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LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.
XXI. Le Girondin et le Cent-Suisse; Sections I., II.,
325 XIV. Solutions of the Centenary of Problems
I., II., III., with exercises, etc........... 105
XXII. Section IV., with exercises, etc.......... XV.
112 XVI. Solution's of Examples in Involution, by means
XXIII. Jeanne d'Arc, Section I., with exercises, etc. 359
170 XXIV. Sections II., III.; Le Mort de Jeanne d'Arc,
XXV. La Marguerite et l’Epi de Blé, Section 1.,
391 with exercises, etc.
262 Quantities XIX, Centenary of Problems
289 XX. Addition of Powers
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
Latitude and Longitude of Europe. Map of Turkey
in Europe (to be prefixed to the volume). XIV. Foreign Trade; Memoranda of Transactions 21
LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.
38 XV. Cash Book; Cash Account XVI. Cash Book; Cash Account; Bill Book; Bills
1 LI. Classification of Rocks; the Tertiaries......
55 Receivable; Bills Payable
the Chalk Formation 160 LII.
83 XVII. Day Book......
the Wealden Siraia .. 211 XVIII. Bank Account; Interest Account, with the
the Lias ....:
New Red Sandstone.. 305
146 XXII. Invoice Book
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY, XXIII. Account Siles Book
235 XXIV. Account Current Book.
175, 202, 213
XXXIV. Book I. Props. XLIII., XLIV., XLV., XLVI. 265 XXVI. Condensation of Vapours
XXXV. Exercises to Props. XLIII., XLIV., XLV.,
20 XXVII. Lead : its Chemical Combinations..
Solutions of Exercises to the Second Book of
406 XXX. Cupelling Operations
68 XXXI. Cupellation ; Extraction of Silver from Ores *81
LESSONS IN GREEK.
XXVI. Th Passive Voice of luw; General Conspectus
25 VII. Le Vieux Arbre et le Jardinier; Moustache, ou
XXVIII. The Perfect, Pluperfect and other Tenses .... 40
57 VIII. Sections II., III., with exercises, etc
XXX. Verbs, Pure, Impure, and Liquid; Uncon. IX. Sections IV., V.; Le Pacha et le Dervis, with
tracted Verbs Pure
XXXIII. Contracted Verbs, which, contrary to the Rule,
217 tion I., with exercises, etc.
136 XXXV. Formation of the Tenses of Impure Verbs 231 XIV. Section II., III., IV., with exercises, etc. 149 XXXVI. Paradigms of Mute Verbs
245 XV, Section V.; L'Anon,
XXXVII. Formation of the Tenses of Liquid Verbs 261 XVI. Charles I, 'Courage'et Granđeur dans l’lofor- XXXVIII. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs.....
277 tune; Sections I., II., III, IV., with exer
XXXIX. Peculiarities in the Formation of the Verbs; cises, etc.
Pure and Impure-Strengthened Stems .... 293
XL, Strengthened Stems-continued
XLI. Verbs which in the Present and Imperfect XVIII. Josephine, Sections I., II. with exercises, etc.
have the Pure Stem, but in the other Tenses XIX. Sections III., IV.; Le Roi Alphonse ; Deux
have a Stem with e as the characteristic; the e Hommes bienfaisants, Section I.
passes into η; except αχθομαι and μαχομαι 321 XX. Sections II., III., IV.; Le Chêne et le Tourne
XLII. The Verbs in jul......
XXII. Use of the Prepositions ; Sopra; Sovra ; Su..
12 97 196 247 279 295 323 340 357 372
LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.
