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allowing 2 per cent. for selling and 2 per cent, more for guaran- 32. A man bought 35 shares in the Great Northern Rail. teeing the payment?

way at par, and afterwards sold them at 14 per cent. premium : 15. An auctioneer sold carpeting amounting to £213 6s. 3d., how much did he get for them? and charged 24 per cent, for selling and 2 per cent, for 33. A man bought 15 £100 shares in the South-eastern Railway guaranteeing the payment : how much did the auctioneer at 2 per cent. premium, and sold them at 10 per cent, discount: receive, and how much did he remit the owner?

how much did he sell them for, and how much did he lose? Commission merchants, agents, etc., generally keep an

34. Bought 71 £100 shares in the Central Gas Consumers account with their employers, and as they make investments Company at 5. per cent, premium ; how much did they or sales of goods, charge their commission on the amount in- amount to? vested or the sum employed in the transaction.

35. A broker bought 48 shares in the Leeds and Northern Sometimes, however, a specific amount is sent to an agent Railway at 14 per cent, discount, and sold them at 6 per cent. or broker, requesting him, after deducting his commission, to premium; how much did he make by the operation ? lay out the balance in a certain manner.

36. If I employ a broker to buy me 55 £100 shares in the

Eastern Counties Railway, which are 20 per cent. below par, 16. A gentleman sent his agent £150 to purchase a library : and pay him per cent. brokerage, how much will my shares how much had he to lay out after deducting his commission at cost me? 8 per cent.; and what was his commission?

37. If my agent buys 78 £100 shares in the North Midland Note. - The money actually laid out by the agent in books, Railway at 15 per cent. premium, and charges me per cent. is manifestly the proper basis on which to calculate his com- brokerage, how much will my stock cost? mission; for it would be unjust to charge commission on the sum he retains,

Analysis.-- The moncy laid out is 18% of itself, and the commission is 18u of this sum; consequently the money laid out added to the commission must be 186 of the whole amount.

LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. LIV. The question therefore resolves itself into this : £1,500 is 195

By John R. BEARD, D.D. of what sum ? If £1,500 ie 186. Töö must be 1500 - 105 = 1999, and 198 = 1500 x 100 = £1428 57, the sum laid out.

THE ENLARGEMENT OF SIMPLE SENTENCES. Now £1500 – £1428.57 = £71.43,= £71 8s. 7}d. the com- We have considered simple sentences viewed in their Greek mission.

construction. We now pass on to consider compound sentences. Proof.- £1428.57 X :05= £71.43; and £1428.57 + £71.43 In order to do so with effect, we must attend to the enlarge= £1500, the amount sent. Hence,

ment of simple propositions. Every word not necessary to To compute commission when it is to be deducted in ment of a sentence.

the utterance of a proposition may be accounted an enlarge.

Every part of a sentence admits of advance from a given amount, and the balance is to be in- enlargement. The subject may be enlarged; the predicate vested,

may be enlarged. The subject and the predicate may be enDivile the given amount by £1 increased by the percentage com-larged both externally and internally. mission, and the quotient will be the part to be invested. Subtract The external enlargement of the subject consists in this, the part invested from the given amount, and the remainder will be that the affirmation made in the predicate is equally referred the commission.

to several different objects, so that there are several subjects Obs.—The commission may also be found by multiplying one predicate is assigned, may be viewed as a series of con

belonging to one predicate. Now several subjects to which the sum invested by the given percentage according to the nected individual persons or things, or they may be viewed as preceding rule.

forming a whole. If these subjects form a series they are V. An agent received £2,150 to lay out in provisions, after united together copulatively by kai, TE--KAI, TE-T8, kai–xat; deducting 2 per cent, commission : what sum did he lay out? or disjunctively by n. In English the copulative and the

18. A country dealer sent £356 to his agent in the city to disjunctive are ordinarily placed only before the last noun of purchase goods after taking out his commission, at 3' per the series; in Greek they are placed between every two of the cent., how much remained to be laid out?

series. If the series is viewed as a whole the one is added to 19. Baring, Brothers and Co. sent their agents £80,000 to the other by means of ovv, uera, dpa. buy flour : after deducting 5 per cent, commission, how much The subject must agree with the predicate. This general would be left to invest ?

rule may be expanded. 20. A broker negotiated a bill of exchange of £82,531, at The predicate may agree with the several nouns in the 5 per cent. : how much did he receive for his services

plural or dual number, on the ground that in sense the sereral 21. What is the brokerage on £94,265 at 1} per cent. ? nouns are comprehended in the affirmation made in the pre22. What is the brokerage on £6,200 at i per cent. ? dicate; or the predicate may grammatically agree with one of 23. What is the brokerage on £8,845 108. at } per cent. ? the nouns, with which in sense it is more intimately con• 24. What is the brokerage on £2,500 at # per cent. ? nected than with any other or all the others; that intimate

