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Aorist 2.

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8. 1ε-στη-ν stood[ε-θη-ν)

(ε-θης) { a.1.1ε-δω-ς) { a.1.

does not oc- ε-θου (εθεσο) ε-δου (εδoσo)

3 έ-στη -θη) (ε-δω)

ε-πτα-μην ε-θε-μεθον
D. 1

2 έ-στη-τον



ε-πρια-μην) ε-θε-σθον 3

ε-θε-σθην ε-δο-σθην ε-στη-την

ε-θε-την ε-δο-την Ρ. 1



ε-θε-σθε ε-δο-σθε
2 ε-στη-τε ε-θε-τε



S. 1στώ


(στώ-μαι does θώ-μαι! δώ-μαι
2| στης


not occur, θη 3 στη

butπριώμαι) θή-ται


D, 1
2| στή-τον θη-τον
δώ- τον

θή-σθον δω-σθον
3 | στή-τον


θή-σθον δω-σθον

θω-μεθα Ρ. 1, στώμεν


2] στή-τε


δω-νται 3 | στώ-σιν) θώ-σι(ν)

θω-νται δω-σι(ν)



S. 1 σται-ην


does not oc-

2| σταιής


3 σται-η



θοι μεθων D.1


2| σται-ητον


αιο,αιτο,etc.) θοί-σθαν

θοι-σθην 3

δοι-στην σται-ήτεν

δοι-ητην θει-ητην


Ρ. 1 σται-ημεν
θει-ημεν δοι-ημεν


θει-ητε δοι-ητε

θοί-ντο δοί-ντο
3 σταί-εν θεϊ-εν

δοί-εν S. 2 Ιστή - θι ? θες (θεθι) 3

στα-σο, στω, θού (θεσο) 4 | δου (δοσο) και δος (δοθι) 3

δο-σθω 3

does not oς - θε-σθω θε-τω

δο-τω στη: τω

θε-σθον δο-σθον
D. 2) στη - τον

θε τον


θε-των δο-των
στη: των

θε σθε
Ρ. 2 | στή-

δο- σθε

- τε

θε σθωσαν δο- σθωσαν
στη-τωσαν θε-τωσαν δο-τωσαν

Or θε-σθων Or δο-σθων or στα-ντων Or θε-ντων Or δο-ντων


θε-σθαι δο-σθαι


(στα-μενος) | θε-μενος, η, δο-μενος, η,
στάς,άσα,άν θεις, είσα, εν δους,δούσα, ον
G. σταντος


G. θεντος
G. δοντος


θη-σομαι δω-σομαι

δειξω .


Aorist 1:


ε-στη-σαμης | (ε-θη-κα-μην) (ε-δω-κα-μην) ε-δειξαμην


δε-δειγ-μαι .


έ-στη-κα, sto τε-θει-κα

ε-τε-θει-μην ε-δε-δο-μην ε-δε-δειγ-μην
έ-στη-κειν & Τε-τε-θει-κειν | ε-δε-δω-κειν | ε-δε-δειχειν | ε-στά-μην


wanting. wanting.

. έ-στηξομαι wanting. wanting.

wanting. . έ-στηξω, old

wanting. . [Attic

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Future 3.

Aorist 1. ε-στά-θην ε-τε-θην 5 ε-δο-θην ε-δειχθην Future 1. στά-θησομαι τε-θησομαι και δο-θησομαι δειχ-θησομαι


8o in the compounds :' ενθώμαι, ή, ήται, etc.; αποθώμαι, ή, ήται, etc. και εκδώμαι, ώ, ώται, etc.; αποδώμαι, ω, ωται, etc. 1 and in the compounds: παραστηθι, παραστά; αποστηθί, αποστα. 3 in the compound: : περιθες, ενθες και αποδος, εκδος; περιθετε, εκδοτε. 4 in compounds: καταθου, αποθου και περιδου, αποδου; καταθεσθε, περιδοσθε; ενθεσθε, προδοσθε ; but ενθου, εισθού και προδού, ενδού. Ο ετεθην and τεθησομαι instead of εθεθην and θεθησομαι.