27 VI. The Apostrophe ; Quotation Mark; Diæresis.. 42 VII. Analysis of the Voice ; Quality of the Voice ;
Smoothness of the Voice ; Versatility ...... 61 VIII. Distinct Articulation ; Correct Pronunciation; True Time
75 IX. Appropriate Pauses; Right Emphasis
88 X. Correct Inflections
116 XI. Exercises on Inflections
154 XIII. Just Stress ; Expressive Tones
163 XIV. Rules on Expressive Tone; Appropriate Modu
lation; Promiscuous Exercises : Antiquity
of Freedom; Pope and Dryden...... 177 XV. Promiscuous Exercises: the Puritans; Universal Decay: Eternity of God
194 XVI. The Upright Lawyer; Human Culture ; Ameri
can Eagle; Memory; Old Ironsides.... 229 XVII. Interesting Adventure ; Thoughts on Politeness; Ode on Art; God; Niagara
258 XVIII. Education of Females ; Custom of Whitewash
ing; Child of the Tomb; Love and Fame 274 XIX. Poetry; Causes of War; Foundation of National
Character; Success of the Gospel; Power of
350 XX. Woman; Tread-mill Song; Wouter Van Twiller; Palmyra
367 XXI. Child carried away by an Eagle ; To the Con.
dor; Scene at the Dedication of an Heathen
381 XXII. Hamilton and Jay; Psalm of Life; Adams
and Jefferson ; Posthumous Influence of the
XXVII. Theory of Music.......
5 XXVIII. Vibration of the Air in Sonorous Pipes
17 XXIX. Nature of Heat; Thermometers; Measure of Temperatures :
33 XXX. Caloric; Table of Conversion for Thermometric Scales ; Thermometers.........
50 XXXI. Radiation of Caloric; Reflection, Emission and Absorption of Caloric
65 XXXII. Absorption of Caloric; Transmission of
Radiant Caloric; Conductibility of Solids,
77 XXXIII. Expansion of Solids
93 XXXIV. Expansion of Liquids
109 XXXV. Expansion and Density of the Gases; Change of State in Bodies
125 XXXVI. Vapours
141 XXXVII. Evaporation and Ebullition; Liquefaction of Vapours and Gases
157 XXXVIII. Calefaction; Density of Vapours
173 XXXIX. Hygrometry..
189 XL. Steam-Engine
221 XLII. Calorimetry; Sources of Heat
237 XLIII. Chemical Sources of Heat; Illumination.. 253 XLIV. Warming and Ventilation .
269 XLV. Optics; Transmission, Velocity and Intensity of Light....
285 XLVI. Reflection of Light; Reflection from Plane
Surfaces; Reflection from Curved Surfaces 301 XLVII. Reflection from Curved Surfaces ; Simple Refraction,..
CORRESPONDENCE. The Four Ball Question, Euclid The Franchise Hints on Self-Education The Working Man's Friend and P. E. University of London The Irish Tongue The Cataract of Lodore Phonetic Short-hand Irish Corresponding Society Perseverance in Learning.... Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties The Study of Euclid
16 48 91 139 160 171 187 188 220 251 268 314
LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. LI.
By Thos. W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c.
which took place during the tertiary epoch will explain the
inclination or dip which mark the strata in some localities. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS.
The scooping or denuding action of the ocean upon the chalk
beds will explain the hollows or the basins in which the terSECTION IV.
tiary formations rest.
