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Prisent State or the Towns of Spain.
Flavius, and Trebellius, desented to juin the standard of Casar. All the cavalry in the place, had resolved to revoit from the party of Pompey, but the secret was discovered by a slave, and thereby frustrated. This was a short time before the decisive battle of Munda, which terminated the civil wars of the Romans in Spain..
Having taken a short rest at Lebrixa, we continued on for Seville, proposing to reach it the same evening.
The country in the immediate vicinity of Lebrixa is very rich, abounding in olives, wine, and corn, and for several miles we experienced a pleasing variety of gently swelling hills, 'till we entered on the extensive marshes called the Maresma, which are only passable in dry weather. The Maresma is the most extensive tract of rich pasture I ever bebeld; it extends froni Lebrixa to Seville, a distance of nearly forty miles. The river Guadalquiver, runs through the plain, and in winter overflows its banks, so as to inundate the whole country, to the very foot of the mountains.
On this plain, between Lebrixa and the neighbourhood of Seville, we found only one venta, or small hedge ale house. The accommodations were as nuiserable as the situation was solitary; the house was too filthy within to be endured, and we therefore ate our provisions under shade, sub dio. In this way we made a dinner, after which we continued forwards for Seville, which we reached about sun-sel. The appearance of cultivation increased as we approached this city; and several extensive melon gardens at once gave a variety to the prospect, and attorded us a most gråtetul repast, after the dusty roads, and excessive beat we had endured.
We remained at Seville several days, and as the reputation of this city had excited our warınest curiosity, we employed almost every minute of this time in walking, visiting, and inquiring. The appearance of the city was very different from any that I have yet
Each house occupies a large space of ground, and all have an open court in them, called the patio. In the centre of this space there is usually a fountain of cool water, occasionally surrounded with orange trees, and other evergreens. The streets are extremely narrow; very few are wide enough to allow two carriages to pass. Several of them, indeed, are literally nothing but alleys, and you touch their opposite sides, as you walk along. The houses being lofty, the sun never penetrates to the bottom of these streets, and they have therefore on the very bottest days, the coolness of our cellars. There is no footpath for passengers, and very few carts and coaches. There are not many squares nor open places in the city, but the environs have some beautivul public walks. One of thein by tbe side of the banks of the Guadalquiver.
It is alınost unnecessary to say, that Seville is one of the most ancient çities in Spain, being the Hispalis of the Romans, which name is now cor. rupted into that of Seville. Its present state does not disgrace its former
Present State of the Towns of Spain. reputation; its situation, its walls, its cathedral, its alcazar, its numerous churches and convents, render it still an object of great attention to the tra. veller.
Its situation is on the south bank of the Guadalquiver, which river circles sound it, so as to form its chief boundary on the north-west, whilst on every side extends a most lovely plain, glistening in brightness, variety, and fertility, bounded only by the horizon, the hills which rise towards Casmona, or the southern skirts of the Serra Morena.
Seville is surrounded by a wall evidently of Moorish fabric, although built in many parts on Roman foundations, aud of the materials of the ancient Roman works. The whole exterior circuit of the wall is about four miles, or such as a man might easily walk in an hour. At every fifty yards of the wall, throughout its extent, is a square tower, and which, therefore, in the whole, amount in about a hundred and thirty. After the recovery of the city from the Moors, the Spaniards, knowing no better system of fortification, preserved and beautified what they found existing. In the fair times of peace they seem to have adorned even the exterior of the wall, towards the Guadalquiver, with paintings, on a species of stucco; and on one of the towers in that direction, is still to be seen the representation of a turbaned head, transfixed by a Spanish lance.
In the circuit of these walls are at present fifteen gates, to each of wbich the Spaniards attach some history. Through the Royal gate, the conqueror of Seville, Ferdinand the Third, made his triumphal entry. The gate of the Sun is the most eastern of the city, and which, in very ancient times, was consecrated to that luminary. The gate of Ossario, or the Charnel-house, opened formerly towards the cemetery of the Moors, without the walls. The gate of Carmona, near to which is the reservoir of the aqueduct of that name, is on the eastern side. Between the gate of Triana and the river, and close
upon the latter, stands an ancient eight-sided tower, called the tower of gold, apparently of Roman construction, and destined for the defence of the river. The Moors, when they possessed Seville, had an iron chain stretched across the Guadalquiver at this part, and in breaking which, unc, of the Spanish admirals gained great honour. · Opposite to this tower, and at no great distance from it, is another, called the Silver tower.