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Present (Tempo presente).

To be loved,

Essere amato,-a. of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the Italian and German Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Gramınar School.

Perfect (Tempo passato).

To have been loved.

Essere stato amato

essere stata amata, etc. (De vér-bi pas-si-vi).

Present Gerund (Gerundio presente). The Italian language like the English has no special ter.

Being loved (i.e. because, etc., I, etc., am loved). minations to express the passive voice, which is formed, as

Essendo (io) amato, –a. in English, by means of the auxiliary verb essere, to be. It is on this account sufficient to know this verb and the past

Being loved (i.e. because, etc., we, etc., are loved).

Essendo (noi) amati, - e. participle of the principal verb, since the combination of these iwo through all tenses forms the passive voice, e. g. amo, I love-sono amato, I am loved ; temo, I fear-sono temuto, I am

Past Gerund (Gerundio passato). feared ; and thus through all the tenses of essere. The verb Having been loved (i.e. because, etc., I, etc., have been loved). re-ni-re, to come, may also be used instead of essere, with a

Essendo (io) stato amato, etc. passive verb, but only in its simple, and never in its com- Having been loved (i.e, because, etc., we, etc., have been loved). pound tenses, e. g. vên-go a-md-to, I am loved, instead of sono

Essendo (noi) stati amati, etc. amato; but it is not allow able to say só-no ve--to a-md-to, instead of sono stato amato, I have been loved, etc. In addition

Past Participle (Participio passato).* to renire, occasionally the verbs—re-stá-re, lo remain, be left;

Having been loved. ri-ma-ne-re, to remain ; an-di-re, to go; and stá-re, to stand

Stato amato, etc. may be used as a kind of auxiliaries to conjugate the simple tenses of the passive voice. They express, like renire, the

INDICATIVE Mood (MoDo AFFERMATIVO.) continuance of some act or state of a person or thing with greater energy and elegance than essere. For this very reason

Prəsent (Tempo presente). they must be used sparingly. That the use of essere and

I am lored. venire is not arbitrary-essere denoting that some act has been done or accomplished, while renire generally expresses that

Sono or vên-go amato, -a some act has commenced without being completed-may be


riê-ni amato,-a è

rie-ne amato,-a seen in these two phrases : il qui-dro è di-pin-to, the picture is

siamo re-niá mo amati,painted, and il qua-dro viê-ne di-pin-to, the picture is being

siete ve-ni-te amati, painted. Other phrases illustrating the use of these verbs in the passive voice, are- viên lo-du-to da tút-ti, he is praised by

vên-go-no amati,-e. all; vin-ne ac-cu-80 ta, she was accused; ver-run-no bia-si-ma-te, they will be blamed ; qué-sta -ce va -sta pri-ma, this word

Imperfect (Tempo presente di passato). is (i.e. must be) put before ; qué ste du.e cô.se r'an-no u-ni-te,

I was loved. these two things are joined together (i.e. go together); ne re-sta-i,

Era or re-ni-va amało,-a or ri-nd-si, ma-ra-vi-gliá-to (for fu-i ma-ra-vi glici to), I was


ve-ni-vi amato,-a astonished at it; és-sa non ne re-stò (for fu) per-sud-sa,

ve-ni-va amato,-a not convinced of it; ri-me-se af-fit-to a que-ste pa--le, at

ve-ni-tá-mo amati,-€ these words he was afflicted ; i ca ral·li ston-no (for -no) at

eravate t'e-ni--te amati,-€ tuc-cu-ti dil-la car-róz-za, the horses are put to the coach ; e-gli

re-ni-ra-no amati,-1. sta se-(-to, he is seated (i.e. he sits).

