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liere we got
Itinerary from Petersburgh to Berlin. We departed from Miitau the next morning, and passed through the most enchanting forest scenery, composed of pines, aspins, oak, and nut trees; at some distance we saw a wolf cross the road. Upon qui: ting the luxuriant fields, and rich and cheerful peasantry of Courland, we entered the province of Polish Lithuania. The cottages had high sloping roofs; and rows of crosses, about fifteen feet high, were frequently planted along the road-side. After passing through Polangen, the barrier town of Russia and Prussia, ive reached Memnel to a late dinner. Here we found an excellent inn. Memel is a large commercial towu, lying on the shore of the Baltic, very wietchedly paved. In the citadel, which commands an agreeable view of the town, we saw the prisons, wbich appeared to be wretched.
We waited at Memei two days, in buurly expectation of the wind changing, that we might proceed to Koningsberg by water, instead of wading over a tract of mountainous sand, 80 English miles long, and not more than three in breadth, in its broadest part, called the Carische Haft, that runs up within half a mile of Memel, and divides the Baltic from an immense space of water on the side of Curische Haff, which extends from Meu el nearly to Koningsberg. As the wind, however, still continued adverse, we ai length set off on the Curische Haff, and with much difficulty arrived at the first post-house, which lay in the centre of mourtains of sand. into a boat, and proceeded for the next stage. We set sail with a favourable breeze, which died away after we had proceeded seven English miles, when we put into a creek before a few little wretched fishing buts, under the roof of which, with cocks, hens, ducks, and dogs, we passed an uncomfortable night. In the morning we could obtain no post-horses; the wind was against us, and at least eight English nules lay between us and the post-house. I walked out to look at the scenery around, and ascended a sandy bill; from the top on one side lay the Baltic sea, on the other the lake which had borne us thus far; and before and behind a line of sand mountains, many of them a hundred feet high. In a valley below us stood two wretched horses, almost skeletons, scarcely making any shadow in the sun. Iberegion bad no other appearance than that of the domain of tamine. A short ume alternards the wind changed, and we embarked; the wind freshened into a gale, and the rain poured down most fainously. It was teu’o'clock at night when we reached the post house at Nidden; and after supping, were shown into a larye gloomy room, where we had to sleep, amidst fourteen sleeping damsels, lying with their cloibes on. We slept soundly, as did hikewise the ladies.
The country became more pleasant as we approached Koningsberg, the inns had better accommodations, and we procured excellent potatoes to cur dinwers and suppers. This vegetable bas been introduced into the north of Europe about 20 years. On the 10th of October we reached Kouingsberg. This city was first founded in 1255, and is very extensive, bayng tourleen parishes; the streets are varrow, ill-paved, and have no foot-paih. Tie wotnen are delightfully handsome, but wear great thick boots, and a black ribbon tied in a bow, in the front of their cap. The trade of this city is very considerable, a thousand vessels annually sail in and out of its ports. The
Itinerary from Petersburgh to Berlin.
river Pregel, which is here very shallow, was crowded with market boats, filled with fish, butter, bread, plumbs, and pears. After staying here two days, we continued our journey, and reached Frauenberg, where we stopped the carriage at the foot of an almost perpendicular hill, crowned with a monastery, containing the tomb of Copernicus. It was dusk as we ascended for the purpose of visiting this place; the ascent presented a noble view of the beautiful country around, and immediately on one side of us a wide spreading beach and the sea.
We reached Elbing to breakfast, a very neat town, having a very considerable cominerce, and a people comfortable in their circumstances. The fruit and vegetable sellers carry their articles in little pails, suspended at the end of a curved stick, like the milk women of London. The houses are singular, but as they resemble those of Dantzic, one description will answer.
The post from Elbing to Marienburg is 19 English miles, a tremendous long stage; indeed an autumnal day's journey upon such roads. The road was ornamented, I suppose they call it, by long rows of pollards. It was evening when we reached Marienburg, a town once celebrated as the principal residence of the knights of the 'Teutonic order: it is now a small town.
