the student observe the following suggestions. voice of the mouth, which is caused by not allowing the due

the guttural and the nasal tones ;-6. the affected mincing Be attentive to the position of the body. No person can pro- proportion of breath to escape through the nose. The natural

, duce a full, well-formed sound of the voice, in a lounging or smooth, and pure tone of the voice, as exhibited in the vivid stooping posture. The attitude of the body required for the proper use of the voice is that of being perfectly upright, with- utterance natural to healthy childhood, to good vocal music

, or out rigidness. T'he head must never be permitted to droop; an undue preponderance, or excess, in the action of the muscles

to appropriate public speaking, avoids every effect arising from it should be held pertectly erect. The back must be kept of the chest, of the throat, or of any other organ, and, at the straight, and the shoulders pressed backward and downward. same time, secures all the good qualities resulting from che just The chest must be well expanded, raised, and projected; so as and well-proportioned exercise of each.

A true and smooth to make

it as roomy as possible, in order to obtain full breath utterance derives resonance from the chest, firmness from the and full voice. Breathe freely and deeply; keep up an easy throat, and clearness from the head and mouth. fulness of breath, without overdoing the capacity of your lungs. Make your utterance vigorous and full, by giving free to the beauty and grandeur of noble sentiments, whether

Without these qualities, it is impossible to give right effect play to the muscles situated below the bony part of the trunki expressed in prose or in verse. upward with due force, and thus give body to the sounds of and fixing, in permanent possession, the good qualities of

Childhood and youth are the favourable seasons for acquiring the voice. Keep the throat freely open, by free opening of the agreeable and effective utterance. The self-taught cannot exere sound. A round voice can never proceed from a half-shut encroachments of faulty habit in this important requisite ta mouth.

a good elocution. The large and full effect of vocal sound, produced by the due observance of the preceding directions, forms what is called practised, with a view to avoid every sound which mars the

The subjoined exercise should be frequently and attentirely by great authorities in elocution, the orotund' (round, or, purity of the tone, or hinders a perfect smoothness of voice. literally, round-mouthed) voice, which is considered the ample style of oratory, or public reading, in contrast with the limited uiterance of private conversation. The attitude of body, and

Exercise in Smoothness and Purity' of Voice. the position and action of the organs, demanded by.orotund' “No sooner had the Almighty ceased, but all utterance, is likewise highly favourable to health and to easy The multitude of angels, with a shout, use of the voice; while stooping and lounging postures, a Loud as from numbers without number, sweet, sunken chest, and drooping head, tend both to suppress the As froin blest voices uttering joy :--beaven rung voice and injure the organs, besides impairing the health.

With jubilee, and loud hosannas filled Practice in the style of vehement declamation, is the best The eternal regions ;--lowly reverent, means of securing a round and full tone. The following exer. Towards either throne they bow; and to the ground, cise should be repeatedly practised, with the attention closely With solemn adoration, down they cast directed to the management of the organs, in the manner Their crowns, inwove with amaranth and gold. which has just been described, as producing the 'orotund,' or Then crowned again, their golden harps they touk, resonant quality of voice,

Harps ever tuned,--that, glittering by their side, Exercise on the Orotund.'

Like quivers hung, and with preamble sweet

Of charming symphony they introduce • Who is the man that, in addition to the disgraces and mis- Their sacred song, and wake'n raplures high." chiefs of the war, has dared to authorise, and associate with our The various passions and emotions of the soul are, to 8

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great extent, indicated by the quality of the voice. Thus, the malignant and all excessive emotions, as anger, hatred, revenge,

Very Slow. fear, and horror, are remarkable for ‘gustural quality, and “Of old hast Thou laid the foundation of the earth; and strong 'aspiration,' or 'espiration,' accompanying the vocal the heavens are the work of Thy hands. They shall perish, sound, and forming 'impure' tone; substituting a harsh,' but Thou shalt endure; yea, all of them shall wax old, like a husky, aspirated utterance, for the 'orotund,' or the pure' garment; as a vesture shalt Thou change them, and they shall tone; while pathos, serenity, love, joy, courage, take a soft and be changed: but Thou art the saine; and Thy years shall have smooth oral,' or head tone, perfectly pure, or swelling into no end." korotund. Awe, solemnity, reverence, and melancholy, take a

Very Quick. deep, ' pectoral' murmur; the voice resounding, as it were, in

"I am the Rider of the wind, the cavity of the chest, but still keeping perfectly .pure' in

The Stirrer of the storm ! tone, or expanding into full .orotund.'