The past participle, forming with the tenses and moods of Indeterminate Preterite (Tempo passato remoto).
essere the passive voice, must be considered as a real adjective
agreeing with the passive subject or nominative in gender and

I was loved. number. This rule is invariable, even when the verbs andare,

Fui or vên-ni amato, -a restare, rimanere, stare, and eenire, are used in the place

fosti ve-ni-sti amato,of essere, e. g. nói ( siá-mo stá-ti in-gan-na-ti, we

fu amato, --1 (neu) have been deceived; tôi (dom - e) sii-mo sti-te to gan.

ve-nim-mo amati,-) na-te, we (women) have been deceived; -li cô.se non

foste ve-ni-ste amati,fat-te co-si, such things are not done in this way ; le rir. che

furono , vên-ne-ro amati,-, ven.go-no at-tri-bui-te a qué-ste pian-te, the qualities which are attributed to these plants ; tit-ti ri-nd--ro na-ra-ti-gia-ti,

Determinate Preterite (Tempo passato prossimo). all were astonished. There is a peculiar way of expressing the passive voice by

I have been loved. means of the pronoun si, the use of which will be explained in

Sono stato amato the additional observations on the regular verbs.

sono stata amata, etc. To change active verbs into passive the case-sign da, or the

siamo stati amati preposition per, must be put before the subjects of the active

siamo state amate, etc. voice on which some act depends, or which are its authors or Interminate Pluperfect (Tempo trapassato prossimo) causes, e. g. the following sentences :-Sci-pió-ne di-strús-se Car-ta-gi-ne, Scipio destroyed Carthage; An-ni-ba-le scón-fis-se

I had been loved. più vôl-te i Ro--ni, Hannibal several times defeated the

Era stato amato, etc. Romans ; in. tro-dúr-re al-cu-no, to introduce somebody, when changed into passive will run as follows:-Car-tu-gi-ne fu • The Italian language has no present and future participles in the prestre di-strit-la da Sci-pio-ne, Carthage was destroyed by Scipio ;'i voice. Such words uszec-ne-rán-do, venerable, to be revered: reuse remodeling Ro--ni -ron piu rol te scon-fil-ti da An-ni-ba-le, the Romans language, might be called future participles *** were several times de-feated by Hannibal; és-se-re in-tro-dót-to considered as adjectives. The learner r da al-cu-no, or per al-cú.no, to be introduced by somebody.

no suture participle in the active voi The following paradigm may serve as a model for the conju- be considered as adjectives point

thought to be such are, as it were, gation of passive verbs,

future; ven lii-ro, fu:ure, next,

she was



fummo ,

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Determinate Pluperfect (Tempo trapassato remoto).

I had been loved.
Fui stato amato, etc.

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Future (Tempo futuro).

I shall be loved.
Sarò or ver-amato,-a
sarai ver-rá.i amato,--a

saremo ver-ré-mo amati,-€
sarete ver--te amati,-e

saranno ver-rán-no amati,-€. Future Perfect (Tempo passato di futuro).

I shall have been loved.

Sarò stato amato, etc.
Conditional Present (Tempo condizionale presente).

I should be loved.
Sarei or ver-ré.i amato,--a
saresti ver-ré-sti amato,
sarebbe ver-réb-be amato, -a

ver-rém-mo amati, –
sareste ver--ste amati, -e

sarebbero ver-rêb-be-ro amati-e. Conditional Past (Tempo condicionale passato).

I should have been loved,

Sarei stato amato, etc.


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is at the same time a passive object, and for this reason is expressed twice ; lst, by the personal pronouns io, I; tu, thou; egli or esso, he or it; ella or essa, she; noi, we; voi, you; eglino, clleno or essi, eşse, they : 2nd, by the so-called conjunctive pronouns mi, myself

