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45. U 0.



A cask.
The sound of this vowel is peculiar, and very difficult for


foreigners to obtain. We have no sound in the English lan.


guage exactly like it. The nearest approch to it, is the sound


of U in the last syllable in the English word PICAYUNB, when
proncunced with the lips drawn forward, as if to whistle.
For instance; pronounce the word PICAyune in the most

47. Y y.
natural manner you can; now pronounce the last syllable of
this word with the lips drawn forward and nearly closed. Do Name.

you not perceive a difference in the sound, when produced in EE ee. Like the the letters EE, in the English word BEE.
this latter manner, from that produced in speaking the last

This latter is also a word; that is, it is one of the parts of
syllable naturally? The sound produced with the lips drawn speech in the French language. It is usually an adverb, mean-
forward and nearly together, embraces the correct sound of the ing there. It is also used as a Noun, and a Pronoun.
most difficult of all sounds——to the Englishman at least-th When Y stands alone, and thus becomes a word, its pro.
sound of the French U u. Let us now take away from the nunciation is invariably like that of the letters EE in the
sound of the syllable yung, the sounds of all the letters except English word BEE, viz. :--Il y a-pronounced Eel ee a: this
that of U u, viz : pronounce first, YUNE, then pronounce last A must be sounded like A, in the English word FAT.
UNE : and, finally, pronounce U with the lips nearly closed

Y, is also pronounced like the letters EE in the English
and drawn forward. This last is the sound of the vowel we

word BEE, when it BEGINS or ENDS a word; and also
want to acquire.

It must be acknowledged, however, that the English letter when it occurs in the body of a word, after a Consonant, viz.:-
U, does not represent the correct sound of the French U,


which is a combination of sounds not recognised in our lan-

Da-ee or Da-y

guage. _Still, we must use it as the representative of the sound


of the French U, for the want of a better one,


The following rule has also been given and found useful.


Ee-ol or E-ol
The sound of the French U, is based upon that of English

À yawl.
E. Pronounce the English letter E as naturally as possible, Whenever Y is found in the body of a word, BETWEEN TWO
observing at the same time the position of the internal organs VOWELS, it has the sound of two French i's, ibat is, of two
of the mouth. Now keep these organs in the same position as double e's, viz. :-
nearly as possible; protrude the lips as if to whistle, drawing
them nearly together at the same time, and then try to pro MOYEN, should be pronounced as if printed thus, viz:
nounce the English E again, which will give you the correct

MOUEN; divided thus, viz.: M01-1-EN, but pro-
sound of the French U.

nounced in two syllables, viz. : Mor-IEN. Practise often ALOUD, according to the directions of this JOYEUX, should be pronounced as if printed thus, viz. : Rule, and success will crown your efforts. The rule has

Jouleux; divided thus, viz.: J01-1-kux, but pro-
never yet failed to impart the correc: sound of the French U

nounced in two syllables, viz.: Jor-IEUX,
in this manner, when seconded by the patient, PERSEVERING, ROYAUME, should be pronounced as if printed thus, viz.:
and DETERMINED efforts of the pupil.

ROLIAUME; divided thus, viz. : Roi-1• Aume, but

pronounced in two syllables, viz.: Roi-IAUME.

The pupil need not attempt to pronounce these three French
U u. Like the letter U, in the English word PICAYUNE. words used as examples, because the combination of vowels

and other letters occurring in them, has not yet been ill us

trated. EXAMPLES

The pronunciation of Y with these and other combinations of

letters will be explained in future lessons,


In the two following words, the Y, though not placed betrocen

two towels, is under the same Rule, viz. :




PAYS, meaning, A COUNTRY, should be pronounced as if

printed Paus; divided thus, viz. : Par-is, and pro


nounced PA-EE.

PAYSAGE, meaning, A LANDSCAPE, should be pronounced as


if printed Pausage; divided thus, viz. : Pai.l.