In the basins scooped by denudation in the chalk, and which II, ON THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE TERTIARIES. are now called the Basins of London, Hampshire, the Isle of All the beds of the tertiary rocks have every appearance of Wight, and Paris, the Eocene beds always consist of a coarse
pebbly gravel, at first spread pretty uniformly over the whole having been deposited in a shallow sea, not far from coast tract; but afterwards, when the sand became more elevated, lines, with much regularity, and in the course of many ages, and consequently the rising rocks yielding different kinds of The earlier beds are very extensive, and consist of rolled detritus, its character altered. If you imagine cliffs of rocks pebbles produced by the rubbing and wearing down of the of different characters, thus gradually rising, and being conprimitive rocks, scattered over a shallow sea-bottom. It is stantly acted upon by the waves of the sea or by running
water, and this water-action taking place in circumstances of otherwise impossible to account for the immense beds of sand great diversity, you will come by the facts which will enable found in the tertiaries. lesson on the plants and animals of the tertiaries, your mind Ainty formations from the warm springs in Auvergne in Central To enable you to derive intellectual advantage from this ou to account for the coarse limestones of Paris
, the plastic
clay of London, the marly clays of Brussels, the silicious or must keep firm hold of the tollowing principles : 1; The term " tertiary” implies a secondary” system of France
, and for the various limestones of the Greek Islands,
That the vegetation of the first tertiary land, or the Eocene, rocks as already in existence. The highest and newest of
was very luxuriant, is proved by the fragments of wood and these is the chalk,
the fruits of trees which are found fossil in rich abundance in 2. The "secondary" beds may have formed either the the Isle of Sheppey at the mouth of the Thames. These fossil bottoms of seas, or islands and mainlands, for many ages before woods are very great in number and very rich in variety. the tertiaries began to be deposited,
Even in the Isle of Sheppey alone, several hundred species have 3. During this interval, all the districts that now form the been discovered, all of them differing much from existing great plains of Europe were covered by the sea.
plants, though they are closely allied to some which are now 4. Most of the European land of that epoch lay chiefly from found growing in warm climates. There is a large prepon. east to west, and extended far into the Atlantic, connecting derance of a species allied to the palms, something like a kind the land now called England and Ireland not only with Spain, between the cocoa-nut and the screw pine or Pandanus, which but also with the islands to the west of Africa.
are so well known in tropical climates. There are others of 6. At that time the Pyrenees, the Alps, Apennines, the the Nipæ family, which now luxuriate in Japan, and in the Grecian Mountains, the Caucasus, the Carpathians, etc.,
Spice Islands. A chain of islands in the open sea.
The fossil wood of these trees is often found to have been B. Things continued long in this tranquil state until a vol. pierced, and almost destroyed, by an extinct kind of Teredo, canic power threw up the Wealden of Kent and Sussex, and before it had been deposited in the mud. Sometimes the gradual upheaval of the land took place, and the aforesaid wood presents nothing but cavities, which had been left by these islands rose gradually higher and higher above the ocean, and animals, and which were afterwards filled up with carbonate of consequently more land was formed.
lime. 7. As those vast islands rose, the sea would dash against their sides, dislodge fragments from their cliffs, which they would roll smooth, wear down, until they constituted the The tertiary beds abound in shell animals, both univalve, beds of gravel which now cover the chalk in some places. having but one shell like the snail; or bivalve, having two
2. The shores of these islands and mainlands were low and shells like the oyster or cockle. The bed called the London swall.my, and large rivers brought down the mud and sand to clay is full of.the remains of crabs and lobsters, some of which form wat is now ine south-east of England, and also the for- are very perfect. One of the most remarkable groups amid mations about Brussels.
these terriaries, is a species of foraminiferous shell, called 9. The sees were tenanted by animals like the shark, and the nummulite on account of its resemblance to a small piece by fishes of the tritus now found in warm latitudes, and by of money. The fossil remains of this shellfish are so incredibly large shell-fish Cnat could live either in salt, or in brackish, abundant in some localities, as that rocks of enormous size are
entirely made up of them. The tertiary shells bear, for the 10. The rivers were perpled with crocodiles, turtles, tortoises, most part, a considerable analogy to those which exist at something akin to those nu existing.