, or to myself (i. e, a me); ti, thyself, or to thyself (i. e. a te); si, himself, herself, itself, or to himself, etc. (i. e, a se); ci, ourselves, or to ourselves (i. e, a noi); ri, yourselves, or to yourselves (i. e, a voi); si, themselves, or to themselves (i. e. a se). These are consequently in the accusative, and sometimes in the dative case, must be placed before the verb, and will be fully explained hereafter, e. g. io mi di-fén-do, I defend myself ; tu ti di-fén-di, thou defendest thyself; egli (or ella) si di fén-de, he (or she) defends himself (or herself); noi ci di-fen-diá-mo, we defend ourselves; roi vi difen-de-te, you defend yourselves; essi or esse si di-fé, they defend themselves, etc. The personal pronouns may, in this case, as well as in the conjugation of all Italian verbs, be omitted ; and it is sufficient to say-mi difendo, ti difendi, si difende, ci difendiamo, vi difendete, si difendono, and so on through all tenses and moods. When the pronouns mi, ti, ci, vi, and si come before a verb beginning with a vowel, their final vowel i may be omitted and an apostrophe put in its place e. g. m' av-veg-go (for mi aveggo), I perceive, or remark; accór-gi (for ti accorgi), thou perceivest; s' im-pa-dro-ni-sce (for si impadronisce), he seizes upon or makes himself master of. In the infinitive mood of these verbs the pronoun si must be removed to the end as a suffix, e.g. van-tár-si, to boast; ralle-grár-si, to be delighted ; af-fli-ger-si, to grieve (which is equivalent to rallegrare, affligere, etc., se me-de-si-mo).

Some verbs are reflectives in the strictest sense of the word and can never be used without the above-mentioned reciprocal pronouns, e.g. ac-côr-ger-si, to perceive, or be sensible of; contri-stár-si, to be afflicted, or cast down; in-na-mo-rár-si, to fall in love; in-ge-gnár-si, to endeavour, to task all one's powers of ingenuity and application; im-pa-dro-nir-si, im-pos-ses-sá, to seize upon, or make one's self master of; la.gnár-si, to complain ; ma-ra-vi-gliá, to wonder; ral-le-grár-si, to be delighted; ver-go-gnár-si, to be ashamed, etc. It must, how. ever, immediately appear that every verb may assume the reflective form, having the pronoun si added to its infinitive, whenever the action which the verb implies returns back to the subject, e. g. ab-ban-do--re, to abandon, or give up, and a-ban-do-nár-si, to give one's self up, or over; ab-bas--re, to abase, lower, and ab-bas-sá, to fall off, sink, to cringe; do--re, to suffer, feel pain, and do-lér-si, to grieve, complain, pity; al--re, to raise, and al-zár-si, to rise, get up, etc.

The genius of the Italian language generally requires the reflective verbs to be considered as passive, thus giving rather an illogical predominance to the passive state of the subject reacting on itself, while the unmistakable active nature of a reflective verb, which distinctly names the passive object, is dropped. For this reason the great majority of these verbs, i.e. the reflective verbs governing the accusative case of the person; in their compound tenses must be conjugated with essere instead of avere, and their participle must agree in number and gender with this accusative, preceding the verb, e. g.


Be thou loved.
Sii or sia amato,-
sia amato,-a
siamo amati,
siate amati,
siano or sieno amati,--e.

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Present (Tempo presente).

I may be loved.
Sia or vên-ga amato, a
sii or sia tên-gd amatd,a

ven-ga amato,--
siamo ve-niá-mno amati,--e

ve-niá-te amati,--
siano vên-ga-no amati,“e.
Imperfect (Tempo presente di passato).

I might be loved.
Fossi or re- nis-si amato,-a
fossi te nis-si amato,-
fosse ve nis-8e amato, a
fossimo ve-nis-si-mo amati,-
foste ve-ni-ste amati,-e

ve-nis-se-ro amati,-e.
Perfect (Tempo passato.)
I may have been loved.

Sia stato amato
sia stata amata, etc.
siamo stati amati

siamo state amate, etc,

I mig!


fossero ,

been mistaken.

AOTIVE. L' in-gan--to, I have de- Ni sci-no in-gan-ná.to, I have

deceived myself, or I have ceived him. Mi ha in-gan-nd-to, he has de- Eigh's'i in-gan--to, he has

deceived himsell, or he ceived me.

has been mistaken, L' per-suá-so, I have con Mi se o pe, *-840 -80, I have

cor vinced myself, vinced him.

Jl 812-77's FI6 per-dis-to, I have lost, etc. 1, I have been lasi, etc.

i te-014-19, I have been silent, or heaw my ivague.