The hurricane I left behind The young student cannot be too deeply impressed with

Is yet with lightning warm ;the importance of cultivating, early, a pure and smooth utter

To speed to thee, o'er shore and sca ance. The excessively deep pectoral' tone sounds hollow

I swept upon the blast." and sepulchral; the guttural' tone is coarse, and harsh, and grating to the ear; the 'nasal' tone is ludicrous; and the

4. True Pitch of Voice. combination of 'guttural' and 'nasal' tone is repulsive and

The proper pitch of the voice, when no peculiar emotion extremely disagreeable. Some speakers, through excessive

demands high or low notes, is,-for the purposes of ordinary negligence, allow themselves to combine the pectoral,''guttural, and nasal' tones, in one sound,--for which the word reading or speaking,ếa little below the habitual note of con. grunt is the only approximate designation that can be found. versation, for the person who reads or speaks. Public discourse,

being usually on graver subjects and occasions than mere Affectation, or false taste, on the other hand, induces some speakers to assume an extra ne, or double distilled, oral' private communication, naturally and properly adopts this

level. tone, which minces every word in the mouth, as if the breast

But, through mistake or inadvertency, we sometimes hear had no part to perform in human utterance.

The tones of serious, serene, cheerful, and kindly feeling, persons read and speak on too low a key for the easy and are nature's genuine standard of agreeable voice, as is evinced espressive use of the voice, and, sometimes, on the other hand,

on a key too high for convenient or agreeable utterance. in the utterance of healthy and happy childhood. But preva.

The following sentences should be repeated till the note on lent neglect permits these to be lost in the habitual tones of boys and girls, men and women. Faithful advisers may be of which they are pitched is distinctly recognised, and perfectly

remembered; so as to become a key to all similar passages. much service to young students in this particular.

Exercise on Middle Pitch. 3. Versatility, or Pliancy of Voice. Signifies that power of easy and instant adaptation, by which “In every period of life, the acquisition of knowledge is it takes on the appropriate utterance of every emotion which one of the most pleasing employments of the human mind. occurs in the reading or speaking of a piece characterised by But in youth, there are circumstances which make it producvaried feeling or intense passion.

tive of higher enjoyment. It is then that every thing has the To acquire this invaluable property of voice, the most useful charm of novelty that curiosity and fancy are awake, and course of practice is the repeated reading or reciting of passages that the heart swells with the anticipations of future eminence marked by striking contrasts of tone, as loud or soft, high or and utility.” low, fast or slow.

Contrast this pitch with that of the pieces before quoted, as The following exercises should be repeated till the student examples of 'high' and 'low.' can give them in succession, with perfcct adaptation of voice

Q 11. DUE QUANTITY, OR LOUDNESS. in each case and with instantaneous precision of effect.

The second characteristic of good reading, is the use of that
Exercises for Versatility, or Pliancy of Voice :

degree of loudness, force, volume,' or quantity,' of voice which
Very Loud.

enables those to whom we read or speak, to hear, without "And dar'st thou, then,

effort, every sound of the voice; and which, at the same time, To beard the lion in his den,

gives that degree of force which is best adapted to the utterThe Douglas in his hall?

ance of the sentiments which are read or spoken.
And hop'st thou hence unscathed to go?

All undue loudness is a great annoyance to the ear, and an
No! by St. Bride of Bothwell, no!

injury to the expression ; while a feeble and imperfect utter-
Up, drawbridge, groom! What! warder, ho!

anve fails of the main purposes of speech, by being partly or Let the portcullis fall!"

entirely inaudible, and consequently utterly unimpressive,

The failure, as regards loudness, is usually made on passages
Very Soft.

of moderate force, which do not furnish an inspiring impulse
"I've seen the moon climb the mountain's brow, of emotion, and which depend on the exercise of judgment
I've watched the mists o'er the river stealing, - and discrimination, rather than of feeling.
But ne'er did I feel in my breast till now,

It is of great service, however, to progress in elocution, to
So deep, so calm, and so holy a feeling :

possess the power of discriminating the various degrees of
'Tis soft as the thrill which memory throws

force which the utterance of sentiment requires. The Athwart the soul, in the hour of repose."

extremes of very loud' and very soft,' required by peculiar Very Low.

emotions, have been exemplified in the exercise on 'versatility'

of voice.
had a dream, which was not at all a dream,

There are three degrees of loudness, all of great importance
The bright sun was extinguished; and the stars
Did wander darkling in the eternal space,

to the appropriate utterance of thought and feeling, required

in the usual forms of composition. These are the failowing: Kayless, and pathless; and the icy earth

*moderate, 'forcible,' and 'impassioned.'

The first, the
Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air."

moderate,' occurs in the reading of plain narrative, descrip.
Very High.

tive, or didactic composition, addressed to the understanding, "I awoke ;--where was I-Do I see

rather than to the feelings: the second, the forcible,' is A human face look down on me?

exemplified in energetic declamation : the third, the impasAnd doth a roof above me close ?

sioned,' occurs in the language of intense emotion, whether in Do these limbs on a couch repose ?

the form of poetry or of prose.
Is this a chamber where I lie?

Watchful attention will be required, on the part of the
And is it mortal, yon bright eye,

student, in practising the following examples, so as to enable
That watches me with gentle glance de

him to detect, and fix definitely in his ear, the exact degree

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