. We were thirteen hours in reaching Dantzic from Marienburg, a distance of 30 English miles. We passed through a country abounding in corn fields, in one of which we counted nine bustards, each larger than a turkey.
After passing several monasteries, beautifully embosomed in trees; and the suburbs of Dantzic, extending nearly two English miles, we reached the drawbridge, and the capital of Pomerellia in the evening. Nothing can exceed the fantastic appearance of the houses; they are very lofty, bave vast sloping roofs, the fronts of which are surmounted with lions, angels, and griffins The windows are very large and square, and the outsides of the houses are painted in brown or green colours. The streets are beautifully embellished with some noble chesnut and walnut trees, The Vistula, the largest river in Poland, after springing from Mount Crassack, on the confines of Silesia, crosses Poland and Prussia, washes the walls of Dantzic, and falls into the Baltic.
From Dantzic to Berlin we travelled by the vehicle of the country, called the Stublwaggon. Although the red leaves of autumn were falling in showers from the trees, the country appeared very picturesque and rich. On the road every Prussian was at once equipped for bis bed and for a ball, by having his head adorned with a cocked hat and a night cap under it. The Prussian farm houses are either tiled, or very neatly thatched; the country was well cultivated, and the farmers looked rich, respectable, and perfectly English.
The road to Berlin bas in one respect a great advantage, there is a constant and rapid succession of towns and villages, but no scattered cottages. Upon every acclivity the traveller commands six or seven shires rising from little clumps of trees. We frequently passed through the most beautiful avenues of majestic oak, stately lindens, and graceful beech and birch trees. I found the inns, however, very poor, and at Pinnow we had to sleep on beds of straw, At length, afer some alternaie amusement and suffering, we reached Berlin, the place of our rest, and present destination.
War between France and Russia,
WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND RUSSIA.
OFFICIAL FRENCII BULLETINS.
FIRST BULLETIN OF THE FRENCH GRAND ARMY. Gumbinnen, June 20.— TOWARDS the end of 1810 Russia altered her political sys. iem-the English spirit regained its influence the Ukase respecting commerce was its first act. In February 1811, five divisions of the Russian army quitted the Danube by forced marches, and proceeded to Poland. By this movement Russia sacrificed Wallachia and Moldavia. When the Russian armies were united and formed, a protest against France appeared, which was transmitted 10 every cabinet. Russia by that announced, that she felt no wish even to save appearances.
All means of conciliation were cmployed on the part of France-all were ineffectual. Tuwards the close of 1811, six months after, it was manifest to France that all this could end only in war: preparations were made for it. The garrison of Dantzic was increased to 20,000 men. Stores of every description, cannons, muskets, powder, ammunition, pontoor.s, were conveyed to that place: considerable suins of money were placed at the disposal of the department of engineers, for the augmentation of its fortifications. The army was placed on the war establishment. The cavalry, train of artillery, and the military baggage train, were completed. In March 1812, a treaty of alliance was concluded with Austria; the preceding mouth a treaty had been concluded with Prussia. In April the first corps of the grand arny marched for the Oder, the second corps to the Elbe, the third corps to the Lower Oder, the fourth corps set out from Verona, crossed the Tyrol, and proceeded to Silesia. The guards left Paris. On the 22d of April the emperor of Russia quitted St. Petersburglı, took the command of his army, and moved his head-quarters to Wilna. In the commencement of May the first corps arrived on the Vistula at Elbing and Marienburg; the second corps at Marenwerder; the third corps at Thorn, the fourth and sixth at Plock; the fifth corps assembled at Warsaw; the eighth corps on the right of Warsaw;
and the seventh corps at Pulawy. The emperor set out from St. Cloud on the 9th of May, crossed the Rhine on the 13th, the Elbe on the 29th, and the Vistula on the 6th of June.