.to, I hare concealed, ssed over in eilence,

Hted in th

..."91. in ! do-path, I hate grired; } .mn na vre) he had got him mi crowned. o he denindik ?! ir. theep (uses eren un'e

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To repent.

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é-ra-no lun-ga-men-te a-md-li, they had been in love a long

INFINITIVE Mood (Modo INDEFINITO). while; egli si areva fatto coronare (as quoted above), etc. Present (Tempo presente). Present Participle (Participio These are, however, licences of celebrated writers, who, from

presente). caprice or want of attention, have allowed themselves perhaps

Pen-tir-si. by provincial phraseology to be seduced into these infractions

Repenting. of the rule and are not to be imitated.

Perfect (Tempo passato).

Peu-tên-te-si. The reflective verbs governing the dative case of the person To have repented.

Past Participle (Participio pasand the accusative case of the thing in their compound tenses És-ser-si pen-ti-to.

sato). may be conjugated either with essere or avere, and when the

Repented. accusative case of the thing precedes them, their participle

Future (Tempo futuro).

Pen-ti-to-si must agree with it; but it remains unchanged when the accusa

To be about to repent.

pen-ti-ta-si tive follows, e. g. él·la si ė (or si ha) strac-cid-to il vi-80, she És-se-ro per pen-tir-si.

pen-ti-ti-si has lacerated her (i. e. to herself the) face; e-gli-no si -no (or

pen-ti-te-si. si hún-no) fát-to o-no-re, they have been an honour (i. e, done honour) to themselves; la vi-ta che vi sié-te (or vi a--te) -sa

Present Gerund (Gerundio preil-indóra, the life which you have embittered (i. e. rendered

sente). bitter) to yourselves ; mi -no (or mi ho) po-sto in cuô-re, I have

Repenting. resolved (i, e. I have fixed to myself in the inind).

Pen-tén-do-si. The conjunctive pronouns mi, ti, ci, vi, si, in ordinary or familiar language, precede the reflective verb, as will appear

Past Gerund (Gerundio pasfrom the paradigm of its conjugation. The only exceptions

sato). are the imperative and infinitive moods, the gerunds and participles,

Having repented. where they are added as suffixes to the verbs. But in a more

Es-sen-do-si pen-ti-to. measured or elegant style, and especially in poetry, those pronouns may be added as suffixes to all the tenses where

Future Gerund (Gerundio fue they generally precede the verb, unless ambiguity or harsh

turo). sound should forbid it, and it is allowable, e. g. to say-pên

Being about to repent. to-mi for mi pén-to, I repent; pên-te-si for si pên-te, he or she

Es-sen-do per pen-tir-si. repents; pero-ti-va-si for si pen-ti-va, he repented ; pen-ti-ron-si for si pen-ti-ro-no, they repented, etc. But with regard to

INDICATIVE Mood (Modo AFPERMATIVO). these suffixes, the following rules must be adhered to:

Present (Tempo presente). Indeterminate Preterite (Tem.

po passato remoto). 1. If the verb to which a conjunctive pronoun is suffixed is

I repent. an abbreviated word (-ce trón-ca) with the accent on its last

lo mi pin-to

I repented. syllable, the initial consonant of the pronoun must be doubled,

Tu ti pin-ti

Io mi pen-ti-i e. g. for si pen-ti, he repented ; mi pen-ti-rò, I shall repent; and

Egli, ella si pên-te

Tu ti pen-li-sti si pen.ti-, he will repent; it will be indispensable to say-pen

Noi ci pen-tiu-mo +

Egli, ella si pen-ti tis-si, pen-ti-róm-mi, and pen-ti-rás-si ; for si tur-bò, he was dis

Voi vi pen-ti-te

Noi ci pen·tim-mo concerted (from turbarsi); se ne an-dò, he went away (from an

Eglino, elleno si pén-to-no

l'oi vi pen-ti-ste darsene) ---tur.bôs-si, an-dós-8e-ne, étc.