SAGE, and pronounced PA-EE-ZAŽI.







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polévano, potieno. or poteano, potremo, we will be able they were able

potréte, you will be able Present. piacéste, you pleased

Indeterminate Preterite.

potranno, they will be able Pidccio or piccio, I please piccquero, they pleased piaci, thou pleasest


Potéi or potè, I was able, or I Conditional Present.

pidce, he pleases
piacciamo or piaciámo, we please piacerdi, thou wilt please

Potréi, potria or poria, I should
Piacerò, I shall or will please potésti

, thou wast able

or would be able piacéte, you please

potè or poteo, he was able piacerà, he will please

potresli, thou wouldst be able piacciono or piáciono, they please piacerémo, we will please

potémio, we were able potrebbe, potria or poria, he Imperfect.

potéste, you were able

would be able piaceréte, you will please

potérono, potéttero, potero or potremmo, we would be able Piaceva, I pleased piaceranno, they will please

potér, they were able piacevi, thou pleasedst

potres e, you would be able Conditional Present.

Future. piaceva, he pleased

potrebbero, potriuno, poriano or Piaceréi or piacería, I should piacevamo, we pleased

potrieno,' they would be or would please

Potro, I shall or will be able able
piacerate, you pleased
piacevano, they pleased

piacerésti, thou wouldst please potrai, thou wilt be able
piacerebbe or piaceria, he would potrd, he will be able

(No Imperative.] Indeterminate Preterite.

Piarqui, I pleased
viacerémmo, we would please

piacesti, thou pleasedst piacerésto, you would please

piacque, he pleased
piacerebbero, piaceríano, piaceri-

piacemmo, we pleased

eno, they would please Che possa, that I may be able Che potessi, that I might be che possa, that thou mayst be



che potessi, that thou mightst che possa, that he may be

be able [No First Person.) piacéte or piacciate, please (ye


che potesse, that he might be Pidci, please (thou)

or you)

che possidio, that we may be able piaccin or piacia, let him please piacciano or piaciano, let them


che potessimo, that we might piaccidimo or piaciamo, let us please

che possiate, that you may be be able please


che poteste, that you might be

che possano, that they may be able SUBJUNCTIV& Mood.


che potessero, that they might

be able

Che piaccia or pridcia, that I che piacéssi, that might please
my please

che piacéssi, that thou mightst
che piaccia, piucci or piaci, that please

Rimanére, to remain.
thou mayst please che pracésse, that he might
che piaccia or piucia, that he please

may please

che piacéssimo, that we might che piacciamo or piaciumo, that please

Simple Tenses.

Compound Tenses. we may please

che piacéste, that you might Present: rimane’re, to remain Past: e'ssere rimaso, to have che picciate or piacidte, that please

remained you may please

che piacéssero, that they might che piacciano or picciano, that please

Present Gerund: rimane'ndo, Past Gerund: esse'ndo rimuso, they may please


having remained

Past Participle : rimaso, * re-
So conjugate-

Compiacére, to please Ripiacere, to please again
Dispiacere, to displcase Spiacere, to displease


rimane'mmo, we remained X.

Rimango, * I remain

rimane’ste, you remained rimani, thou remainest

rimasero, they remained Potére, to be able, rimane, he remains

Future, rimaniamo, we remain

Rimarró, I shall or will remain INFINITIVE MOOD.

rimane'te, you remain

rimarrai, thou wilt remain rimangono, they remain

rimarrà, he will remain Simple Tenses. Compound Tenses.


rimarre'mo, we will remain Present : potére, to be able

Past : avere potuto, to have Rimane'va, I was remaining rimarre'te, you will remain been able

rimane'vi, thou wast remaining rimarranno, they will remain Present Gerund: poténdo, be- Past Gerund: avendo potuto, rimane'ra, he was remaining