In Seville, besides the narrowness of the streets, there are innumerable other traces of the Moors, viz. in the different coloured tiles and bricks with which some of the buildings are adorned; in the square courts within the houses, where cool fountains throw up a small stream of water, which falls down into a basin in the centre of the marble pavement, surrounded with flowers, to which are added, statues and paintings; in the remains of bezars or markets, where tradesmen of the same calling live together in rows, in the principal streets; and even in the form of their convents and monasteries, which exactly resemble that of the inner court of a mosque.
Present State of the Towns of Spain.
The three principal ornaments of Seville, are the cathedral, the alcazar, and the river Guadalquiver, which is lovely beyond all possible of description.
It is impossible to enter the cathedral without immediately experiencing those sensations which great objects always excite in the mind. The loftiness of the arched roof, the height and elegance of the clustered shafts which form the pillars, and the length and proportions of the aisles, at once arrest the attention. It is not till after some time that we stop to consider its minor ornaments, the numerous and elegant chapels ranged along its side walls; the beautiful choir in the centre of the principal aisle, and the number and variety of the admirable paintings, many of them by Murillo. In this cathedral, a simple tablet records the birth and death of the great Columbus. Spain, however, cannot claim the honour of possessing his remains, inasmuch, as they were conveyed across the Atlantic, and buried in the New World wbich his genius and courage had discovered.
The courts of the cathedral are no less worthy of the observation of the tra. Feller. Of these, the first and most remarkable is the court of orange trees, on the western side. In the corner of this court is a very ancient pulpit of stone. In another part, are three iron grates, which cover the entrances of some subterraneous passages, where the Moors had their baths. Another small court is before the gate of the lizard, so called from the figure of a crocodile suspended there in memory of a present from the Sultan of Egypt, to Alphonso the Will.
The tower of Geralda, however, is the boast of Seville. It is a tower of about two liundred and sixty feet in height, each of the sides of fifty feet in breadth, and surmounted by a female figure in bronze, holding in one hand a palm branch, and in the other, what appears to be a shield or standard. It was built by Geber the Moor, a native of Seville. The ascent to its summit is liy the inside, and remarkably gradual, being from side to side on a slope, and without steps, so that a person may easily ascend on horse back. There is a noble view from the top it. To the south lies the alcazar, whilst the whole course of the Guadalquiver, through the plain, is seen from another part. To the west, on the opposite side of the river, the view is soon bounded by a ridge of no great height, adorned with houses and plantations; at the farther skirt of which is Santi Poncie, the ancient Italica. Beneath the feet of the spectator lies the court of orange trees; and a little farther on the same side of tbe river, the amphitheatre, where the bull-fights were formerly celebrated. To the north, are the skirts of the Serra Moreni. To the north-east, extends a boundless plain, gradually rising into gentle elevations as we approach towards the east, in which direction, immediately beneath the eye, is the gate, the road, and the aqueduct of Carmona.
Next to the cathedral the alcazar is chiefly worthy of notice. It was built by the Moorish king, Abdalasis. Its courts, its halls, its Arabic colums, recesses, and galleries, are admirable specimens of Moorish magnifi
Amongst these the Syrian hall, formerly called the half orange, from VOL. IV. NO. 22.
Circular Notice.- Pension to Disabled Officers.
its figure, is most richly gilt, and has a beautiful marble pavement. Here also are various inscriptions illustrative of the former state of Andalusia. From these halls are entrances into the gardens, which are still in the Moorish style, with fountains, terraces, labyrinths, &c.