SECOND BULLETIN OF THE GRAND ARMY. Wilkowiski, June 22.—ALL means of effecting an understanding between the two empires became impossible. The spirit which reigned in the Russian cabinet hurried it on to war. General Narbonne, aid-de-camp to the emperor, was dispatched to Wilaa, and could remain there only a few days. By that was gained the proof, that the demand, equally arrogant and extraordiuary, which bad been made by Prince Kurakin, and in which he declared, that he would not enter into any explanation before France bad évacuated the territory of her own allies, in order to leave them at the mercy of Russia, was the sine qua non of that cabinet, and it made that a matter of boast to foreign powers. The first corps advanced to the Pregel. The prince of Eckmubl had his head-quarters, on the 11th day of June, at Koningsberg. The Marshal Duke of Reggio, commanding the second corps, had his head-quarters at Weblau; the Marshal Duke of Elchingen, commanding the third corps, at Soldass; the Prince Viceroy at Rastenburgh; the King of Westphalia at Warsaw; the Prince Pomatowski at Pultusks: the enperor moved his VOL. IV. NO. 23.
War between France and Russia.
head quarters, on the 12th, to Koningsberg, on the Pregel; on the 17th 10 Insterburgh; on the 19th to Gumhinnen. A slight hope of accommodation still remained. The em. peror had given orders to Count Lauriston to wait on the Emperor Alexander, or on bis minister for foreign affairs, and to ascertain whether there might not yet be some means of obtaining a reconsideration of the demand of Prince Kurakin, and of reconciling the honour of France, and the interest of her allies, with the opening of a negotiation. The same spirit which had previously swayed the Russian cabinet upon various pretexts, prevented Count Lauriston from accomplishing his mission; and it appeared for the first time, that an ambassador, under circumstances of so much importance, was unable to obtain an interview, either with the sovereign, or his minister. The secretary of legation, Provost, brought this intelligence to Gumbinnen; and the emperor issued orders to march, for the purpose of passing the Niemen. “The cor.quered," observed he, " as. sume the tone of conquerors: fate drags them on, let their destinies be fulfilled.” His majesty caused to be issued the following
PROCLAMATION. “ SOLDIERS !- The second war of Poland has commenced-The first was brought to a close at Friedland and Tilsit. At Tilsit, Russia swore eternal alliance with France, and war with England. She now violates ber oaths. She refuses to give any explana. tion of her strange conduct, until the eagles of France shall have repassed the Rhine, leaving, by such a movement, our allies at her mercy. Russia is dragged along by a fatality! Her destinies must be accomplished. Should she then consider us degenera. ted! Are we no longer to be looked upon as the soldiers of Austerlitz? She offers us the alternative of dishonour or war. The choice cannot admit of hesitation let us then march forward! Let us pass the Niemen! Let us carry the war into her territory. The second war of Poland will be as glorious to the French arms as the first; but the peace which we shall conclude will be its own guarantee, and will put an end to that proud and baughty influence which Russia has for fifty years exercised in the affairs of Europe.
At our bead-quarters at Wilkowiski, June 22, 1812.
THIRD BULLETIN OF THE GRAND ARMY. “ Kowno, June 26, 1812.-ON the 23d of June, the King of Naples, (Murat) who conimands the cavalry, transferred his head quarters to within two leagues of the Niemen, upon its left bank. This prince has under his immediate orders the corps of ca. valry, commanded by Generals Counts Nansouty and Montbrun; the une composed of the divisions under the command of Generals Counts Bruyeres, St. Germain, and Valance; the other consisting of the divisions under the orders of General Baron Vattier, and Generals Counts Sebastiani and Defrance. Marshal Prince d'Eckmuhl, com
ommanding the first corps, moved his head-quarters to the skirts of the great forest of Pilwisky. The second corps of the imperial guards followed the line of march of the first corps. The third corps took the direction by Marienpol; the viceroy, with the fourth and sixth corps, which remained in the rear, marched upon Kalwarry. The King of Westphalia pro. ceeded to Novogrod with the fifth, seveixh, and eightle corps. The first Austrian corps, commanded by the Prince of Schwartzenberg, quitted Lemberg on the moveinent on its left, and drew nearer to Lublin. The pontoon train, under the orders of General Eble, arrived on the 23d within two leagues of the Niemen. On the 23d, at two in the norning, the emperor arrived at the advanced posts near Kowno, took a Polish cloak and cap from one of the light cavalry, and inspected the banks of the Nie. men, accompanied by General Haxo, of the engineers, alone. At cight in the evening, the army was again in motion. At ten, Count Morand, general of division, passed over
......, made a War between France and Russia.
