Itinerary from Gibrultar to Granada and Rorda. Autiquiera is one of the inost ancient towns in Spain and abounds in Roman and Moorish edifices, which give it an appearance of great grandeur. Eighty years before the conquest of Granada, this city was taken by John, the secund king of Castile, and in the Moorish castle the arms captured by the Christians are still preserved. It appears by these remains, that the Moors used armour of great weight, and employed short javelins to throw at the enemy; cross-bows for shooting stones or arrows; and oval shields formed of two hides united together so as to resist a musket ball. The Moorish castle is in admirable preservation, and the entrance of it, called the giana's arth, is the finest specimen of their architecture. The place, in short, abounds in antiquities. Roman coins, inscriptions, &c. have been discovered ia very great abundance, and an antiquary might doubtless make many impostane discoveries, on a spor so undoubtedly ancient, and as yet unexplored.

We left Antiquiera at day-break, on foot, and ordering the horses to follow us, we ascended the mountain above the city, and occupied as bour and a half before we reached the summit, where the horses' overtook us. After descending for about an hour, we passed a small Moorisb aqueduet. We saw on our left hand a singular spectacle, called El Torcal; it is situated on the summit of a high mountain, and has the appearance of a considerable city in ruius, with regular streets, large churches, and vast poblie buildings; it is, however, nothing more than an assemblage of white marble rocks, so extensive, that a person entering them without a kuowledge of their pails, might lose themselves, as in a labyrinth. We continued our course through the wildest scenery that can be imagined, and over most dreadfu! roads. Jo the course of four or five hours we began to descend, and the rich vale of Alora appeared extended before us, with the town of that name on the side of the opposite mountain. The plain is very fertile, and is watered by a charming stream meandering through it, the banks of which abmond with orange and lemon groves. On a jutting eminence, overlooking this delight ful vale, a monastery, surrounded with gardens, and watered by various crystal streams, presented a scene which it was impossible to pass without admiring the charms of climate, and almost wishing to pass the remaindes of life in so enchanting a spot.

We reached Alora after a fatiguing ride of seven hours. The streets of the town are so steep that we feared some accident before we reached the posavla. The town is supported by the productions of the plain and the neighbouring mountains, and even sends part of its surplus to Malaga, on the backs of asses. Several Roman inscriptions are found here; it was e municipal town of the Romans, and the residence of a distinguished family; one of whom, Fabius Vebianus, was decemvir of this place, and erected a statue in honour of his mother, which is still preserved. Whilst oor servants went to the shops to purchase our dinner, we climbed to the top of the ancient castle, which is seated upou a bill that overlooks the town. The foundation is Roman, and the superstructure Moorish. It has on two of its sides a Itinerary from Gibraltar to Granada and Ronda. precipice of nearly four hundred feet, which gives it much the appearance of the bill forts in India.

We left Alora by a most tremendous road, and though the distance was only nine iniles, the journey employed five hours. Many parts of the road, or rather path, were on the edge of a precipice, with the river six or seven hundred feet below us on one side, and the towering Serra de Blanguilla, with its perpendicular marble rock on the other. The hills were so steep, that on the lower side of each olive tree, a wall was constructed to prevent the tree from falling down the precipice. When we had passed through an opening in this mountain, we descended into a rich and fertile valley. It was dark when we reached Casarabonela, our place of repose for the night.

This town stands in a very singular situation, on the lap of a hill, whence the descent to the valley below is full eighteen hundred feet, and in some places almost perpendicular. A covception may be formed of the road by the circumstance, that from the valley to the town we were occupied two hours in constantly ascending by a winding road. The town is supplied by the produce of the rich valley below, and of the corn fields which are of the same elevation with the town. Some beautiful cascades pour down from the mountains, which turn several niills beyond the town. The mountains rise in majestic grandeur in some parts to nearly the perpendicular height of a mile, which gives a very impressive effect to the scene.