25. A broker made an investment of £21,265, and charged connection may arise from proximity. In the former case the 1) per cent, : what was the amount of his brokerage

predicate will be in the plural, in the latter case it will be 26. If you buy 20 £100 shares in the Great Western Railway either in the singular or the plural, according to the number at 7 per cent, premium, how much will they cost you? of the noun with which it is immediately connected. When

Ans, £2,140. the predicate agrees with only one noun, it must be understood
Note.-'The shares evidently cost their par value, which is to apply to the others through that one noun or subject.
£2,000, and 7 per cent. besides.
Now £2000 X :07 = £140; life or conditions of things, the Greeks commonly put the ad.

In reference to several subjects which signify things without and £2,000 + £140 = £2140.

jective predicate in the neuter plural. In reference to mas27. What is the cost of 20 shares of Bank stock at 7 per cent. culine and feminine subjects, the common adjective predicate discount? Ans. £2000 -- £140 = £1860,

or attribute is usually in the masculine gender. 28. What is the cost of 35 £100 shares in the of London and In the union of several grammatically different subjects, the "petern Railway at 55 per cent. premium.?

verb either agrees with the nearest, or is in the plural; if one
herchant bought 45 shares in the London Joint-Stock of the subjects is in the first person, the verb is in the first

, and afterwards sold them at 50 per cent, discount: person. Instances of these constructions will be found in the
1 did he lose?

exercise. In some cases I have given the same sense in difman invested £846 in the Three per Cent. Consols, ferent modes of expression. The sense may in these cases be verwards sold out at 45 per cent. premium : how

much said to be generally the same. Nevertheless, shades of differwe sell his stock for? 31. Sold 64 £100 shares in the Midland Railway at 104 per are more imperative, as well as more various, than the rules of

ence appear to the practised scholar. The laws of thought cent. premium; how much did they come to?

grammar. By the laws of thought the rules of grammar are

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constantly modified, nor is it possible to reduce to gram- Also adverbs and adverbial phrases may be connected
matical rule the nicer distinctions of thought. You must, with a noun as its attribute, when the noun has the article,
therefore, in your grammatical studies make due allowance for This is a marked peculiarity, and I shall therefore place the
the predominance of the thought over the expression. No instances with their meanings in a distinct and emphatic
two forms of utterance can well be nearer in sense than manner.
these-

Adverbial Attributes.
Συ τε Ελλην εί και ημείς

j avw todis, the upper (lying inland) city.
Thou art a Greek and we (are Greeks),

ai Tedaç Kūuat, the neighbouring towns. ' 'Ελληνες εσμέν και συ και ημείς

ò ustašv xpovos, the interval, the meanwhile. We are Greeks both thou and we.

ó Etetta xpovos, the following time, afterwards.

ý ev Mapabūvi paxn, the battle on the plain of Marathon. Yet they slightly differ; for in the former kai ñueïç seems to

η εν Σαλαμίνι ναυμαχια, the naval battle at Salamis, be added as an after-thought, and as if in the way of a claim ; whereas in the latter, both subjeets are at once and frankly

ý opodpa ezivula, the intense desire. owned as Greeks, and emphasis is given to the acknowledge- TIepuriñs ó ravv, the great Pericles. ment by the addition of και συ και ημείς.

The attributive adjective agrees with the subject to which it Observe that subjects connected disjunctively, as well as belongs, in the same way as the predicate agrees with its conjunctively take a plural verb in Greek. This usage is subject, following the subject in gender, number, and case, c.g. contrary to what is common in English. Observe also, that a noun singular having a plural united with it by a preposition, sopos ayno, a wise man; yuvn xain, a fair woman; ta itna and so forming a compound subject, takes the verbs in the opn, the lofty mountains ; ty euy Ouyarpı, to my daughter.

If several adjective attributes are joined with a noun they plural in the Greek. Here also we have a departure from the

are either connected together by means of kal, TE--Kat, etc.; rule of English grammar.

or they stand without a copula. Adjectives expressive of The internal enlargement of the subject consists in this, quality are generally united by kai, etc., e.g. that an attribute is associated with it. By an attribute is meant any addition made to a substantive, which serves to Nea kai árały oup, young and tender flesh. individualise the substantive, that is, to describe its essence Αγαθών και παλαιων νομεθετων ευρηματα, the discoveries of and nature, and to distinguish it from other of the same good and ancient lawgivers. species. The attribute appears as blended with the subject Μεγαλα και λαμπρα δώρα της τυχης, the good and brilliant by means of an adjective; thus we say

gifts of fortune. καλη γυνη γυνη μεγαλη αριστη γυνη

Olkla jeyahn kai evò aquwv, a great and happy family.

