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LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

XXI. Le Girondin et le Cent-Suisse; Sections I., II.,
III.; Une Promenade de Fénélon; Sections

325 XIV. Solutions of the Centenary of Problems

I., II., III., with exercises, etc........... 105

343

XXII. Section IV., with exercises, etc.......... XV.

112 XVI. Solution's of Examples in Involution, by means

XXIII. Jeanne d'Arc, Section I., with exercises, etc. 359
of the Binomial Theorem.....

170 XXIV. Sections II., III.; Le Mort de Jeanne d'Arc,
Sections I., II., with exercises, etc. ........

374
XVII. Simple Equations, Two Unknown Quantities 192
XVIII. Simple Equations, four or more Unknown

XXV. La Marguerite et l’Epi de Blé, Section 1.,

391 with exercises, etc.

262 Quantities XIX, Centenary of Problems

289 XX. Addition of Powers

389

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.

Latitude and Longitude of Europe. Map of Turkey
LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.

in Europe (to be prefixed to the volume). XIV. Foreign Trade; Memoranda of Transactions 21

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

38 XV. Cash Book; Cash Account XVI. Cash Book; Cash Account; Bill Book; Bills

1 LI. Classification of Rocks; the Tertiaries......

55 Receivable; Bills Payable

the Chalk Formation 160 LII.

83 XVII. Day Book......

LIII.

the Wealden Siraia .. 211 XVIII. Bank Account; Interest Account, with the

LIV.

the Oolites

242
102
Union Bank Journal......

LV.

the Lias ....:

29:
119
XIX. Journal......

New Red Sandstone.. 305
LVI.

132
XX. Index to Ledger ; Ledger
XXI. Ledger ; Trial Balance

146 XXII. Invoice Book

199

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY, XXIII. Account Siles Book

235 XXIV. Account Current Book.

281
XXX. Lectures on Euclid, Book I. Prop. XXXII.,
with exercises

122
XXXI. Book 1. Props. XXXIII., XXXIV., XXXV.,
BIOGRAPHY.

with exercises

151
XXXII. Book I. Prope. XXXVI., XXXVII., XXXVIII.
XIV. James Watt......

175, 202, 213
with exercises,.

182
XXXIII. Book I. Props. XXXIX., XL., XLI., XLII.,
with exercises

232
LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.

XXXIV. Book I. Props. XLIII., XLIV., XLV., XLVI. 265 XXVI. Condensation of Vapours

XXXV. Exercises to Props. XLIII., XLIV., XLV.,

20 XXVII. Lead : its Chemical Combinations..

XLVI.

283 XXVIII.

36

Solutions of Exercises to the Second Book of
its" Precipitating Agents
XXIX.

49
Euclid

406 XXX. Cupelling Operations

68 XXXI. Cupellation ; Extraction of Silver from Ores *81

LESSONS IN GREEK.
XXXII. Chlorine; its Physical and Chemical Character 96
XXXIII.
as a Supporter of Combustion 110

XXVI. Th Passive Voice of luw; General Conspectus
of the Greek Verb...

9
XXVII. The Present, Imperfect, Fuiure, Aorist Tenses,
FRENCH READINGS.

Active Voice

25 VII. Le Vieux Arbre et le Jardinier; Moustache, ou

XXVIII. The Perfect, Pluperfect and other Tenses .... 40
un bienfait n'est jamais perdu, Section I. ..

11
XXIX. The Augments

57 VIII. Sections II., III., with exercises, etc

30

XXX. Verbs, Pure, Impure, and Liquid; Uncon. IX. Sections IV., V.; Le Pacha et le Dervis, with

tracted Verbs Pure

78
exercises, etc....
45 XXXI. Contracted Verbs Pure......

129
X. Fædora, Section I., with exercises, etc. ......
61 XXXII.

166 XI.

XXXIII. Contracted Verbs, which, contrary to the Rule,
Section II.,

90
XII.
Section III., IV.

99
retain the short Vowel.

201
XIII. Les Horloges de Charles Quint; Jacapo, Sec-
XXXIV. Permutation of Cuns nants.

217 tion I., with exercises, etc.

136 XXXV. Formation of the Tenses of Impure Verbs 231 XIV. Section II., III., IV., with exercises, etc. 149 XXXVI. Paradigms of Mute Verbs

245 XV, Section V.; L'Anon,

169

XXXVII. Formation of the Tenses of Liquid Verbs 261 XVI. Charles I, 'Courage'et Granđeur dans l’lofor- XXXVIII. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs.....