present, as will be seen in Fig. 1. 11. The sides of we hills and the plains were clothed with
Our engraving is only intended to represent a few specimens a rich tropical vegetation, abolmding with the palm-tree and of the tertiary shells,
'to show their
usual appearance and Thia luxuriant vegetation indicates an abund character. The entire species, as already determined by naturalance of animal life,
ists, amount to nearly three thousand. Some of the tertiary These geological facts, and others akin to them, will help strata are almost entirely composed of shelly remains in a you to understand some of the peculiar circumstances in which broken and crushed state, and many sandy seams in the clayey you occasionally find the tertiary deposits. The upheavals beds consist of shell dust. In some places the shells are pre
served in their perfect forms. Some of them are the sheils of the serpent. The crocodiles resemble those which now exist animals that lived in the sea. As the Cypræa inilata or the in Borneo. The tortoises are both marine and fresh-water, but Cowry, 20-ihe Fusus, 26-the Cerithium Lamellosum, 14–, the marine ones are fewer in number than the others, and they the Pleurotoma, 17--the Lucina, 3—the Ampullaria, 22-the are smaller in size than those now existing. The serpents are Venericardia, 1- the Mitra, 19 - the Rostellaria, 23. In of the tribe now represented by the Boa Constrictor and the the Red Crag of Suffolk, a peculiar kind of Fusus, called Python, such as are now found only in tropical climates, and l'usus contrarins, is found, having the whorl and the mouth feeding on birds and quadrupeds. Some of them were of large in a con rary direction. Others are fr 'sh-water shells ; such dimensions and measuring in length from ten to twenty feet. as the Cyclo-10!na, 6—lie Planorbis, 10—the Helyx, 12—the All the terriary reptiles approach the modern type, and all Cyrena (un .ifornis, 1.
the present orders have their representatives in these deposits.
Although the remains of birds are very rare in the Eocene
rare instances in which the fossil skeletons of birds have been in the Indian Seas and in the Southern Ocean.
well preserved. The forms and shapes of some of these fossil fishes are
The first who discovered the fossil remains of birds was :cmarkably unique. One genus h us, behind its head, a fin Cuvier. In some specimens he discovered even some fossil ihut rises like a tall mast much higher than the length of the indications of feathers. In the lacustrine limestone of Auvergne
ole body. From this mast of a tin, to the tail of the tish, in Central France, also the eggs of an aquatic species are found there extends a corresponding sail, by the aid of which it was
fossil able to navigate its course in the tertiary seas. Another fish
QUADRUPED3. is so curiously formed that the height of its body and its fins is three times as much as the length of the animal.
The land quadrupeds of the more ancient tertiaries are The various groups of tertiary fishes comprise many hundred found fossil in much greater abundance in the gypsum beds of species belonging to all the existing orders and families, of Paris than in the formations about London. There they which nearly two hundred have been figured and described include a great number of species chiefly of the group callai hy Agassiz (pron. ággasee); of inese forty or fifty belong to the Pachydermata, or the thick-skinned, represented now by the family of the sharks, whose teerh are found in great abundance elephant, rhinoceros, etc.: but the most predominating are the in the tertiaries.
carnivorous or Alesh-eating quadrupeds, such as the wolf, fox, The ichthyological or " fishy'' history of the tertiaries may opossum, etc. In England also have been found a few fossil be thus summed up. In t'e Eocene tertiaries one-third of the fragments of the teeth of creatures like the bat--and, what is fish belong to extinct genera. In the newer tertiaries, such most singular, of a monkey, as if, on Lord Moxiboddo's princi. as the Crag, the races are of the genera common to tropical ples, approaches were made towards the production of man! seas, and, throughout, the fossil fishes approach in their all the fossil quadrupeds indicate a mach warmer climate in character to the living races, but all the species are extinct. their localities than are found now. The name of this group
is derived from maxvs, pachys, thick, and degua, derma, plural RE'TILES.
derinata, skins or hides.
Among the Pachyderms wee creatures allied to the horse, The tertiary reptiles are of three classes - some inhabiting of which the tapir of South America seems now to be the best the land, othera 'rivers, and others the brackish waters of living representative. Another of the tapir group was an ani. cstuaries; but they are all of a kind that prove the climate to mal called the Lophioclo«, of which only very imperfect fraghave been of warm temperature. Among these, lizards and seve. ments have been found in a fossil state, but even those fragments ral kinds of crocodiles abound-so do also turtles and tortoises. point to the existence of more than twelve species. Its name But the most remarkable fact of this epoch is the existence of is derived from Aopos, lophos, crest, and ówv, odón, tooth, i.e.
the crested-tooth. All these are supposed to have inhabited | timid animal. In external character it was the small deer of the dryer districts of the Eocene land. To the same group the Eocene. belong the better known fossil quadrupeds, the Palæotberium, These quadrupeds are represented in figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the Anoplotherium.