Conditionsl Present. ing able having been able rimanevamo, we were remain

Rimarre'i or rimarria, I should Past Participle: potúto, been


or would remain rimaneváte, you were remain

rimarre'sti, thou wouldst reing


rimane’vano, they were INDICATIVE Mood.

rimarrebbe or rimarría,

he maining

would remain

Indeterminate Preterite.

rimarre'mmo, we would remain
Pósso, I am able, or I can
Poteva or potéa, I was able, or Rimasi, I remained

rimarré'ste, you would remain puoi or puo', thou art able

I could
rimane'sti, thou remainest rimarre'bbero, they would re-

può, puote or póte, he is able

rimase, he remained
potévi, thou wast able
possiamo or potemo, we are able poléva, potea or potia, he was
potéte, you are able


Rimasto is used in a familiar style; but as rimáso is more elegant, wo póssono, pónno or pon, they are potevamo, we were able

advise the student always to prefer the latter. able polevate, you were able

Rimágno, mentionel hy somo Italians, is not good.

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τον υιον

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You may,

ή γυνη


a woman runs.

the orderly arrangement of words. The order here implied ise.g.-ott kaẢn, is fair ; who is fair. The sentence is in-
the order of the thoughts, for words are uttered thoughts. complete.
Syntax, therefore, has its basis and its reason in logic, which Instead of the intransitive verb tpexel, I will put a transitive
expounds the natural laws of thought. Now, if you analyse a verb, and then you will see another element of thought
proposition, you will find that in its simplest state, a proposi- appears.
tion or statement, called also a sentence or declaration, con-
tains a subject, and something that is said of that subject.


Take as an instance-

the woman


the (her) son. η γυνη εστι καλη the woman is fair,

Here you have to contemplate what I have termed the

object, namely, tov viov, The object is so named because it is
Here yuvn is the subject. Of that subject it is said that it the object of the action of the verb, that thing or being on
(she. vi yuvn) is fair, eoti vain. We have then here two things which the action of the verb falls; the object struck is here
to be considered, namely, yuvm and soti kain. The former the son. The actual object has the article the before it. The
is the subject of the sentence, inasmuch as it is that of which article is not indispensable; here the objeet might have stood
something is declared. The latter is called the predicate of thus-
the sentence, inasmuch as it is that which is predicated or
declared of the subject. Now, observe the subject consists of


Object, two words, TM and yuvn; the article and a noun.

παιδα however, have a subject without an article, as

the woman


(a) boy. γυνή τρέχει

In these simple statements you have the essential elements ; first of all Syntax, and secondly and specifically of all the

Greek Syntax. Syntax has nothing else to do than to show The predicate also consists of two words, namely, eoti ka.n; in detail what is here set forth generally. With each of these a verb and an adjective. The verb is a part of the substantive elements Syntax has to deal; with each of them separately; verb eival, or the verb which denotes existence; the verb with all of them unitedly. It is the office of Syntax to show which affirms one thing of another, a quality of a subject. how each part may be modified, and how the several parts Here the verb cori predicates kain of youn. The verb eivai, must grammatically stand to each other. (or a verb of similar import, as yiyverdai), united with an

Greek Syntax then, you see, presents itself under two adjective forms what is called the predicate of a proposition; aspects ; first, as Syntax in general, and secondly, as general or that which is declared of the subject. Two things are Syntax modified by the peculiar usages or the peculiar forms requisite in a predicate, namely, a verb and an adjective; an

of expression (words) of the Greek. It suffices for our pur. adjective expressive of the attribute (hence called the attribute, pose to point out this distinction. We shall treat of general and hence adjectives so circumstanced are termed attributives) (Syntax as it appears in a particular form, namely, as observed or quality ascribed to the subject, and a verb which performs by the best Greek prose writers. the office of ascribing or referring the quality to the subject.

Of Greek Syntax the essential laws are implied in the The verb as connecting the attribute with the subject, is called sentences just given. Look, again, at the first sentence. You the copula, or link. Here, then, 1 present to you, with their see that the predicate is in one sense identical with the subject ; logical designations, two

for the attribute fair belongs to or inheres in the woman; coti is merely the connecting link. The copula identifies the two.