277 tune; Sections I., II., III, IV., with exer

XXXIX. Peculiarities in the Formation of the Verbs; cises, etc.

185

Pure and Impure-Strengthened Stems .... 293
XVII. Secrion V.; Le Meunier sans souci, Sections I.,

XL, Strengthened Stems-continued
II., with exercises, etc.

219

XLI. Verbs which in the Present and Imperfect XVIII. Josephine, Sections I., II. with exercises, etc.

250

have the Pure Stem, but in the other Tenses XIX. Sections III., IV.; Le Roi Alphonse ; Deux

have a Stem with e as the characteristic; the e Hommes bienfaisants, Section I.

266

passes into η; except αχθομαι and μαχομαι 321 XX. Sections II., III., IV.; Le Chêne et le Tourne

XLII. The Verbs in jul......

336
sol, with exercises, etc.......

295
XLIII. Verbs je; Exercises; Review

352

1

311

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XXII. Use of the Prepositions ; Sopra; Sovra ; Su..
XXIII. Adjectives
XXIV. Auxiliary Verbs..

XXV.
XXVI, Exercises and Vocabulary
XXVII. Regular Verbs: Synoptical Table
XXVIII.
XXIX. Passive and Reflective Verbs.,
XXX. Impersonal Verbs
XXXI. Neuter Verbs .......
XXXII. Exercises and Vocabulary
XXXIII. Irregular Verbs

12 97 196 247 279 295 323 340 357 372

383

403

MATHEMATICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.
V. The Dash; Hyphen; Ellipsis ......

27 VI. The Apostrophe ; Quotation Mark; Diæresis.. 42 VII. Analysis of the Voice ; Quality of the Voice ;

Smoothness of the Voice ; Versatility ...... 61 VIII. Distinct Articulation ; Correct Pronunciation; True Time

75 IX. Appropriate Pauses; Right Emphasis

88 X. Correct Inflections

116 XI. Exercises on Inflections

137 XII.

154 XIII. Just Stress ; Expressive Tones

163 XIV. Rules on Expressive Tone; Appropriate Modu

lation; Promiscuous Exercises : Antiquity

of Freedom; Pope and Dryden...... 177 XV. Promiscuous Exercises: the Puritans; Universal Decay: Eternity of God

194 XVI. The Upright Lawyer; Human Culture ; Ameri

can Eagle; Memory; Old Ironsides.... 229 XVII. Interesting Adventure ; Thoughts on Politeness; Ode on Art; God; Niagara

258 XVIII. Education of Females ; Custom of Whitewash

ing; Child of the Tomb; Love and Fame 274 XIX. Poetry; Causes of War; Foundation of National

Character; Success of the Gospel; Power of
the Soul; Hymn of Nature..

350 XX. Woman; Tread-mill Song; Wouter Van Twiller; Palmyra

367 XXI. Child carried away by an Eagle ; To the Con.

dor; Scene at the Dedication of an Heathen
Temple.....

381 XXII. Hamilton and Jay; Psalm of Life; Adams

and Jefferson ; Posthumous Influence of the
Wise and Good; Last Days of Autumn;
Voices of the Dead; Importance of Know-
ledge to the Mechanic

398

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XXVII. Theory of Music.......

5 XXVIII. Vibration of the Air in Sonorous Pipes

17 XXIX. Nature of Heat; Thermometers; Measure of Temperatures :

33 XXX. Caloric; Table of Conversion for Thermometric Scales ; Thermometers.........

50 XXXI. Radiation of Caloric; Reflection, Emission and Absorption of Caloric

65 XXXII. Absorption of Caloric; Transmission of

Radiant Caloric; Conductibility of Solids,
Liquids and Gases.

77 XXXIII. Expansion of Solids

93 XXXIV. Expansion of Liquids

109 XXXV. Expansion and Density of the Gases; Change of State in Bodies

125 XXXVI. Vapours

141 XXXVII. Evaporation and Ebullition; Liquefaction of Vapours and Gases

157 XXXVIII. Calefaction; Density of Vapours

173 XXXIX. Hygrometry..

189 XL. Steam-Engine

205 XLI.

221 XLII. Calorimetry; Sources of Heat

237 XLIII. Chemical Sources of Heat; Illumination.. 253 XLIV. Warming and Ventilation .

269 XLV. Optics; Transmission, Velocity and Intensity of Light....

285 XLVI. Reflection of Light; Reflection from Plane

Surfaces; Reflection from Curved Surfaces 301 XLVII. Reflection from Curved Surfaces ; Simple Refraction,..