Tuvn kain KAL EVELÓNS, a fair and well formed woman. a fair woman a great woman an excellent woman.

The copula may be omitted, however, if one of the adjectives The attribute is blended with the subject by means of a blends with the noun so as to form with it a compound idea, genitive, or a preposition with its case, or in virtue of com

as εσχατη κακη τυχη, the extreme of oad luck; where κακη τυχη bination ; e.g.

go together as if they were one word; so jeya #lotov oirayuοίκος πατρος

yov, a large corn-vessel. The copulative sal is sometimes

οικοδομη οίκος εν τη πολει

omitted also for the sake of oratorical effect. father's house house in the city house-building, Equally disconnected are the adjective attributes if one of The attribute may also be set forth as something subjoined quality, as cov spyov Xaumpov, thy splendid deed; čeka vnes

them is a pronominal adjective, or an adjective of number or in the way of explanation ; as

pakpai, ten long ships ; allos veos mais, another young child; οίκος, ή των ανθρωπων μονη

δικαίος ανηρ ουδεις, not one just man. Πολυς forms an excep

tion; thus, homoi kai kalou XiTwvES (though in English the house, the dwelling-place of men.

conjunction is here omitted), many beautiful coats; allou

Folloi kai oopoi avòpes, many other wise men. This application of the attribute is specifically called ap

If you subjoin an attribute which arises out of the nature of position. Attributes may be assigned to nouns not merely as subjects what is called apposition, that is, the ascription of two (or

the subject, and yet has an independent existence, you form but also as objects. In Greek frequently nouns may perform the office of at- more) ideas to the same subject. Explanation is the object of

this construction. It has special force to give individuality to tributives. Thus we may employ these uncoalescing com

the subject, distinguishing it from others with which it might binations-avnp mpeoBurns, an old man; avno veavias, a young be confounded. The word receiving the apposition determines man (literally a youth-man); ypaūç yuvn, an old woman; the case of the word by which the apposition is made. In Apoßūris yuvn. an old woman. We inay exhibit the fact

general, the latter immediately follows the former. For the thus

sake of special emphasis, however, the explanatory word may ανηρ-πολιτης, τυραννος, οπλιτης, ιππευς, αρχος, βουληφορος.

take precedence; e.g. ανθρωπος-μετοικος, τεχνιτης, ρητωρ, φιλοσοφος, ευεργετης, etc.

“Ο κοινος ιατρος θεραπευσει σε, χρονος, for ανηρ-Αθηναίος, Σπαρτιατης, Περσης, Πυγμαίος.

Χρονος, ο κοινος ιατρος, θεραπευσει σε γυνη-Σπαρτιατις, Περσις ; εο ταμιη, δεσποινα.

Time, the common physician, will heal thee. To these and other adjectives of race or country, avno and The personal pronouns and the demonstrative pronouns, yuvn, are thus added as attributives. Thus, in English we whether used substantively or adjectively, may receive apsay, a French man, an English woman. In a similar manner, position. The personal pronoun involved in the verb may to the names of lands, islands, mountains, and especially also receive apposition. rivers, may be added the appellative, * descriptive of the species, If a preposition is employed with the chief word, it is comwhen the proper name and the appellative are of the same monly not repeated with the subordinate one. gender ; e.g. ---O Maravopos notauos, the river Mæander; ó Special notice must be given to apposition with possessive Ευφρατης ποταμος και η θεσπρωτις γή; ή Αττικη γή (or χωρα); | pronouns, and adjectives which indicate that something belongs η Δηλος νησος και το Σουνιον ακρον και τα Κεραυνια ορη. Observe to an object. In these instances the appended words are in that the Greeks said the island Delos, which is more logically the genitive; the case being taken from the genitive force of correct than our “ the island of Delos."

the word which represents possession. Let us give an instance :

Διαρπαζουσι τα εμα του κακοδαιμονος 15 appellative is a common noun or name of a species, in distinction from a proper noun, or name of an individual.

They plunder my goods, wretched man that I am;

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σαντο,

where the genitive του κακοδαιμονος is borrowed from the | νομοις ουτε εθεσι χρωμεθα τους αυτούς. Πολλα και καλα εργα: genitive involved in tua; and the phrase is equivalent to

Επεσχον πολλα και εινα. Αμεινοκλής, Κορινθιος διαρπαζουσι τα του κακοδαιμονος εμου πραγματα, they plunder | ναυπηγος, Σαμιοις ναύς εποιησε. Κροίσος, ο Λυδιος βασιλευς, the goods of me, a wretched m.in. In rendering the idiom into English, some latitude must be taken, in order to make the «πεβαλε την αρχην. Σωκρατης, ανδρα σοφωτατον και δικαιοεense clear. .

τατον, απεκτειναν οι Αθηναίοι. Σκυθαι, βαρβαρον εθνος, Another kind of apposition is, that in which the parts of a | ανδρείοι εισι και μαχιμοι. Μεγαλην, φασι, δυναμιν τω Γεγη. whole are appended to the whole in the same case as the του Λυδού προγονη, γενεσθαι. Το μελος εκ τριών συγκειται, whole itself, has, e.g.

λογου τε και αρμονιας και ρυθμου. Περι χρηματων λαλείς, αβε. Λύπαι αι μεν χρησται εισιν, αι δε κακαι

βαιου πραγματος. Ημείς, οι ταλαιπωροι, απολωλαμεν. Ούτος (Of) griefs some are useful, others bad.

ο τροπος ήν της των παλαιών φιλοσοφιας, βρακυλογια τις

Λακωνικη. Θεμιστοκλής ήκω παρα σε. Εκεινο κερδανείν ηγειται, In English the whole is put in the objective, but in Greek

την ηδονην. Ταμα (τα εμα) δυστηνου κακα. Απιτε εφ' υμετέραν the whole stands in the same case as the parts. We have a

των βαρβαρων χωραν. Αθηναίος ών, πολεως της μεγιστης και somewhat similar construction in English, e.g.-the pilgrims returned each to his own home.

ευδοκιμωτατης. Οικιαι αι μεν πολλαι επεπτωκεσαν, ολιγαι δε To this, which is called the partitive apposition, belongs the περιήσαν. Αι τεχναι το αυτής έκαστη εργον εργαζεται. Παντες σχήμα καθ' όλον και μερος, that is, the construction which | οι δημιουργοι βλεπουσι προς το εαυτον εργον έκαστος. Μεθες με puts the part and the whole in the same case; a construction χειρα. Τρώας δε αχος ελλαβε Ουμον. Ποίον σε επος φυγες which strictly is peculiar to the poets ; thus Homer says

έρκος οδοντων! Αχαιοίσιν δε μεγα σθενος εμβαλ' έκαστη καρδια Τον μεν αρα Γλαύκος στηθος μεσον ουτασε δουρι αλληκτον πολεμιζειν ηδε μαχεσθαι. Εστι πενια αυτη σαφης, το Him Glaucus, (in) the centre of his bosom, wounded with a spear ; δεομενον τινος μη εχειν χρήσθαι. Oι τα φαρμακα πινοντες

πότερον σοι δοκούσι τουτο βουλεσθαι, όπερ πoιoυσι, πινειν το where στηθος μεσον, the part, is in apposition with τον, the whole; στηθος μεσον thus defines the exact place in which φαρμακον και αλγείν, η εκεινο, το υγιαινειν; Κεισομεθα δε νεκρω, the man was wounded.

αθανατον αλγος σοι, ψογος δε σο πατρι.
Sometimes the distributire apposition is connected with
this partitive apposition ; e.g.

VOCABULARY, QUESTIONS, ETC.
Τρώας δε τρομος αινος υπηλυθε γυία έκαστον

Ξυστρατηγών for συστρατηγών, from συν and στρατηγος. Dreadful fear seized the Trojans (in) each one's knees.

Ομοτίμος (όμος, like, and τιμη honour), alike honoured; οι The infinitive appears in apposition, chiefly after demon-óporipol, were among the Persians the first class of citizens, the strative and relative pronouns, in order to give a more exact mobility; compare our word "peers," that is pares, equals. Eupya. view of the idea before generally indicated; e.j.

σαντο, from εραγζομαι, I do, I make. Aπιτε εφ' υμετέραν, etc.,

the sentence may be resolved thus, απιτε επι την χωραν υμων Βαρος τι και τοδ' εστιν, αινείσθαι λιαν

Bapßapwy, go away to the country of you barbarians ; inat is, beyone This also is something unpleasant, (namely) to be praised

to your oun country, you barbarians. In a similar manner,

resolve and explain the sentence beginning Αθηναίος ών. excessively. .

Iloiov de emoç, literally, what a speech has escaped ther, the A substantire appears in apposition to an entire sentence, in hedge of (thy) teeth; that is, what a speech has fallen froin thy order to mark tủe point of view from which the fact in the lips. sentence is to be regarded ; eg,

EDETny, why is this verb in the active, not in the middle

voice: Ελενην κτανωμεν, Μενελεω λυπην πικραν

Εποιησα την, what part of the verb is this ? what parts are Let us clay Helen-a bitter grief to Menelaus.

the following namely, απολογησασθαι, ευπορήσαντες, ανισο

τατο, ήλθε, εκκλησιαζομεν, αποθανειν, αντειπείν, συναιο, έπραEXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

ξαμεν, ειργάσαντο, γενεσθαι, ήγειται.

Why 1s σπευδονται in the plural ? Why is εστρατηγει in the Των αυτων δεονται και η γυνη και ο ανηρ, δικαιοσυνης και

singular? How do you explain that the fact aviotato is in the

singular, and αποκτενούντες in the plural? Why is φαινεται η σωφροσυνης. Μινως και Λυκούργος νομους εθετην. Σωκρατει | the singular? Why is αγαθα οντα in the neuter Why is ομιλητα γινομενω Κριτιας τε και Αλκιβιαδης πλειστα κακα την ομιλουντες in the masculine ? πολιν εποιησατην. Εμελλον απολογησασθαι Λεωχαρης η Δικαιο- Explain the construction of oντων; also of δυστηνου and των γενης. Δημοσθενης μετα των ξυστρατηγών σπευδονται. Αλκι- βαρβαρων; also of λογου τε και αρμονιας και ρυθμου. βιαδης εκ Σαρδεων μετα Μαντιθεου ίππων ευπορήσαντες απε- What do you mean by apposition: State its several modifiδρασαν ες Κλαζομενας. Εστρατηγει των νεών Αριστευς και

cations. Καλλικρατης και Τιμανωρ. Αγιστατο εκ του συμποσιου και

HISTORICAL ANECDOTES. Τιμαρχος και ο Φιλημων αποκτενούντες Νικιαν.

Ηλθε Χρυσ. αντας τε ο Περσης και αλλοι τινες των ομοτιμων. Βασιλευς Eπει ο Σωκρατης κριθεις το δικαστηριον απελιπετο, και μσθετο και οι συν αυτώ διωκων ειςπιπτει εις το Κυρείν στρατοπεδον. τους παρεπομενους φιλους δακρυοντας, Τι τούτο, είπεν, η αρτι Αβεβαια και πλουτος και τιμη και δοξα. Σωματος καλλος και δακρυετε; ου γαρ παλαι ιστε ότι εξ ότου περ εγενόμην, κατεψηισχυς δειλω και κακο ξυνοικούντα ου πρεποντα φαινεται, αλλ' φισμενος ήν μου υπο της φυσεως ο θανατος και αλλα μεντοι, και απρεπή. Ευγενιαι και δυναμεις και τιμαι δηλα εστιν αγαθα οντα. μεν αγαθών επιρρεoντων προαπολλυμαι, δηλον ότι εμοι και τους Εκκλησιαζομεν περι πολεμου και ειρηνης, α μεγιστην εχει δυνα. εμοις ευνοϊς λυπητεον, ει δε χαλεπών προσδοκώμενων καταλυω μιν εν τω βιω των ανθρωπων. Νεοι τε και νεαι ομιλούντες τον βιαν, εγω μεν οιμαι ως ευπραγούντος εμού πάσιν υμιν αλληλοις φιλοπονως ιδεως διαγουσιν. Αλκηστις ηθελησε μονη ευθυμητεων είναι. Παρων δε τις Απολλοδωρος επιθυμητης μεν υπερ του αυτής ανδρος αποθανειν, οντων αυτω πατρος τε και ισχυρώς αυτού, αλλως δ' ευηθης, είπεν αρα, Αλλα τούτο εγωγε, μητρος. Συ τε Ελλην εί και ημείς. Ελληνες εσμεν και συ και ω Σωκρατες, χαλεπωτατα φερω, ότ' όρώ σε αδικώς αποθνησκοντα.

εις. Ουτε συ ουτ' αν αλλος ουδεις Γυναιτ' αντειπείν. Ουτε Τον δε λεγεται καταψησαντα την αυτού κεφαλην ειπείν, Συ δε, αν δυνατο αντειπείν ουτ' αλλος ουδεις. Και εγω και συ πολλαω φιλτατε Απολλόδωρε, μαλλον αν εβουλου με οράν δικαιως η και του αρεσκειν ένεκα τη πολει και ειπομεν και επραξαμεν. αδικώς αποθνησκοντα; και άμα επιγελασαι, λεγοντος δε τινος Υμείς και εγω ταδε λεγομεν. Λακεδαιμονιοι και ημείς ουτε ότι αηδώς εσθιοι. Ακουομενος, έφη, τουτου φαρμακον αγαθον

εσται σοι. .

TEOLKETWV kal TWV

1

διδασκειν. Ερoμενου δε, Ποιον; Πανσασθαι εσθιοντα, εφη" και which, or of which, in English, and agrees with the noun which ήδιον τε και ευτελεστερον και υγιεινοτερον φησι διαξειν παυσα

comes after it; as, μενον. Αλλου δε αυ λεγοντος ότι θερμoν είη παρ' εαυτό το El hombre cuya madre es buena, the man whose mother is good. vèwp, ö Tivo, Orav ap', epn, Boviy Deppas dovoaodai, étoipov | La casa cuyos cuartos son espaciosos, the house of which the

rooms are spacious. Ada Yuxpov, egn, wote lovoaobal rotiv. Ap' ovv, El centurion los envió a Joppe, en cuya ciudad moraba Simon, the εφη, και οι οικεται σου αχθονται πινοντες τε αυτο και λουόμενοι

centurion sent them to Joppa, in which city wasαυτή; Μα τον Δί', εφε' αλλα και πολλακις τεθαυμακα ώς ήδεως

dwelling Simon. αυτω προς αμφοτερα ταύτα χρώνται. Ποτερον δε, εφη, το παρα When the relative pronoun refers to persons, que is generally σοι υδωρ θερμοτερον πιείν εστιν η το εν Ασκληπιού; Το εν used for quien, in the nominative case; but in the objective Ασκληπιού, εφη. Ποτερον δε λουσασθαι ψυχροτερον, το παρα | case a quien or que is used (generally the former); as, σοι η το εν Αμφιαρου; Το εν Αμφιαρου, εφη. Ενθυμού ουν, εφη,

El hombre que habla, the man who speaks. ότι κινδυνευεις δυσαρεστοτερος είναι των

Yo que hablo, I who speak.

La muger á quien Juan vió, or la muger que Juan vió, the woαρρωστουντων. .

man whom John saw. VOCABULARY, etc.

If a preposition come before Whom, quien is always used

in Spanish ; as, Ti TOūTO, etc. What is this that you now weep? Why do you

El muchacho para quien el lo hizo, the boy for whom he did it. weep now ? Have you not long known that from my birth death

Un hombre en quien el rey tiene mucha confianza, a man in whom was pronounced against me by nature ?

the king has much confidence. ETıpeovtwv, the genitive absolute; if I perished prematurely, What, when it means that which, is, in Spanish, lo que; when while good was flowing in ; xakerūv, but while hardships are it means what thing, it is qus; and when used before a noun, before me ; evo UuEw (ev and Ovuos), I am glad, rejoice; ús eut pa- What or Which is que or cual; as, Yoūvtog tuou, the genitive atsolute, on the ground that I am a Lo que á algunos gusta á otros disgusta, what to some is-pleasant, happy man.

to others is-disgusting. Karabaw, I stroke.

El dijo, yo no que, he said I know not what. Ακουομενος, scil ο Σωκρατης,

Yo no

que libros leer, or yo no cuales libros leer, I know not Toutou, genitive of the object, for this,

what (or which) books to read. Ilavouevov, when you have left off.

He who, or he that, is in Spanish el que; she who, la que ; Slayw I live.

they or those who, los que (masc.), las que (fem.). There is Depuq dovoaolai, to take a warm bath.

| also the neuter form, lo que. AOKATALOG, oữ, ó, in the temple (vey) of Esculapius. AVOAPOTOS, difficult to be pleased,

In Spanish a preposition is always placed before the relative Αρρωστος, ον, weak. (Pwvvumi, I am strong).

pronoun which it governs; as, Að, on another occasion,

La ciudad en que yo moro, the city in which I dwell.
We cannot say, “the city which I dwell in," in Spanish.

The relative pronoun can never be suppressed in Spanish as

in English ; thus, “the man I saw," must be expressed in LESSONS IN SPANISH.--No. VI. full, "the man whom I saw.”

VOCABULARY.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

Cuidado, care, anxiety.

Dios, God, The relative pronouns are quien, who; el cual, who, which, Juan, John.

Maria, Mary. that; que, who, which, that; cuyo, whose, or, of which. They Cuarto, room.

Nombre, name. are thus declined :

Ciudad, city.

Sabiduria, wisdom.
Singular,

Plural,

Agradable, agreeable, plea- | Desgraciado, unfortunate, in.
sant.

happy:
Masc.
Fem

Masc.

Fem.
Posible, possible.

Imposible, impossible.
Quien,

Quienes.
Sabe, (he) knows.

Saben, (they) know.
Que.

Que.
Hacer, to make, to do.

Decir, to say:
El cual*
la cual.
Los cuales las cuales. Leer, to read.