This will be soon evident if you change the form a little; as Simple SENTENCES,

j καλη yuun


the fair

is there.
Copula. Attribute.

Here kan, and yuyn are brought together so as to show that

the two belong to the subject of which we speak. That sub2.

ject is not simply yuvy), a woman, or any woman; nor is it τρέχει

yuvn tis, a certain woman; but į kaln yuvn, the fair woman. The second sentence you will see is logically equivalent to the Consequently, kalŋ and yuvî refer to the same person, and first. In consequence, spexet contains in itself a copula and an referring to the same person they combine to describe that attribute, and is in itselt the predicate of the proposition. person. As they then agree so as to be one in fact or in

Without these parts you cannot have a complete proposi- thought, so must they agree so as to be one in form. Hence
tion. I mean you ca" not have a complete proposition without arises the first concord, namely, that
a subject and a predicate. Every predicate must either con- Adjectives must agree with their substantives in gender, number,
tain a verb, or be a verb, inasmuch as it is the function of the

and case.
verb to make an affirmation. If in the first sentence you I have added the words "in gender, number, and case," in
drop kotl, you have no affirmation, and consequently no order to present the rule complete at once. The reason of that
sentence. Yet, especially in the Greek langage, the copula addition you will see in the fact that in Greek, substantives
is often understood; in other words, it exists in the mind and and adjectives undergo changes in gender, number, and case.
does not appear in the utterance or in the writing ; many ex. But that reason is grounded in the nature of things. Take
amples have appeared in the foregoing exercises. Again, if gender first. I'vvn is of the feminine gender, therefore have I
you drop rain, the attribute, then no full statement is made ; | Written kann. Had I written kalos, I should have connec:ed
the woman is-is what? The senter.ce is incomplete. The a masculine adjective with a feminine noun, and committed
verb elvai may, however, denote simply existence, and then the solicisen of declaring the woman a fair man. Had I written
does not take an attribute, as God is, that is, God exists, | Kamov, I should have said that the woman was a fair thing; a

form of speech allowable only if I had wished to express con

tempt of the particular woman referred to. Είναι with an attribute ο θεος εστιν αγαθος God is good In the second place, advert to number. Suppose I had without ο θεος εστιν

God exists written kalai; then I should have made the woman at once εστιν ο θεος.

singular and plural; intimating that she was one and more

than one person. In the third place, had I written kalns, I Il, now, you drop ý yuvn, then you have no subject, and should have produced a different sense, for, by disconnecting consequently nothing of which a declaration can be made; I wann from yuvn, the predicate from the subject, I shouid have


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θεος εστιν. .

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said something of this kind —" the woman is (the daughter, or of the predicate, as is the case in intransitive verbs; whereas the mother) of the fair one."

in the previous case, the predicate involves the object; e. 8. Similar remarks would serve to show that the article (which is a species of adjective--a qualifying, that is, determinative


Predicate. word) must also agree in form with its noun, seeing that it of necessity agrees in sense, both referring to the same object.


Objert. As adjectives and substantives which agree in sense must

η γυνη

τον υιον οι agree in form, 80

copula attribute The subject must agree with its verb.


(τον υιον. . If, for instance, I had put before the verb toti a plural subject, as ai yuvaixes, saying the women is fair, then I should for so may, Tutte be resolved. If now I put down in Greek the have represented the subject as at the same time plural and changes indicated in the other sentence, you will have the singular, intimating that it was plural by the form of the noun

whole before you at one view. and the form of the adjective; and intimating that it was


singular by the form of the verb. Similarly erroneous would
it have been had I written acol (they are) for Eoti (she is).


καλη We now come to case. Take the example

3. al


καλα. .
η γυνη τυπτει τον υιον.