The Guadalquiver, however, is what gives the main charm to Seville, and is justly the favourite stream of the Spanish and Moorish poets. It was known to the Romans under the name of bastis; but when the Moors got possession of Andalusia, they changed the name to Guadalquiver, which signifies in Arabic, the Great River. It rises near the eastern borders of Andalusia, traverses the greater part of the province, passing by Bueza, Anduxar, and Cordova; soon after which it turns to the south, and running with considerable rapidity past Seville, falls into the sea at San Lucar. Its distance from its source to San Lucar, is about 250 miles.
The only bridge over the river at Seville is a floating one of wood, placed upon ten large flat barks, firmly moored to great anchors in the bed of the stream, and connected with one another by strong beams; the flooring of this bridge is purposely laid uneven in order to prevent the horses from slipping. The Sevillians have likewise taken considerable pains to adorn the banks of the river with trees, and have thus created several very delightful walks. The principal alanieda, or public walk, is planted with upwards of a thousand trees. At one end are two lofty pillars, on which are placed the statues of Hercules and Julius Cæsar; the one, the reported founder; the other, the restorer of the city; and the walk is further beautified by five or six fountains.
To say all in a word, the cathedral, the alcazar, the public buildings and public walks, the beautiful river Guadalquiver, the ancient walls, and the plain around the town, render Seville one of the most magnificent cities in Spain, and no traveller will leave it without some regret, or remember it with. out much pleasure.
ADDRESSED TO COLONELS' OF REGIMENTS OF THE LINE.
War-office, June 20, 1812. SIR--His Royal Highness the Prince Regent having taken into his consideration the cases of those officers of the army who have sustained serious and permanent injury in action with the enemy, and being desirous of marking his sense or their services, by extending to them a permanent provision in addition to those allowances which are given under the existing regulations, has been graciously pleased to order, in the name and on the behalf of his Majesty, that pensions shall be granted to such officers, according to the regulation and scale herewith transmitted : and I have the satisfaction to add, that parliament having, by their vote, given effect to His Royal Highness's liberal and beneficent views, these pensions will commence. Circular Notice.-- Pension to Disabled Officers. from 25th December 1811, in all cases in which the injury may have been sustained previously to the 25th December 1810; and from the expiration of a year and a day, in the instances of wounds received subsequently to that date.
In executing these His Royal Highness's commands, I beg to assure you, that it gives me much gratification to communicate to you this additional and striking proof of His Royal Itighness's most gracious attention to the merits and services of the British army; and I request that you will use the earliest means of inaking the same known to the officers of the regiment under your command. I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient hum. ble servant, (Signed)
COPY.-Regulation for granting Pensions to Officers of his Majesty's Land
Forces, losing an Eye or a Limb on Service. If an officer shall be wounded in action, and it shall appear upon an inspection made of him by the army medical board, at any period not sooner than a year and a day after the time when he was wounded, that he has in consequence of his wound lost a limb or an eye, or has totally lost the use of a limb, or that his wound has been equally prejudicial to his habit of body with the loss of a limb; such officer shall be entitled to a pension, commencing from the expiration of a year and a day after the time when he was wounded, and depending as to its amount upon the rank he beld at that period, according to the scale annexed. This pension, being granted as a compensation for the injury sustained, is to be held together with any other pay and allowances to which such officer may be otherwise entitled, without any
deduction on account thereof.
Officers who shall have lost more than one limb or eye, shall be entitled to the pension for each eye or limb so lost.
And as the pension is not to commence till the expiration of a year and a day from the date of the wound, it is to be independent of the allowance of a year's pay, or the expences attending the cure of wounds, granted under the existing regulations.
Applications for this pension are to be made in the same manner in which claims for the year's pay are now made to the Secretary at War*; and must always be accompanied by the certificate of the army medical board, if the officer applying is at home; and by that of the principal medical officer on the station where he is, if the officer is abroad.
In the latter case, however, the officer must, as soon as he returns home, be inspected by the army medical boardt, and transmit their certificate to the secretary at war.
All officers who may have sustained such ay injury as would entitle them to this pension, by any wouuds received since the commencement of hustili. ties in the year 1793, will, upon the production of the proper certificate from the army medical board, be allowed a pension proportioned, according to the
* Viz. By the agent of the regiment to which the wounded otsicer belongs.