On leaving Casarabonela on the following morning, we immediately began to ascend the highest and steepest mountains we had yet encountered. We left the summit of the mountain called Serra de Junguera on' our left hand, and travelled along execrable roads, alternately ascending and descending, during four hours. At the distance of two miles on the left, we saw the Cunvent of the bare-footed Carmelites, which appeared to be surrounded with cultivated fields, goud gardens, and vineyards, whilst the rest of the country presented extensive woods of cork and vak trees, under which thousands of pigs were feeding on the acorns that had dropped.

We reached El Burgo in five hours, and being most completely wet, were glad to surround a large fire, in company with an assemblage of mulereers and carriers, who had taken shelter from a most tremendous storm. After some refreshment, we left El Burgo, and ascended another mountain. Ou both sides of us the mountain rose to a most prodigious height. When we gained the top of the pass, we looked down on the rich plain in which Ronda is situ ated; for though Ronda is on an elevation 1500 yards above the level of the


the higher mountains around it give it the appearance of a valley, which is richly adorned with corn fields, fruit-trees, and transparent streams. On de scending into the plain by tremendous roads, we got into a warmer climate, and were surrounded by trees of every variety of hue. About a league from Ronda are the ruins of Acinipo; they are very extensive, and the vestiges of the ancient wall may be traced. Within this wall is a pile which was evidently a Roman amphitheatre, seven or eight rows of seats remaining entire. No. 23.

3 A


superintennant Rrry witing Ojiicers.

Sound all of the walls are standing, troon which it may be concluded that it Was tout 70 feet high. Acinipu was a Roman municipal town: many medals are found in the fields and ruins. The ruins occupy about fifty acres.

Oir curiosity to view Acinipo caused us to reach Ronda, the place of our destination, after dark, and the evening was very cold. Our posada, however, was more comfortable than usual; we purchased a kid and some vegetables, with which we made an excellent stew; and had some wine almost eqnal to Burgundy. We had, moreover, the luxury of a good fire and clean sheets.


SiR-THE lodging-money granted to the staff officers of junior ranks, viz. brigade majors, ard-de-camps, &c. is fitty guineas per annum, and they are allovent not less than 25.6.i. per day, in lieu of forage for each borse they may plase to keep, not exceeding three. The superintendant recruiting officer of similar rank is reirenched 10 the. piitance of £18:5s. for house rent, and 2s. per day as a compensation for visiting such parties as are sta. tioned within his sub-division of the district. Suppose the alluiment fifty nules in length, and that his residence is nearly the ceutre, hired at a guinea per werk, the lowest possible rent consistent with the respectability due to his station in life; he is directed to visit the out-parties not less than three times per n.onth; suppose them to be in six distinct towns. Possibly be will not be compeiled to take a separate journey for each; but, to counterbalance the convenience attending his uniting more than one in the same visit, he will probably, in that case, be compelled to remain from his quarters all night, thereby incurring an additional expence; indeed one or more of the parties may be so situated, as at all times to prevent his returu on the same evening without more assistance than one horse. Coacb-bire is out of the question; I know an instance of an officer's having paid £1:15. (as an outside passenger to and from the station of a party) at one visit; the finances will not admit of a repetition of this experiment in the cases now under discussion.

It inay be presumed that he will indemnify himself for these monthly expenditures by the annount of the 10s. 6d. allowed for each recruit enlisted, which undoubtedly will balance in his favour, after postage is paid, and stationary purchased; but the most unretnitting exertions may not raise that balance to any thing like an equivalent: much indeed depends on the local situation. In many sub-divisions, unceasing toil cannot attain great success, so that the exertions of the superintendant officer ought not to be judged altogether by the numbers enlisted. The inspecting field officers may be supposed to give impartial and confidential reports.

Having purchased a horse, the daily keep will amount (including shoeing,

General Mack

and other incidental expences, being continually on the move) to not less than 4s. per day. Sixpence a day will then remain of the whole allowance granted for three purposes, and which is so nearly exhausted by one!