These preliminary explanations contain the substance of the

Greek Syntax. Other observations, particulars, and rules, Here rov viov is in the accusative case, illustrating the fact are only the expansion and the application of these general that Turtw is one of those verbs which require their object to principles. be in the accusative case. Other verbs place the object in the Take an illustration of the fact in an expansion of the sen. genitive case, and others in the dative case. In either the tence, Ÿ yuvn TUATEL tov viov. You may make this simple accusative, the genitive, or the dative case must every object sentence into a compound sentence, by adding another verb, be. Consequently a noun found in either one of these cases is e. g. known to be an object--an object governed by a preposition if not by a verb. In the sentence given above, then, I know yuvn προσκαλεί

viov that roy viov is the object, or receives the action implied in the woman

calls and strikes her
TUTTOI, because it is in the case of the objeci, the objective or
accusative case. Instead of being rov viov, were it è vios. I Here we have what is equivalent to two sentences, a compound
should not know which of the two, vi yuvn or vios, was the sentence, that is, consisting of two members, which two mem-
subject. And if ~ yuvn were any yuvaica, then o vios remain-bers if expressed in full, would be two sentences ; e. g.
ing the same, the sense would be the son struck the mother ; for
in Greek the sense depends on the form of the words, not


viov their arrangement.

2, yuun


. Now then suppose that I had written την γυναικα εστι καλη. I should have sundered saly from yuvn, making the subject By adding another verb we should add that which would make an object, for it is in one of the cases in which the object ap- the compound sentence equivalent to three simple sentences. pears. Had I written y yuun kote kalnu, I should have em. Indeed totidem verba, totidem sententiæ ; that is, in English, as ployed an object kalnu, without any verb or preposition to many verbs as you use, so mans sentences you have. govern it,

These two sentences may, however, be reduced to a simple Observe, moreover, that kalŋ is in the same case as yuvn, sentence by changing one of the verbs into a participle, thus though a verb comes between them. That verb is egt. Hence

1) you may infer, as a general rule, that the verb elva, has the

γυνη προςκαλούσα

viov same case after it as before it; the reason is found in the fact the woman calling (him) strikes her already mentioned, that elvai, as a copula, merely unites the attribute with the subject. Indeed, whether, as here, the You may also expand the other components of the sentence, adjective is an attribute, or whether it is an epithet im- e. g. mediately qualifying the noun, the adjective must agree with

The Subject j

vior the noun in gender, number, and case.

κάκη yuun

the The parts of a sentence thus explained may be variously

bad woman strikes her

The Verd modified.

vior δεινως

the 1. The article may be dropped, and then you have yuvn EOTI


severely strikes kaly. The article becomes plural if the noun is plural; it The Object 01 yuun may also pass into the dual number agree with the noun.

the woman strikes her disobedierit son. 2. The subject may be in either the plural or the dual number.

A secondary subject may be introduced, as 3. If the subject is changed 80 as to be in the plural or dual


) number, the verb must also be changed.

yuun, Ασπασια καλουμενη, τυπτει 4. The verb may undergo changes, passing into the dual or

the woman,

who is called Aspasia, strikes her the plural, in order to correspind to the subject. 16. "If the subject is in the dual or the plural number, the takes place when a noun is added to a noun, the second beting

This instance illustrates what is called apposition ; apposition attribute is changed into the corresponding number.

in the same case as the first, by way of explanation, that is, Also in the second sentence, vi yurn TVATEL Toy viov, many in order to state who or what is meant. similar changes may be made in the subject, the verb, and the A secondary object may be introduced; e. g. object. Besides changes like those just pointed out, the sub.. ject may be involved in the verb, being indicated by the per.


ένεκα της απευθειας son-ending, as


strikes her son on account of his disobedience, τον υιον

The secondary object may relate to place and so qualify the

verb, as where subject and verb blend together in Turtw. Another

γυνη то

TUTTTEL change may be undergone, for the verb may contain the whole the woman strikes her son

in the house.

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