Tomar, to take.
Cuyo
cuya.
Cuyos
cuyas,

MODEL SENTENCES. Quien always relates to persons, and agrees with its ante

Mis hermanos son quienes los rió, neral del ejército, halló sin cedent in gender and number; as,

my brothers are (they) tesoro en la ciudad, the man El general es quien los rió, the general is (he) who saw them, who saw them.

whose brother is general Las reinas son quienes le maldijeron, the queens are (they) who los pintores d quienes vmd. rió, of the army, found a treareviled him.

y de los cuales Juan hablo, sure in the city.

son muy ricos, the painters Ella sabe lo que es bueno, she When quien (or quienes) is governed by a verb, it is always

whom you saw, and of knows what is good. preceded by the preposition á; as,

whom John spoke, are La que tiene dinero, tiene cuidado,

she who has money, has La dama á quien vend, teme, the lady whom you fear.

El hombre cuyo hermano es geEl cual and que, like the relative pronoun that in English, relate both to persons and things, agreeing with their ante.

SPANISH-ENGLISH. cedent in gender and number. El cual is generally to be used to prevent the repetition of quien or que ; as,

El juez es quien vió las cartas que vmd. escribih. Las La raca que rió, y de la cual habla, es timida, the cow which he Francesas son quienes dieron los libros á Pedro. El nombre

á quien el Aleman dió los sombreros, es muy rico é ignorante, saw, and of which he speaks, is timid.

Las mugeres quienes el médico escribió las cartas, son muy Cuyo is the possessive relative pronoun, answering to Whose, pobres é ignorantes. El juez dió los libros á un pintora ingles,

en quien el médico tiene mucha confianza. Las mugeres para

quienes Pedro escribió las cartas, son muy hermosas y ricas. Locual is omatines used instead of el cual.

La Espñola á quien Pedro ama, es muy hermosa. Las Fran

very rich.

care.

some,

cesas & quienes vmd, vió, me escribieron muchas cartas. Las in which city the streets are pleasant and the houses handcucharas que María tiene, y las cuales el Frances halló, son mias. El caballo que Juan vió, y del cual Pedro habló, es

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. robusto y fuerte. Las calles cuyas casas son hermosas, son agradables.

The interrogative pronouns are the same as the relative, El criado cuyo nombre es Pedro, vino á mi casa. Las casas except that cual is used without being preceded by the article. cuyos cuartos son espaciosos, son muy agradables. Juan dió | They are not used in precisely the same manner; for in interel libro a una muger cuyo nombre es María. El pintor y el rogations, quién always means, who; cual, which; qué, what; impresor vinieron a Madrid, en cuya ciudad el pintor halló un cuyo, whose; as, tesoro. El hombre que tiene prudéncia, es muy sábio. El ¿Quién * tiene hambre? + who is hungry? hombre que tiene dinero, tiene cuidado. La muger que es ¿Quienes tienen sed ? who are thirsty? soberbia é ignorante, es desgraciada. Los hombres que tienen ¿ Cual de los hijos está alii ? which of the sons is there : dinero, tienen cuidados. Lo que es imposible para los hom- ¿ Qué dijo el médico ? what said the doctor? bres, es posible para Dios. Lo que es nuevo, no es viejo. El ¿Qué sombrero tiene rmd.? what hat have you? pintor tiene el tesoro que el médico halló en la calle. Pedro

¿ Cuyos libros son estos ? whose books are these? ama lo que es bueno. Ella sabe que hacer. El hombre no

¿De quién son estos libros ? whose (or of whom) are these books? sabe que hacer. Pedro sabe lo que es bueno. La Francesa no sabe que decir. Las hijas del juez no saben que comprar. When the interrogative pronoun is governed by a preposio El pintor no sabe que libro leer. Los Alemanes no saben tion, the answer to the question must always be preceded by cual sombrero tomar. Mi hermana no sabe cuales libros leer. the same preposition; as,

La que es sobérbia, nu es amable. Los que aman la verdad, i De quién son aquellos niños ? De Juan. Whose are those chilson sabios. El que tiene sabiduría, tiene prudéncia. Mi her

dren: John's. mano tiene un tesoro, que su criado halló en la ciudad. El i Para quien lo hizo ? Para la muger. For whom did-he-do it? que tiene prudéncia, es sábio. Los que nos dieron los libros,

For the woman. son amigos nuestros, La que no es agradable, es desgraciada. La ciudad en que Juan halló el tesoro, es grande y hermosa.