Eglino, elleno si pen-ti-ro-no 2. In compound tenses the conjunctive pronouns must be Imperfect (Tempo presente di Determinate Preterite (Tempo suffixed to the auxiliary verb, e. g. 1-o mi -no pen-ti-to, or


passato prossimo. -no-mi pen-ti-to, I have repented; é-gli si sa-rd pen-ti-to, or

I repented.

I have repented. sa-rus-si pen-ti-to, he will have repented; si sa-réb-be pen-ti-to, lo mi pen-ti-va

lo mi 86-no or sa-réb-be-si pen-ti-to, he would have repented; s'im-ma-gi

peneli Tu ti pen-ti-vi

Tu ti se i na, or im-mu-gi-na-si, he imagines; 1-0 me lo e-ra im-ma-gi-nu- Egli, ella si pen-ti-va Egli, ella si è to, or ê-ra-me-lo im- ma-gi-na-to, I had imagined (or figured it Noi ci pen-ti-rd-mo

Noi ci sio-mo to myself), etc.

Voi vi pen-ti-ra-te

Voi vi sie-te

ti, 3. When the infinite mood of a reflective verb is governed Eglino, elleno si pen-ti-va-no | Eylino, elleno si -no by another verb, the conjunctive pronoun may be suffixed to the intinitive mood, or it may be put before or suffixed to the plural, e. g. in the sentence-in-ge-gnan-do-si é gli in mól-te na mene

• Observo, the pronoun si only refers to the third person singular or verb that governs it, and it is as correct to say, e. g. déb-bo pen- di ri-acqui-stá-re an--ra la ti-a a-mi cízia, as for endeavoured in many tir-mi, as mi deb bo pen-ti-re, or as déb-bo-mi pen-ti-re, I must

ways to rezajn again thy friendship, the gerund ingegnandosi evidently repent. But the most ordinary, and perhaps the best, arrange- tence-ál-le dön-ne piá cque di par dir-si dul-in vil-la, it pleased the ladies

refers to the pronoun egli of the third person singular; while in the senment of these phrases is the first, for here the pronoun is to go away from iné vila, the intinitive di parti' si refers to donne, coilo sufixed to that verb to which it naturally belongs.

gation of a reflective verb, the first person requires, in the singular, mi, and 4. When more than one pronoun is in connexion with a

in the plural, ci ; while the second person, in the singular, requires ti, and reflective verb, either both are placed before it, or both may irene cevá, torbe, get ung: ha eg then ut up ng telecoma be sutlixed to it. By anticipation it must be stated here that lobbidemófa-li-car-ci-refun-die-ri pel bene de' no'siri si-mi-diffrom jautier the conjunctive pronouns mi, ti, ci, vi, and si, before the words cár-si, to ratigue one's rell), we mne willingly make every effort for the ?o, it; la, her; li, them (m.); le, them (f.); and ne, of it, for good of our fellow creatures :"tu é-ri bên de-si de -so di ri-con-ciliár-li con it, with it, etc., are changed into me, te, ce, ve, and se, 'e. g. Colombie ociera donose orienta; coi do-pre-te pen_ir-vi (tru pentirsi eto pen-tir-se-ne, to repent it, or to be sorry for it, is conjugated repente

y, you will be obliged to repent. A complete, runde io me ne pen-to, or pen-to-me-ne, lu te ne pén-ti, or pěn-ti-te-ne, present and past gerunds, being in all persons of frequent use, runs as e-gli se ne pên-te, or pên-te-se-ne, noi ce ne pen-tid-mo, or pen-tia

follows: mo-ce-ne, voi ve ne pen-ti-te, or per-li-te-ve-ne, és-si se ne pen-to

Present Gerund (Gerundio presente). Past Gerund (Gerundio passato). no, or pên-10-80-86-ne, I repent it, or I am sorry for it, etc.;

As I repent,

As I have repented, pen-ti-to-se-ne, having repented it, or been sorry for it; pen

as thon repentest, etc.

as thon bastiepunted, cte. tén-do-se- ne, repenting it, or being sorry for it, etc.

Es-sén do mi pon lén-doli



es-sén-du si sa thi - tết -lo-ci

es sén do ci Pentirsi, to repent.

pen-tén do di

es-sén-do vi pen-11-11,

Pen-iển du xi.
The conjugation of this verb is an example of the combina- against all rue entgramın af, in the practice of saying-nui si pentiamo, in

Not a few Italians in the first persons plural of reflective verbs are, tion of the reciprocal or conjunctive pronouns mi, ti ci, ni, and the place of noi ci penija no'; 'nvi si'ri cor da vá mo, we reason there

noi moforgot, ia the place of noi ci scordammo, etc.



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Imperfect (Tempo presente di Pluperfect (Tempo trapassato).
Indeterminate Pluperfect Future perfect (Tempo passato


I might have repented. (Tempo trapassato prossimo).

di futuro).

I might repent.

Io mi fös-si
I shall have repented. Io mi pen-tis-si

Tu ti fós-si
I had repented.

Io mi -ro
Tu ti pen-tís-si


Egli, ella si fós-se
Io mi ê-ra
pen-ti- | Tu ti sa--¿

Egli, ella si pen-tis-se

Noi ci fos-si-mo
Tu ti l-ri
to, -

10,—Egli, ella si sa-

Noi cả pen-tis - 3 - 110.

Voi vi -ste
Egli, ella si e-
Noi ci sa-ré-mo
Voi vi pen-ti-ste

Eylino, elieno si fós-
Noi ci e-ra-rd-mo
pen-ti. | Voi vi sa--te

pen-. Eglino, elleno si pen-tis-se-ro
Voi vi e-ra--te
ti,-e Eglino, elleno si sa-

ti, -e
Eglino,elleno siê-ra-no

Determinate Pluperfect (Tem-Conditional Present (Tempo FRENCH READINGS.-No. XXII.
po trapassato remoto).
condizionale presente).

I had repented.

I should repent.
Io mi fu..
Io mi pen-ti-. i

Tu ti -sti

Tu ti pen-ti--sti
Egli, ella si fu

to,-a Egli, ella si pen-ti-réb-be Le voilà, fatigué, de retour au hameau!1
Noi ci fám-mo
Noi ci pen-ti-rém-mo

Hélas! à la clarté d'une faible lumière,
Voi vi fo-ste
pen-ti- Voi vi pen-ti--ste

On veille, on pleure encore dans la triste chaumière ;3
Eglino, elleno si fu-ró- ti,- Eglino, elleno si pen-ti-séb-be-ro. Il arrive à la porte :-Ouvrez-moi, mes enfants,
Conditional Past (Tempo con-

Ouvrez-moi : c'est Brunon, Brunon que je vous rends.3
dizionale passato.

On accourt.“ O surprise! ô joie ! ô doux spectacle !
Future (Tempo futuro).

La fille croit" que Dieu fait pour eux un miracle ;
I should have repented.
I shall repent.

-Ce n'est point Monseigneur, c'est un ange des cieux,"
Io mi sa--i
Io mi pen-ti-

pen-tí- Qui sous ses traits chéris se présente à nos yeux ;

Tre ti sa--sti
Tu ti pen-ti-ra-i

to,-a Pour nous faire plaisir il a pris sa figure;

Egli, ella si sa-réb-be
Egli, ella si pen-ti-
Noi ci sa-rém-mo

Aussi je n'ai pas peur.... Oh! non, je vous assure,
Noi ci pen-ti--mo

Voi vi sa--ste pen-ti- Bon ange! En ce moment, de leurs larmes noyés,
Voi vi pen-ti-re-te

Eglino, elleno si 84-reb. time Père, mère, enfants, tous sont tombése à ses pieds.
Eglino, elleno si pen-ti.rán-no be-ro

-Levez-vous mes amis ; mais quelle erreur étrange!

Je suis votre archevêque, et ne suis point un ange ;

J'ai retrouvé Brunon, et pour vous consoler,
Repent tħou.

Je revenais vers vous ; que n'ai-je pu voler !!
Pen-ti-ti tu.

Reprenez-la, je suis heureux de vous la rendre.

-Quoi ! tant de peine! O ciel! vous avez pu la prendre,”
Non ti pen-ti-re.*

Et vous même! Îl reçoit leurs respects, leur amour,
pên-ta-si egli, ella.

Mais il faut bien aussi que Brunon ait' son tour.

On lui parle :-C'est donc ainsi que tu nous laisses !10 si pên-ta egli, ella.

Mais te voilà !--Je donne à penser les caresses ! pen-tia-mo-ci noi.

Brunon paraît sensiblell à l'accueil qu'on lui fait : pen-ti-te-vi voi.

Tel au retour d'Ulysse, Argus le reconnaît. pên-tan-si eglino, elleno.

-Il faut, dit Fénelon, que je reparte encore :12

A peine dans Cambrai serai-je avant l'aurore ; si pên-ta-no eglino, elleno,

Je crains d'inquiéter mes amis, ma maison..

-Oui, dit le villageois, oui vous avez raison ;13

On pleurerait ailleurs, quand vous séchez nos larmes !
Present (Tempo presente).

Perfect (Tempo passato). Vous êtes tant aimé !14 prévenez leurs alarmes ;
I may repent.

I may have repented. Mais comment retourner ? car vous êtes bien las !
Io mi pên-ta

Io mi si-a


Monseigneur, permettez.... nous vous offrons nos bras ;
Tu ti si-a

Oui, sans vous fatiguerl5 vous ferez le voyage.

Egli, ella si pên-ta
Egli, ella si si-a

D'un peuplier voisin on abat? le branchage,
Noi ci pet-tia- mổ

Noi ci sia-mo
Poi vi pen-tui-te

pen-tí. Mais le bruit au hameau s'est déjà répandu :13
Voi vi sidste

Monseigneur est ici! chacun est accouru,
Eglino, clieno si

Chacun veut le servir. De bois et de ramće

Une civière agrestei aussitôt est formée,
• I have stated that the imperative and infinitive moods: tapast part Qu’on tapisse partout de fleurs, d'herbage frais,'s
di', tell (thou) qe ; mi -te, give (ye) me ; si ma-ra-vigliá-ve, to wonder: Le bon prélat s'y place," et mille cris de joio
ixes to the verb, and according to this rule it is not allowable to say : mi Des branches au-dessus s'arronilissent en duis;
rallegrandosi, etc. However, when the imperative and infinitive moois Volent au loin ; l'écho les double et les renvoie.
and the gerund are used negatively, it is beiter, and much more common Il part; tout le hameau l'environne et le suit ;"

, to forget), do (yo) not forget what I have told you; non te ne Le cortège bruyant, qu'égaie, un chant rustique,
chem, ani to say: c.g. non vi di-men-ti--te di quel che v dél-to (irom La clarté des flambeaux brille à travers la nuit ;"1
di-men-ti-ca-re, do thóu) not forget it, non ti ma-ra-di-yliäre, do filmu? Marche.... Honneurs innocents! et gloire pacitique !
ra-vi-g!i-no, let them not wonder; 'non si con-ten-tán-do di ciò (from con- Ainsi, par leur amour Fénelon escorte,
, to be satisfied), not being 'satisfied with this, etc.

Jusque dans son palais en triomphe est porté.
The third persons singular and plural of the imperative mood may be

likewise considered as exceptions to the rule mentioned in the preceding
note, and the reciprocal pronouns are much more frequently placed before

them than added to them as suffixes. The beginner, perhaps, will do better
in all cases to adhere to the practice of placing the reciprocal pronoun be-

1. Où retrouvons-nous Féne.
fore those persons; for even in all those tenses where it is allowable to add

3. Que dit le prélat en arrivant
the reciprocal pronouns as suffixes to a verb, instead of placing them before lon?
it, clear:ress and euphony must be consulted, and only a quick ear, formed

2. Que font les paysans à la 4. Que croit la fille ?
bý a constant reading
of the most elegant writers, is able critically to dis-

clarté d'une faible lumière ?
cern ambiguities or unbarmonious sounds.

5. Que dit-elle ?

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Tu ti pên.ta

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Erlino, elleno si si-a-nofti, ~e

à la porte?

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