317

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CORRESPONDENCE. The Four Ball Question, Euclid The Franchise Hints on Self-Education The Working Man's Friend and P. E. University of London The Irish Tongue The Cataract of Lodore Phonetic Short-hand Irish Corresponding Society Perseverance in Learning.... Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties The Study of Euclid

........

16 48 91 139 160 171 187 188 220 251 268 314

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. LI.

By Thos. W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c.

CHAPTER V.

which took place during the tertiary epoch will explain the

inclination or dip which mark the strata in some localities. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS.

The scooping or denuding action of the ocean upon the chalk

beds will explain the hollows or the basins in which the terSECTION IV.

tiary formations rest.
(Continued from page 316, Vol. IV.)

VEGETATION,
ON THE TERTIARIES.

In the basins scooped by denudation in the chalk, and which II, ON THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE TERTIARIES. are now called the Basins of London, Hampshire, the Isle of All the beds of the tertiary rocks have every appearance of Wight, and Paris, the Eocene beds always consist of a coarse

pebbly gravel, at first spread pretty uniformly over the whole having been deposited in a shallow sea, not far from coast tract; but afterwards, when the sand became more elevated, lines, with much regularity, and in the course of many ages, and consequently the rising rocks yielding different kinds of The earlier beds are very extensive, and consist of rolled detritus, its character altered. If you imagine cliffs of rocks pebbles produced by the rubbing and wearing down of the of different characters, thus gradually rising, and being conprimitive rocks, scattered over a shallow sea-bottom. It is stantly acted upon by the waves of the sea or by running

water, and this water-action taking place in circumstances of otherwise impossible to account for the immense beds of sand great diversity, you will come by the facts which will enable found in the tertiaries. lesson on the plants and animals of the tertiaries, your mind Ainty formations from the warm springs in Auvergne in Central To enable you to derive intellectual advantage from this ou to account for the coarse limestones of Paris

, the plastic

clay of London, the marly clays of Brussels, the silicious or must keep firm hold of the tollowing principles : 1; The term " tertiary” implies a secondary” system of France

, and for the various limestones of the Greek Islands,

That the vegetation of the first tertiary land, or the Eocene, rocks as already in existence. The highest and newest of

was very luxuriant, is proved by the fragments of wood and these is the chalk,

the fruits of trees which are found fossil in rich abundance in 2. The "secondary" beds may have formed either the the Isle of Sheppey at the mouth of the Thames. These fossil bottoms of seas, or islands and mainlands, for many ages before woods are very great in number and very rich in variety. the tertiaries began to be deposited,

Even in the Isle of Sheppey alone, several hundred species have 3. During this interval, all the districts that now form the been discovered, all of them differing much from existing great plains of Europe were covered by the sea.

plants, though they are closely allied to some which are now 4. Most of the European land of that epoch lay chiefly from found growing in warm climates. There is a large prepon. east to west, and extended far into the Atlantic, connecting derance of a species allied to the palms, something like a kind the land now called England and Ireland not only with Spain, between the cocoa-nut and the screw pine or Pandanus, which but also with the islands to the west of Africa.

are so well known in tropical climates. There are others of 6. At that time the Pyrenees, the Alps, Apennines, the the Nipæ family, which now luxuriate in Japan, and in the Grecian Mountains, the Caucasus, the Carpathians, etc.,

formed

Spice Islands. A chain of islands in the open sea.

The fossil wood of these trees is often found to have been B. Things continued long in this tranquil state until a vol. pierced, and almost destroyed, by an extinct kind of Teredo, canic power threw up the Wealden of Kent and Sussex, and before it had been deposited in the mud. Sometimes the gradual upheaval of the land took place, and the aforesaid wood presents nothing but cavities, which had been left by these islands rose gradually higher and higher above the ocean, and animals, and which were afterwards filled up with carbonate of consequently more land was formed.

lime. 7. As those vast islands rose, the sea would dash against their sides, dislodge fragments from their cliffs, which they would roll smooth, wear down, until they constituted the The tertiary beds abound in shell animals, both univalve, beds of gravel which now cover the chalk in some places. having but one shell like the snail; or bivalve, having two

2. The shores of these islands and mainlands were low and shells like the oyster or cockle. The bed called the London swall.my, and large rivers brought down the mud and sand to clay is full of.the remains of crabs and lobsters, some of which form wat is now ine south-east of England, and also the for- are very perfect. One of the most remarkable groups amid mations about Brussels.