In the Meiocene and Pleiocene tertiaries we meet with the The PALÆOTHERIUM was much like the living tapir in the deinotherium, the mastodon, the elephant, etc. form of the head, having a short proboscis or trunk; but its The DEINOTHERIUM, from osivos, deinos, terrible, and Onplov, molar teeth resembled those of the rhinoceros. It was about therion, a wild beast, was remarkable in size, in relation both three or four feet high. Unlike the tapir, it had only three toes to the anoplotherians of the older beds on the one hand, and to each foot, and it was also very slender. An animal between to the elephantine groups of more recent periods on the other. the tapir and the horse would probably be a good representa- The fossil remains of the Deinotherium are nowhere more tive of the Palæotherium, though its species varied greatly. common than in the valley of the Rhine, between Basle and It is supposed to have inhabited districts near water. The Mayence, and they are also frequent in the valleys of the Jura. name is derived from palatos, palažos, old, and Onplov, thé- This animal was of a huge barrel-shaped body, and was twenty rion, a wild beast.
feet long, and in character was something like the hippopotaThe ANOPLOTHERIUM was less clumsy and more agile than the mus. Its body was but little raised above the ground, though Palæotherium, and was a nearer approach to the ruminant group its legs were ten feet high. It lived in water, but its head was of animals. The Anoplotheria were abundant in the older ter kept entirely out of the water. Its head resembled that of the tiaries. The name is derived from a, (av before vowels,) priva- elephant, having a powerful proboscis, and also a pair of large tive, or without, óriev, oplon, armour, and Onprov, therion, wild and long tusks curving downwards like those of the walrus. beast : that is the unarmed animal. Two species have been What is most remarkable in these tusks is, that they are fixed determined.
in t'e lower jaw of the animal, to enable it' to dig for succulent
Fig. 2. Quadrupeds of the Tertiary Period. 1. Anoplotherium gracile. 2. Anoplotherium commune. 3. Palæotherium magnum. 4. Palæotherium minus. The first species was about as tall as a dwarf ass, but its food. It was the most gigantic of the herbivorous or grass. body was much longer, with the appendage of an enormous eating quadrupeds. tail
. It was particularly adapted to live in swampy districts The NASTODON was another species of elıysant, about the and in marshes, where it fed on the roots and the leaves of size of the present elephants and with mammillated teeth. It aquatic plants. Its body was about eight feet long, with a abounded in the districts now called North America ; where skin nearly naked, and having its ears very short. Except perfect skeletons of it have been found in salt marshes, which the kangaroo, no living animal is known to have so long and so it visited for the sake of the salt, and where it frequently sunk powerful a tail.
in deep mud and perished. Some of these marshes are known The second species of Anoplotherium is called the Xipho- to be forty miles long by about twenty miles broad. In don, from tipos, riphos, a sword, and bowv, odón, a tooth, Warren County, New Jersey, six skeletons of the same masa for creature very different in size, in proportions, and in habits todon were found, six feet below the surface, fiv: of them lying from the first species. The graceful elegance of its skeleton together. reminds one of the gazelle. It might be about as high as a
The name is given on account of its teeth being like paps goat, but its head and trunk indicate a smaller animal. It from paoros, mastos, breast or pap, and ofwv, tooth lived on the banks of lakes and rivers, and on the borders of This species continued to live through the Pleistocene periods, marshes
, feeding on aromatic herbs and the young buds of almost down to the human epoch, accompanied by some of the treen. It was covered with a short hair, and was most likely a animals which are now existing.