When What is used in ejaculatory interrogations, as, What La muger á quien María habló, es muy amable. El que tiene a fine day! what a man! the indefinite article is omitted in oro, tiene mucho cuidado. El Aleman dio dos libros al hom- Spanish; as, bre á quien Juan vió. El médico dió tres libros á la Francesa i Qué hermosa mañana! What a fine morning! en quien mi madre tiene mucha confianza. El pintor fué á ¡Qué desgracia! What a disgrace! Madrid, en cuya ciudad las calles son agradables y las casas

¿ Qué modrego! What a blockhead! hermosas. Las eriadas no saben que hacer.

In Spanish, all that is necessary to form an interrogative ENGLISH-SPANISH.

sentence, is to place the interrogation mark before (inverted) and after the sentence. Thus, Juan tiene dinero, means, John

has money; and ; Juan tiene dinero ? means, Has John money? The physician is (he) who wrote the letter which you (vmd.) It is, however, common (though not necessary) in Spanish, to saw. The judge is (he) who saw the letters which you (x md.) place the nominative after the verb in interrogations; as, wrote. The Spanish-women are (they) who gave the books to Tiene Pedro dinero? ¿tienen los pintores libros ? Has Peter Peter. The man to whom John gave the hats is very rich money? have the painters books? and ignorant. The women to whom the judge wrote the

The auxiliary verb Do is unknown in Spanish (as also in all Jetters are very poor ar.d ignorant. The women for whom the languages of Europe except the English), and all such Mary wrote the letters are very amiable and beautiful. The expressions us-Does John speak ?-do they love ?--how much physician gave the spoons to an English painter', in whom do you ask a week :- did it not snow during my absence ?the judge has much contidence. The French-woman whom did they see her :-Peter did speak, -must be rendered in Peter loves is very beautiful. The German-woman whom Spanish' by the simple form of the verb; as, į Habla Juan? you (rmd.) saw wrote me many letters. The spoons which i aman ellos ?-¿ cuánto pide vd. por semana ?--, no neró durante Mary' has, and which the French-woman found, are mine. mi ausencia ?-, la vieron ellos _Pedro habló ;' that is,-speaks The male-servant who came with me is strong and robust. John :-love they ?-how much ask you per week :-snowed it The horse which John saw, and of which (del cual) Peter spoke, not during my absence ?--her saw they (or, saw they her :) is strong. The streets whose houses are beautiful are agree. -Peter spoke. able.

VOCABULARY. The man whose name is John came to my house. The woman whose name is Mary gave me three books. The Azúcar, sugar.

Pan, bread. houses whose rooms are spacious are very pleasant. John Manteca, butter.

Agua, water. gave three silver spoons to a woman whose naine is Mary. Espécie (fem.), species, sort, Buton, button. The painter and the printer came to Madrid, in which city the Señor, sir,

Señora, madam, lady. painter found a treasure. The man who is prudent is wise. Si, yes.

No, no. The woman who is proud and ignorant is unhappy. The men Toma, (he) takes.

Dicen, (they) say. who have money have cares. That which is possible for Peter Dice, (he) says.

Dijo, (he) said. is possible for John. What is possible for the painter is not Hablı, (he) speaks.

Entiende, (he) understands. possible for the carpenter. The Frenchman has the treasure Quiere, (he) wishes, (he) | Quieren, (they) wish, (they) that the physician found in the street of the city. Peter loves

want. what is good. Mary knows what is good. The German knows what to-do. The painter knows not what to-do. The

MODEL SENTENCES. French-woman knows not what to-say. The physician's sister knows not what to-buy. The male-servante know not ¿ Quién tiene azúcar ? who has ¿ Qué libro tiene om.? what what to-say. My father knows not what book to-read. My sugar.

book have you? brothers know not which books to-buy. The Germans know ¿ Quién habla Ingles? who ¿De quién es el tesoro ? whose not which hat to-take. She knows not what spoon to-take.

speaks English.

is the treasure? He that has much gold has much care. She that is proud ¿ Cual de los dos pintores tiene e Quiere su hijo pan señor? does is not amiable. They who love the truth are wise. He who

dinero ? which of the two

your son want bread, sir? has wisdom has prudence. He who has prudence is wise.

painters has money? No, señor, mi hijo tiene pia, My father has a treasure which his male-servant found in the ¿ Qué dijo la hija del juez? what city. They who gave us the books are friends (of) ours.

said the judge's daughter.

no, sir, my son has bread. She who is not agreeable is unfortunate. Those who are ignorant and impious are unhappy. The city in which Peter Sund the books is large and beautiful. The woman to whom exclamations, the interrogation and exclamativa marks are placed at the

Quién and qué, when interrogative, generally have the accent marked wy spoke is very agreeable. The painter went to Madrid, I beginning (inverted) as well as at the end of the phrase or sentence.

wants,

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