these terriaries, is a species of foraminiferous shell, called 9. The sees were tenanted by animals like the shark, and the nummulite on account of its resemblance to a small piece by fishes of the tritus now found in warm latitudes, and by of money. The fossil remains of this shellfish are so incredibly large shell-fish Cnat could live either in salt, or in brackish, abundant in some localities, as that rocks of enormous size are

entirely made up of them. The tertiary shells bear, for the 10. The rivers were perpled with crocodiles, turtles, tortoises, most part, a considerable analogy to those which exist at something akin to those nu existing.

present, as will be seen in Fig. 1. 11. The sides of we hills and the plains were clothed with

Our engraving is only intended to represent a few specimens a rich tropical vegetation, abolmding with the palm-tree and of the tertiary shells,

'to show their

usual appearance and Thia luxuriant vegetation indicates an abund character. The entire species, as already determined by naturalance of animal life,

ists, amount to nearly three thousand. Some of the tertiary These geological facts, and others akin to them, will help strata are almost entirely composed of shelly remains in a you to understand some of the peculiar circumstances in which broken and crushed state, and many sandy seams in the clayey you occasionally find the tertiary deposits. The upheavals beds consist of shell dust. In some places the shells are pre

105

SHELLS.

water.

VOL. V

served in their perfect forms. Some of them are the sheils of the serpent. The crocodiles resemble those which now exist animals that lived in the sea. As the Cypræa inilata or the in Borneo. The tortoises are both marine and fresh-water, but Cowry, 20-ihe Fusus, 26-the Cerithium Lamellosum, 14–, the marine ones are fewer in number than the others, and they the Pleurotoma, 17--the Lucina, 3—the Ampullaria, 22-the are smaller in size than those now existing. The serpents are Venericardia, 1- the Mitra, 19 - the Rostellaria, 23. In of the tribe now represented by the Boa Constrictor and the the Red Crag of Suffolk, a peculiar kind of Fusus, called Python, such as are now found only in tropical climates, and l'usus contrarins, is found, having the whorl and the mouth feeding on birds and quadrupeds. Some of them were of large in a con rary direction. Others are fr 'sh-water shells ; such dimensions and measuring in length from ten to twenty feet. as the Cyclo-10!na, 6—lie Planorbis, 10—the Helyx, 12—the All the terriary reptiles approach the modern type, and all Cyrena (un .ifornis, 1.

the present orders have their representatives in these deposits.

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FISHES.

BIRD3.
It is remarkable that tertiary fishes of the same species are beds, several species have been found in the Paris basin, espe-

Although the remains of birds are very rare in the Eocene
found in the most distant localities ; such as the London clay
of England, Monte Bolca in Italy, and in Lebanon in Asia. cially those resembling the pelican, the sea lark, the owl, the
These fossil fishes resemble much those which are now found woodcock, and the buzzard. There have been some few and

rare instances in which the fossil skeletons of birds have been in the Indian Seas and in the Southern Ocean.

well preserved. The forms and shapes of some of these fossil fishes are

The first who discovered the fossil remains of birds was :cmarkably unique. One genus h us, behind its head, a fin Cuvier. In some specimens he discovered even some fossil ihut rises like a tall mast much higher than the length of the indications of feathers. In the lacustrine limestone of Auvergne

ole body. From this mast of a tin, to the tail of the tish, in Central France, also the eggs of an aquatic species are found there extends a corresponding sail, by the aid of which it was

fossil able to navigate its course in the tertiary seas. Another fish

QUADRUPED3. is so curiously formed that the height of its body and its fins is three times as much as the length of the animal.

The land quadrupeds of the more ancient tertiaries are The various groups of tertiary fishes comprise many hundred found fossil in much greater abundance in the gypsum beds of species belonging to all the existing orders and families, of Paris than in the formations about London. There they which nearly two hundred have been figured and described include a great number of species chiefly of the group callai hy Agassiz (pron. ággasee); of inese forty or fifty belong to the Pachydermata, or the thick-skinned, represented now by the family of the sharks, whose teerh are found in great abundance elephant, rhinoceros, etc.: but the most predominating are the in the tertiaries.

carnivorous or Alesh-eating quadrupeds, such as the wolf, fox, The ichthyological or " fishy'' history of the tertiaries may opossum, etc. In England also have been found a few fossil be thus summed up. In t'e Eocene tertiaries one-third of the fragments of the teeth of creatures like the bat--and, what is fish belong to extinct genera. In the newer tertiaries, such most singular, of a monkey, as if, on Lord Moxiboddo's princi. as the Crag, the races are of the genera common to tropical ples, approaches were made towards the production of man! seas, and, throughout, the fossil fishes approach in their all the fossil quadrupeds indicate a mach warmer climate in character to the living races, but all the species are extinct. their localities than are found now. The name of this group

is derived from maxvs, pachys, thick, and degua, derma, plural RE'TILES.

derinata, skins or hides.

Among the Pachyderms wee creatures allied to the horse, The tertiary reptiles are of three classes - some inhabiting of which the tapir of South America seems now to be the best the land, othera 'rivers, and others the brackish waters of living representative. Another of the tapir group was an ani. cstuaries; but they are all of a kind that prove the climate to mal called the Lophioclo«, of which only very imperfect fraghave been of warm temperature. Among these, lizards and seve. ments have been found in a fossil state, but even those fragments ral kinds of crocodiles abound-so do also turtles and tortoises. point to the existence of more than twelve species. Its name But the most remarkable fact of this epoch is the existence of is derived from Aopos, lophos, crest, and ówv, odón, tooth, i.e.

the crested-tooth. All these are supposed to have inhabited | timid animal. In external character it was the small deer of the dryer districts of the Eocene land. To the same group the Eocene. belong the better known fossil quadrupeds, the Palæotberium, These quadrupeds are represented in figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the Anoplotherium.

In the Meiocene and Pleiocene tertiaries we meet with the The PALÆOTHERIUM was much like the living tapir in the deinotherium, the mastodon, the elephant, etc. form of the head, having a short proboscis or trunk; but its The DEINOTHERIUM, from osivos, deinos, terrible, and Onplov, molar teeth resembled those of the rhinoceros. It was about therion, a wild beast, was remarkable in size, in relation both three or four feet high. Unlike the tapir, it had only three toes to the anoplotherians of the older beds on the one hand, and to each foot, and it was also very slender. An animal between to the elephantine groups of more recent periods on the other. the tapir and the horse would probably be a good representa- The fossil remains of the Deinotherium are nowhere more tive of the Palæotherium, though its species varied greatly. common than in the valley of the Rhine, between Basle and It is supposed to have inhabited districts near water. The Mayence, and they are also frequent in the valleys of the Jura. name is derived from palatos, palažos, old, and Onplov, thé- This animal was of a huge barrel-shaped body, and was twenty rion, a wild beast.

feet long, and in character was something like the hippopotaThe ANOPLOTHERIUM was less clumsy and more agile than the mus. Its body was but little raised above the ground, though Palæotherium, and was a nearer approach to the ruminant group its legs were ten feet high. It lived in water, but its head was of animals. The Anoplotheria were abundant in the older ter kept entirely out of the water. Its head resembled that of the tiaries. The name is derived from a, (av before vowels,) priva- elephant, having a powerful proboscis, and also a pair of large tive, or without, óriev, oplon, armour, and Onprov, therion, wild and long tusks curving downwards like those of the walrus. beast : that is the unarmed animal. Two species have been What is most remarkable in these tusks is, that they are fixed determined.

in t'e lower jaw of the animal, to enable it' to dig for succulent

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Fig. 2. Quadrupeds of the Tertiary Period. 1. Anoplotherium gracile. 2. Anoplotherium commune. 3. Palæotherium magnum. 4. Palæotherium minus. The first species was about as tall as a dwarf ass, but its food. It was the most gigantic of the herbivorous or grass. body was much longer, with the appendage of an enormous eating quadrupeds. tail

. It was particularly adapted to live in swampy districts The NASTODON was another species of elıysant, about the and in marshes, where it fed on the roots and the leaves of size of the present elephants and with mammillated teeth. It aquatic plants. Its body was about eight feet long, with a abounded in the districts now called North America ; where skin nearly naked, and having its ears very short. Except perfect skeletons of it have been found in salt marshes, which the kangaroo, no living animal is known to have so long and so it visited for the sake of the salt, and where it frequently sunk powerful a tail.

in deep mud and perished. Some of these marshes are known The second species of Anoplotherium is called the Xipho- to be forty miles long by about twenty miles broad. In don, from tipos, riphos, a sword, and bowv, odón, a tooth, Warren County, New Jersey, six skeletons of the same masa for creature very different in size, in proportions, and in habits todon were found, six feet below the surface, fiv: of them lying from the first species. The graceful elegance of its skeleton together. reminds one of the gazelle. It might be about as high as a

The name is given on account of its teeth being like paps goat, but its head and trunk indicate a smaller animal. It from paoros, mastos, breast or pap, and ofwv, tooth lived on the banks of lakes and rivers, and on the borders of This species continued to live through the Pleistocene periods, marshes

, feeding on aromatic herbs and the young buds of almost down to the human epoch, accompanied by some of the treen. It was covered with a short hair, and was most likely a animals which are now existing.

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