Rating, therefore, bis lodgings at one guinea per week ... €5+ 12 0
Horse keep and expences, at 4s. per day

73 0 0

127 12 The officer at the close of the year will be minus

45 96 The allowance at 4s. 6d. per day, amounting to

82 2 6 127 1:

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This deficiency he will probably reduce by the balance before alluded to, and may possibly even reimburse himself. Nothing can, however, be supposed to remain for the third purpose, viz. payment of a clerk, or for other expenses which he must indisputably incur by perpetual motion, and the occasional hire of an assistant horse. I consider his personal attentions compensated by his regiinental pay, and merely seek a fund to enable him to fulfil the duty imposed, without deducting from the stipend accruing from his commission; and if those who recommended the allowance now granted will be pleased to make calculations by travelling ideally with these officers, they will find the distance froin 300 to 400 miles per month, approaching more frequently to the latter than the former number; not to mention that their presence may be required at one point instantly on their return from another. They will consequently be convinced that the means provided are very inadequate, and that the very constant and unremitting care required in the superintendance of the recruiting parties, fully entitles officers so employed to their regimental pay undiminished.

I therefure, Mr. Editor, suggest, through the medium of your beneficial publication, that two horses be allowed, at the usual rate of the district, or the gratuity increased to 5s. per day, leaving its expenditure optional, as at present, but that when horses are bona fide kept, the tax on them should he reimbursed to the officer, on a certificate from the inspecting field oflicer being presented. I propose that the lodging-money should be increased to the sun given staff officers of the same rank. Some of your numerous readers will, I hope, be induced to submit the case of these officers to the consideration of his Royal Highness the commander-in-chief. MILES BRITANNICUS.


SIR-I THIS day, in examining some papers, found the following remarks, made by a friend, on the conduct of General Mack. Should

you conceive them deserving of a place in your Military Chronicle, you are at liberty to Insert them.

PHILO. " It must be admitted that mankind are too apt to be carried down the General Mack.

current of popular opinion, and too frequently without exercising that good judgment and candour which is absolutely necessary to arrive at a correct decision. I intend now to deliver my sentiments on the conduct of an unfortunate general; unfortunate I will say, for we ought ever to discriminate between misfortune and misconduct. This general, honoured by his sovereign's confidence, is placed at the head of a most respectable Austrian army. He leaves the emperor, bis inaster, with these commands and promises “Cross the Inn, pass through the Bavarian territories, and I will support you by new levies, and my allies the Russians will soon join you.” And what does he perform? - He goes on conquering, and nearly reduces the whole electorate of Bavaria to submission.

" What was the language, at that time, of the experienced general“ Let us push forward and establish ourselves in the enemy's country." This I may venture to affirin would have been the case, had his expectations of support been realized; this lie had every reason to look for, as, nearly two months before, it was stated that 100,000 Russians were actually arrived in Gallicia. But he was most unhappily disappointed; instead of being joined by friends to support him, he suddenly found himself almost surrounded with enemies. A considerable body of French troops had crossed the Rhinethese he was prepared to meet, but what must have been bis astonishment, after the declared neutrality of Prussia, to find another French army emerging from the territories of Anspach, part of the King of Prussia's dominions. This army was the most dangerous, as it cut off his supplies, and prevented the expected junction of the Russians. In this case, what was to be done, but to defend himself to the last, and dispute every inch of ground; which it appears he did, though pressed by superior numbers. Ingolstadt was taken by storm; bis troops were defeated at Memmingen by nunibers double his own; the only step he could then take was to throw himself and the rempant of his army into Ulm, but here he unfortunately had not provisions for a siege. The French got possession of the surrounding country, stopped every avenue to the town, and prepared to storm it. Now I would ask, what was the duty, as a courageous and prudent general?-Certainly to defend the place to the last extremity. This I have no doubt he did, for the fortifications were not tenable against the numerous forces that assailed him. Having done all that wisdom and courage could dictate, shall be wait the event of a storm, which could not but prove successful on the part of the enemy, and in all probability sacrifice one half of his brave men in a fruitless defence? Humanity shuddered at the idea. From all we can learn, General Mack appears to have acted the part of a prudent commander, and that a concurrence of unexpected events brought him to this unpleasant situation at Ulm. His conduct during the whole campaign, I trust no liberal and candid mind will condemn.-1st December 1805.

These opinions I considered as very forcible at the time they were written. The circumstances which transpired since 1805 bave convinced most men that the conduct of General Mack was highly culpable.

I. P.

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