three companies of voltigeurs, and at the same time three bridges were thrown across the Niemen. At eleven three columns debouched over the three bridges. At a quarter past one, day began to appear. At noon, General Baron Pajol drove before him a cloud of Cussacks, and took possession of Kowno, with a single battalion. On the 24th, the emperor proceeded to Kowno. Marshal the Prince of Eckmuhl pushed forward his head-quarters to Roumchicki, and the King of Naples to Eketanoui. During the whole of the 24th and 25th, the army was defiling by the three bridges. In the evening of the 24th, the emperor caused a new bridge to be thrown over the Vilia, opposite kowno, and directed Marshal the Duke of Reggio to pass it with the second corps. The Polish light horse of the guards crossed the river by swimming. Two men were drowning, when they were picked up by two swimmers of the 26th light infantry; Colonel Gueheneuc having imprudently exposed himself to afford them assistance, had nearly fallen a sacrifice himself: a swimmer of his regiment saved him. On the 25th, the Duke of Elcbingen pushed on to Kormelon: the King of Naples advanced to Jigo moroui. The enemy's light troops were driven in and pursued on every side. On the 26th, Marshal the Duke of Elchingen arrived at Skoroule. The light divisions of ca. valry covered the whole plain, to within ten leagues of Wilna. Marshal the Duke of Tarentum, who commands the 10th corps, composed in part of the Prussians, passed the Niemen on the 24th, at Tilsit, and moved upon Russiena, in order to clear the right bank of that river, and to protect the navigation. Marshal the Duke of Belluno, companding the ninth corps, and having under his orders the divisions Heudelet, Lagrange, Durusle, and Partonneaux, occupies the country between the Elbe and the Oder. The general of division, Count Rapp, Governor of Dantzic, has under his orders the division Daundels. The general of division, Count Hogendorp, is governor of Koningsberg. Plue Emperor of Russia is at Wilna with his guards, and one part of his army occupying Ronikontonia and Newtrooki. The Russian General Baggawort, commanding the second corps, and a part of the Russian army, having been cut off from Wilna, had no other means of safety than by proceeding towards the Dwina, (the Duna we should rather suppose). The Niemen is navigable for vessels of two or three hundred tons, as far as Kowno. The communications by water are also secured as far as Dantzic, and with the Vistulą, the Oder, and the Elbe. An immense supply of brandy, flour, and biscuit, is passing from Dantzic and Koningsberg towards Kowno. TheVilia, which flows by Wilna, is navigable for very small boats from Kowno 10 Wilna. Wilna, the capital of Lithuania, is also the chief town of all Polish Russia. The Emperor of Russia has been for several months in this city with a part of his court- The possession of this pluce will be the first fruit of victory. Several Cossack officers, and officers charged with dispatches, have been captured by the light cavalry.
FOURTH BULLETIN OF THE GRAND ARMY. Wilna, June 30.-ON the 27th the emperor arrived at the advanced posts at two in the afternoon, and put the army in motion for the purpose of approaching Wilna, and attacting the Russian army at day break of the 28th, should it wish to defend Wilma, of retard its capture, in order to save the immense magazines which it had there. One Russian division occupied Troki, and another division was on the heiglits of Traka. At dag-break of the 28th the King of Naples put himself in motion with the advanced guard, and the light cavalry of General Count Bruyeres. The Marshal Prince of Eckmoht supported loim with his corps. The Russians every where retired. After ex. ebanging some cannon shot, they crossed the Vilia in all haste, burned the wooden bridge of Wilna, kad set fire te immense magazines, valued at many millions of rubles: