« ForrigeFortsett »
spermuntance of a vás vies mais ves compietzir es. Os account of this diminution of pressure, however, and the hansteTus las leen keemisiei : terens senciples precautions required in its management, Thilorier's lamp has by W. Caresi Girari, m CT. 2 I ans ocaer been almost laid aside for mechanical lamps; especially as the Suuting suns
Latter can be had at very low prices. Careei, i vanz. nis area. sei se sve Some years ago, under the name of the Solar lamp, an ingepar Es runirane mr. a sprog nesash. by nees' shoes apparatus for illumination was invented, in which, with Ji wc i sa pranz-suuusei : 25 jat meebanism of any description, and eren with inferior oils ise ae neer gar i vas Bremse z gesse, a frame of perfect whiteness was obtained. The situ zurrumas de RET. I s 28 se reservoir on oil in this lamp widens towards the top, and pung win 202w cun. To rin it was sz carnes = the middle, at its upper part, a burner, into which secang bansa a spring w Geel. 2, je vietis ismetsed nearly to the level of the liquid; and une succes envuelo : marvans i seng it was the benez bes a double current of air, the combustion se rare
Grisse- um de seg is becoming very imperfect, in consequence ULT marmuru Tursun. Nei : -22 iveraget the level of the oil in the reservoir. But
The Rey susport being arranged as shown in fig. 236, the
224 pagerad above the level of the oil, gives out an
are estrely consumed, and the light is rendered per
23 marwas fuus. -The oils of turpentine, naphtha, una priem. che essential oils extracted from schists, tar, ** ani resuns being composed, like common oil, of carbon anderingen, although in different proportions, it was natural menderar to empioy them in illumination ; but it was
ke to barn them in the apparatus adapted for oil, chts because the excess of carbon they contain rendered em to smoky to be borne. In order to obtain a proper ht, deneas ineans must be employed; thus, highly car
retiedois must be mixed with other liquids which are but siter carduretted, in order to compensate the excess of car
in the one by the want of it in the other; next, to supply The Name which they produce with a sufficient quantity of ut, that the ercess of carbon may not escape combustion,
and farm lamp-black; but, on the contrary, may burn in the Ginstructed on this **** **** ***** ***** dame, by combination with the oxygen of the air, when the Ve Sevda wie alled with you what and these aur is abundantly supplied. The vaporization of the burning liquise be in vend the house where in quals wail de to liquid powerfully assists these two methods of rendering the each when to the Path of threr densitter A salut above-mentioned fluids available. of muljahate of paper preparl, have cuisiderably In 1882, a system of lighting, conducted on these principles, prealer only than that of 0 wling on the metal which was introduced into France. The matter employed was known name it, preting nodowaan tual action on the oul, and sup- under the name of liquid gas, liquid hydrogen, or gazogen. As
omg the variation perspure without sensible altera- a liquid slightly carburetted for the preceding mixture, alcohol, Ci, wasthally employee by Tailorter in the construction methylio alcohol (spirit of wood), or ether, has been employed; the lamp with awet mu****, after many others had and the name alcoholate has been proposed for the mixture Indled in the same attemple in the above engraving, the place itself. Recently, however, unmixed essential oils have been of the sulphate wi wino is males by the deeper shading and employed for illumination, and by means of very ingenious that of the on by the lighter shadmg the latter being pressed arrangements, very perfect combustion has been obtained, and by a denaer liquid, Klaes up to the burner at a higher level a flame almost without smoke. M. Gaudin has invented an than that of the reservoir. In proportion as the level in the artificial light by directing a current of air upon a jet of some Inter la lowered, the pressure on the ascendiug column dimi. essential oil, and producing a powerful action at its extremity, lohen but the air ontering below the sulphate of zino, as in by throwing it on a ball of quicklime prepared in a particular Alastoto's vosel, partly replaces the effect of this pressure, I manner. Xe has thus produced the combustion of the oil of
turpentine without smoke, and obtained a flame of which the pipe with the oxygen terminates concentrically within the whiteness far surpasses that of a Carcel lamp. With pure pipe discharging the hydrogen, likewise at, or a short disoxygen, the flame became of a dazzling white, and gave a light tance inside of, its terminating orifice. Just before the union 150 times greater than oil-gas.
of the two discharge-pipes, these may be furnished with Drummond-light. -- The application of the oxyhydrogen inserted safety-pipes, consisting of a number of tubes with blowpipe for purposes of illumination, by throwing an ignited small boxes, or containing a series of wire-gauzes. The gases jet of the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen upon a cylinder of may also, after their mixture, and before being discharged lime, is well known under the name of the Drummond light. | through the orifices, be conducted through a similar safety-tube; In this case, the nozzle or orifice of the blowpipe must be but these safety-tubes are often dispensed with, as, with the pointed upwards, in order to allow the flame to play upon proper precautions of always keeping the gases under sufthe lime. In all practical applications of the oxyhydrogen ficient pressure during their use, and attending to the closing of blowpipe, the plan of employing the gases mixed beforehand the stop-cocks when not in use, no danger of the return and in the reservoirs has been abandoned, and the original plan the mixture of the gases, and the consequent explosion, need of the inventor, Dr. Hare, has been again adopted. The gases be apprehended. are generally kept in metallic reservoirs, and their regular and steady efflux is effected by hydrostatic pressure and stop
Gas-light. - While oil-lights were gradually reaching a cocks immersing the gasometers or reservoirs in water. For
more perfect state, a substitute for them on a large scale was larger purposes, closed reservoirs may, in large cities, where invented about the beginning of the present century. In such conveniences present themselves, be connected by a pipe 1785, attempts had been made in France, by Lebon, to produce and stop-cock with the pressure of the city water-works. gas-light by the distillation of wood. Mr. Murdoch (whose The hydrogen may in many cases be employed as obtained experiments began in 1792) introduced coal gas, as a mode of directly from a large self-regulating reservoir, containing and Watt, at Soho, near Birmingham, and into the cotton
illumination, in 1805, into the workshops of Messrs. Boulton large india-rubber bags are now manufactured, and the con- factory of Messrs. Phillips and Lee, at Manchester. In 1815 venience and nicety with which they are filled with the gases,
the same mode of lighting factories was introduced into and these, in like manner, retained and subsequently discharged France by Mr. Winsor ; but it was not till some years after by superposed weights, has lately introduced them into this period that the scheme succeeded in that country. extensive use for the purposes above-mentioned. From the The illuminating gas is chiefly composed of carburetted reservoirs, the gases are delivered by pipes furnished with hydrogen, of which the density is 0.6 of that of air, and is stop-cocks, at the orifices where the combustion takes place. obtained by the destructive or dry distillation of coal. The Near these, the pipes are either made to combine by being following table will give our readers an idea of the products united into one, as the two branches of the letter y; or the arising from this process.
Naphthalin, paranaphthalin, benzin, leukolin,
Ammoniacal | Water, ammonia, carbonic, acetic, sulphurous, nuriatic,
Liquor. sulfhydric, cyanhydric, rhodanlıydric, etc., acids.
, cyanhydric, etc., acids.
Heavy and light carburetted hydı ogens.
Carbonic oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen.
The best coal for making illuminating gas is considered to by the distillation of bituminous coal, is composed chiefly of be that known by the name of bituminous or fatty coal, burn- protocarburetted hydrogen, carbonic oxide, carbonic acid, nitroing with a long flame; some kinds yielding upwards of 8,000 gen, oleaginous matters more or less easily condensed, ammocubic feet of gas per ton of coals: but that kind of coal called niacal and sulphuretted compounds, and tarry substances. cannel coal yields from 10,000 to 12,000 cubic feet of gas per As in this state the gas exhales a very fetid smell, and the ton. The distillation is effected in large cylindrical cast-iron products of the combustion are themselves odoriferous, it is Tetorts, ranged parallel to each other, to the number of three necessary to purify the gas, especially for domestic use. For of five, over the same furnace ; each retort being provided this purpose it is conveyed from the retort into a small barrel, with a vertical tube, through which the coal is introduced, partly filled with water, through a pipe entering into the and to which the pipe is fastened for the discharge of the gas liquid about one-eighth or a quarier of an inch, so as to interThe temperature of the furnace must be kept at a bright cept the communication of the retort with
the apparatus in cherry-red heat, because if it be greater, the gas does not which the gas is collected. The greater part of the water and give so much light; for the bicarburetted hydrogen gas and tar condenses in the barrel, which is furnished with a disthe
volatile oils, to which the brilliancy of the flame is charging pipe to maintain a constant level in the barrel, and chiefly owing, deposit carbon, and are converted into proto- to allow the excess of the condensed products to escape. The Carburetted hydrogen, the combustion of which gives but gas, on leaving the barrel, traverses a series of pipes more or low, a large quantity of essential oil is formed, which cannot is completed, and is then conducted through boxes containing remain in suspension in the gas, but is deposited in the refri- metallic salts, chiefly chloride of manganese and sulphate of geratora. The duration of the distillation varies according to iron, which decompose the ammoniacal salts and isolate the the quality of the coal, its hvgrometric state, and the arrange- sulfhydric acid; finally, it passes through other boxes con inent of the apparatus; and the residue consists of a light tainilig hydrated lime, which absorbs the sulfhydric gas, the coke, much used for domesti: purposes. The gas produced | carbonic acid and the other acid vapours. But these puriti
cations must not be carried too far, otherwise the gas will be exterior appearance of the gas-meter. The gas enters at B deprived of too much of its oily vapours, and its illuminating and goes out at A. po ver would be sensibly diminished,
The pipes which conduct the gas may be made of cast-iron, The gas is collected in gue-holders called gasometers (which stone-ware, iron-plate, covered with bituminous mastic, gal. resemble immense bells), made of sheet-iron, and inverted in vanized iron-plate lead, or zinc... The burners have genecisterns of corresponding size, built of hydraulic mason-work, rally the form of those of Argand's lamp, in order that they and filled with water. The weight of the gasometer is para may have the double current of air. This burner is pierced tially balanced by counterpoises, which leave it only the with fifteen or twenty holes of about one-twentieth of an inci weight necessary to produce the pressure required for the or less in diameter, the diameter of its central space being distribution of the gas to the various jets it has to feed. The rather less than an inch. pressure is composed of the resistance which the gas meets in circulating through pipes, generally of great extent; the excess of elastic force which it must retain in order to feed the jets; and the pressure necessary to drive it to the highest LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION. points, of which the level is frequently higher than that of the
No. XVII, gasometer. The last pressure may be easily calculated after ascertaining the difference, h, of the lerel of the gasometer and
EXERCISES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE (continued). of the highest jet, and the density of the gas as compared with that of the air, when it is equal to the weight of a column of water
INTERESTING ADVENTURE, whose height is represented by
I wandered far into the bare prairie, which was spread Ad
The height of a gaso- around me like an ocean of snow, the gentle undulations here 770.
and there having no small resemblance to the ground swell. meter is generally equal to the radius of the base. The largest When the sun took off his night-cap of mist (for the morning gasometers are about 100 feet in diameter.
was cloudy), the glare of the landscape, or rather snowscape, The following economical mode of manufacturing gas has was absolutely painful to my eyes; but a small veil of green recently been adopted in Manchester. Three or five retorts crape obviated that difficulty. Toward noon I was aware of a are used, the central one of which is charged with metallic buffalo, at a long distance, turning up the snow with his nose iron and coke, or with coke alone, and traversed by a current and feet, and cropping the withered grass beneath. I always of steam, which is thus decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen. thought it a deed of mercy to slay such an old fellow, he looks These gases are led through the other retorts, in which coal so miserable and discontented with himself. As to the indiviis undergoing the process of distillation, when the free hydro- dual in question, I determined to put an end to his long, tur. gen combines with the nascent carbon resulting from the bulent, and evil life. decomposition of different hydro-carbons, and forms olefiant To this effect, I approached him as a Chinese malefactor gas, which imparts a great brilliancy to the flame. The gas approaches a mandarin—that is to say, prone, like a serpent, chus manufactured is called hydro-carbon gas, and its illumi- But the parity only exists with respect to the posture; for the nating power is double that of ordinary gas under the same aforesaid malefactor expects to receive pain, whereas I incircumstances, while the cost of production is at least not tended to inflict it. He was a grim-looking barbarian--and, grtater than in the former case.
if a beard be a mark of wisdom, Peter the Hermit was a fool In the use of gas illumination in a large scale, it became to him. So, when I had attained a suitable proximity, I necessary to employ an apparatus simple and not liable to get appealed to his feelings with a bullet. He ran--and I ran; out of order, for measuring the quantity furnished to any and I had the best reason to run--for he can after me, and I establishment, public or private. For this purpose the gas, thought that a pair of horns might destroy my usual equani. mieter was invented. It consists of a kind of bucket-wheel mity and equilibrium. In truth, I did not fly any too fast, for with its axis placed horizontally, and immersed in a cylinder the old bashaw was close behind me, and I could hear him filled with water up to the axis. A tube conducts the gas to breathe. I threw away my gun; and, as there was ro tree at this axis; the gas then passes through the water and fills the hand, I gained the centre of a pond of a few yards area, such bucket placed in the upper part of the cylinder, whence it as are found all over the prairies in February. escapes through another tube properly arranged for the pur. Here I stood secure, as though in a majic circle, well knowpose. As soon as the girst bucket is emptied, a second is filled ing that neither pigs nor buffaloes can walk upon ice. My in the same manner; and this admission and discharge of the pursuer was advised of this fact also, and did not venture to gas is regularly continued. The gas communicates a motion trust himself on so slippery a footing. Yet it seemed that he of rotation to the wheel, and the quantity of gas delivered is was no gentleman; at least he did not practise forgiveness of ascertained by the number of revolutions made by the appa- injuries. He perambulated the periphery of the pond, till I ratus, a number which is registered by the wheel-work put in was nearly as cold as the ice under me.' It was worse than motion by the axis of the bucket-wheel. Fig. 237 shows the the stone-jug, or the Black-hole a: Calcutta. Ah! thought I,
if I only had my gun, I would scon relieve you from your Fig. 937.
But discontent was all in rain. Thus I remained, and thus Le remained, for at least four hours. In the mean while, I thought of the land of steady habits ; of baked beans, and pumpkins, and codfish on Saturdays. There, said I to myself, my neighbour's proceeding would be reckoned unlawful, i guess; for no one can be held in custody without a warrant and sufficient reason. If ever I get back, I won't be caugh: in such a scrape again.
Grief does not last for ever; neither does anger; and my janitor, either forgetting his resentment, which, to say the truth, was not altogether groundless, or thinking it was useless, or tired of his self-imposed duty, or for some reason or other, bid me farewell with a loud bellow, and walked away to a little oasis that was just in sight, and left me to my meditations. I picked up my gun, and followed. He entered the wood--and so did I, just in time to see him fall and expire.
The sun was setting; and the weather was getting colder and colder, I could hear the ground crack, and the trees split, with its intensity. I was at least twenty miles from home; and it behoved me, if I did not wish to "svake in the
morning and find myself dead,” to make a fire as speedily as the grotesque absurdity of their own conduct, they have not possible. I now first perceived that, in my very natural hurry capacity enongh to master the alphabet of 'good manners. If to escape from my shaggy foe, I had lost the martin-skin angelic natures be susceptible of ludicrous emotions, we know wherein I carried my flint, steel, and tinder. This was of of nothing more likely to call them forth than the sight of an little consequence; I had often made a fire by the aid of my insect inhabitant of this great ant-hill assuming airs of gun before, and I drew my knife and began to pick the flint. superiority over his brother emmet, because he has a few more Death to my hopes-at the very first blow I struck it ten grains of barley in his granary, or some other equally cogent yards from the lock, and it was lost for ever in the snow.
Well," said I to myself, “I have cooked a pretty kettle of the gentlemen, young and old, whiskered and unwhisof fish, and brought my calf's head to a fine market. Shall kered, that may be seen in Regent-street any sunshiny day, I furnish those dissectors, the wolves, with a subject, or shall there is not one who does not think himself a polite man, cold work the same effect on me that grief did upon Niobe ? and who would not very much resent any insinuation to the Would that I had a skin like a buffalo!
contrary. Their opinion is grounded on reasons something Necessity is the spur, as well as the mother, of invention ; like the following. When they go to a party, they make a luw and, at these last words, a new idea flashed through my brain bow to the mistress of the house, and then look round for like lightning. I verily believe that I took off the skin of my somebody that is young and pretty to make themselves agreevictim in fewer than ten strokes of my knife. Such a hide able to. entire is no trifle; it takes a strong man to lift it ;—but I At a ball they will do their utmost to entertain their partner, rolled the one in question about me, with the hair in ward, unless the fates have given them to some one who is ugly and and lay down to sleep, tolerably sure that neither Jack Frost | awkward; and they will listen to her remarks with their most nor the wolves could get at me, through an armour thicker bland expression. "If they are invited to a dinner party, they and tougher than the sevenfold shield of Ajax.
go in their best coats, praise their entertainer's wine, and tell Darkness closed in ; and a raven began to sound his note of the lady they hope her children are all well. If they tread on evil omen from a neighbouring branch. “ Croak on, black the toes of a well-dressed person, they will beg his pardon. angel,” said I; "I have heard croaking before now, and am They never spit on a carpet; and, in walking with a lady, not to be frightened by any of your colour.” Suddenly a they always give her the inside ; and, if the practice be allowherd of wolves struck up at a distance, probably excited by able, they offer her their arm, the scent of the slain buffalo. “Howl on,” said I; "and, So far, very good; but I must always see a man in certain being among wolves, I will howl too—for I like to be in the situations before I decide whether he be polite or not. I fashion; but that shall be the extent of our intimacy" AC- should like to see how he would act is placed at dinner becordingly, I uplifted my voice, like a pelican in the wilderness, tween an ancient maiden lady and a country clergyman with a and gave them back their noise, with interest. Then I lay small salary and a.rusty coat, and with some distinguished down again, and moralised. This, thought I, is life. What person opposite to him. I want to see him on a hot and dusty would my poor mother say, if she were alive now? I have day, sitting on the back seat of a stage-coach, when the driver read books of adventure, but never read anything like this. I takes in some poor lone woman, with, may be, a child in her fell asleep, without further ado,-- Sneliing.
arms, and tells the gentlemen that one of them inust ride out
side and make room for her. THOUGHTS ON POLITENESS.
I want to be near him when his washerwoman makes The common notion about politeness is, that it is a thing of some very gooil excuro 10 bin for not bringing home his the body, and not of the mind; and that he is a polite man clothes at the usual time, or not doing up an article in exactly who makes certain motions in a graceful manner, and at pro- the style he wished. I want to hear the tone and emphasis per times and places. We expect the dancing master to teach with which he gives orders to servants in steam-boats and our children “manners," as well as the art of cutting awkward taverns. I mark his conduct when he is walking with an capers to music. But the truth is, that we degrade politeness umbrella, on a rainy day, and overtakes an old man, or an • by making it anything less than a cardinal virtue.
invalid, or a decent-looking woman, who are exposed, without The happiness of life is made up of an infinite number of protection, to the violence of the storm.
If he be in company, little things, and not of startling events and great emotions; with those whom he thinks his inferiors, I listen to hear if and he who daily and hourly diffuses pleasure around him by his conversation be entirely about himself. If some of the kind ofices, frank salutations, and cheerful looks, deserves as number be very distinguished, and some quite unknown, I well of his species, as he who, neglecting or despising all observe whether he acts as if he were utterly unconscious' of these, makes up for it by occasional acts of generosity, justice, the presence of these last. or benevolence. Besides, the opportunity of doing great
These are a few, and but a few, of the tests by which I try things but rarely occurs, while a.man has some dozens of a man; and, I am sorry to say, there are very few who can chances , every day of his life, to show whether he be polite stand them all. There is many a one who passes in the world
for a well-bred man, because he knows when to bow and A truly polite man must, in the first place, have the gift of smile, that is down in my tablets for a selfish, vulgar, unpolite good sense, for, without that foundation, it is idle to think of monster, that loves his own little finger better than his neighTearing any, even the smallest superstructure. He must know bour's whole body. Put any man in a situation where he is when to violate that code of consentional forms which com- called upon to make a sacrifice of his own comfort and ease, non consent has established, and when not; for it is equally without any equivalent in return, and you will learn the a mark of weakness to be a slave to these forms or to despise difference between true politeness, that sterling ore of the hem. He must have penetration and tact enough to adapt heart, and the counterfeit imitation of it, which passes current his conversation and manner to circumstances and
individuals; in drawing-rooms. Any man must be an idiot not to be polite for that which is politeness in the drawing-room, may be in society, so called; for how else would he get his oysters and downright rudeness in the bar-room or the stage-coach, as well champagne ? — Ilillard.
Above all, he must have that enlarged and catholic spirit of
Man Hled before his Maker's wrath,
An angel left her place in heaven, the rights, and does justice to the claims, of every member of
And crossed the wanderer's sunless path.
Where her light toot flew o'er the ground;
• The Curse a Blessing shall be found." selves, and heir to the saine immortal destinies, because he does not dress in a particular style, or visit in certain houses,
She led him through the trackless wild, they are out of the question. If they are too weak to perceive
Where noontide sunbeam never blazed ;
as the converse.
ODE ON ART
great human family.
The thistle shrunk, the harvest smiled,
And Nature gladdened, as she gazed. Earth's thousand tribes of living things,
At Art's command, to him are given ; The village grows, the city springs,
And point their spires of faith to heaven. He rends the oak,--and bids it ride,
To guard the shores its beauty graced : He smites the rock, -upheaved in pride,
See towers of strength and domes of taste. Earth's teeming caves their wealth reveal,
Fire bears his banner on the wave, He bids the mortal poison heal,
And leaps triumphant o'er the grave,
Admiring Beauty's lap to fill;
And imitates creating skill.
He bids the ore illume the page,
Converses with an unborn age. In fields of air he writes his name,
And treads the chambers of the sky; He reads the stars, and grasps the flame
That quivers round the Throne on high. In war renowned, in peace sublime,
He moves in greatness and in grace; His power, subduing space and time,
Links realm to realm, and race to race.-Sprague.
(The piece which follows is designed for practice in the very slow' rate which characterises deep awe. Reverence, solemnity, and awe,--but especially the last, -incline to extreme slowness, great prolongation of single sounds, and remarkably long pauses. The tone of these emotions is deep, although not so peculiarly low as that which was exemplified in the preceding legson. Length of vowel sounds, and length of pauses, are the main objects of practice in such exercises.] (7) o Thou eternal One! whose presence bright
All space doth occupy, all motion guide:
And as the spangles in the sunny rays
Derzhavin. NIAGARA. [The following piece is designed for practice in the 'slow' utterance which characterises the tones of sublimity and awe. The 'rate' of voice is not altogether so slow as in the preceding lesson; yet it retains much of that effect which cannot be given without slowness of movement and full pauses. The note, in the style of this lesson, continues low, alihough not 80 remarkably deep as in the preceding. The principal object of