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and attempts whatever, that should be made against his Person, Crown and Dignity. And that he would do his utmost endeavour to disclose and make known to his Majesty and his beirs all treasons and traitorous conspiracies, which might be formed against him and them.

Without further preamble the Author distinctly declares, that he considers the Orange Institution to be a conspiracy and attempt made against the King's person, crown and dignity. That, for the purpose of defending his Majesty against them to the utmost of his power, by this publication he does his utmost endeavour to disclose and make known to his Majesty and his heirs the traitorous conspiracy formed against him and them. He is free to say, that after he had acquired the knowledge of the obligation and engagements of the Orange Societies, he attempted by those means, which he judged prudent to make them known to the persons, through whom the disclosure might, and he presumes to add, ought to have been officially conveyed to the King in person. 'The Author's failure in his first attempt does not dispense with his future utmost endeavours to disclose and make them known to his Majesty and his heirs. In taking the oath of allegiance, he was sincere in declaring, that he was not, and could not be acquitted before God or man or absolved of that declaration, although the Pope or any other person or persons, or authority whatsoever, should dispense with ct annul the same, or declare that, it was null 'end void from the beginning. In virtue then of his oath, and in performance of the duty of his allegiance, the Author now submits the following sheets to the perusal of that public, which is generally bounden by the same oath with himself, as the most effectual method of dissolving and making known the traitorous con-, spiracy to his Majesty and his heirs. Had he merely charged, without proving, the traitorous nature of the Orangemen's obligation and engagements, and their attempts against his Majesty's person, crown and dignity, or did he delay the publication by one hour beyond the time neceffary to render the disclosure full and effectual, then would he not in the plain and ordinary sense of the words of his oath have complied with, or fulfilled the obligations of it.

same

As the conscientious observance of an oath necessarily depends upon the conscientious understanding of it by the juror,* the Author feels himself called upon to avow his decided opinion, that the oath of an Orangeman, as it is expressed in the rules and regular tions for the use of all Orange Societies, herein-after printed, is of a treasonable nature by common law, and felonious by the 47th Geo. III. c. xiii. which is an Act to suppress insurrections and to prevent disturbance of the public peace in Ireland, and which will remain in force to the end of the present session of parliament. An act, which has never been acted upon for the only useful purpose, for which it appears to have been passed, namely, that of making the initiation into an Orange

Lodge,

* The author cannot subscribe $o the generally received opinion, that an oath is to be taken in the sense, in which it is imposed or required, secundum animum imponentis : but secundum animum jurantis, that is, according to the juror's understanding, and the common acceptation of the words, in which the oath is expressed.

Lodge, Felony ; and for this sole purpose devoutly it is to be wished, that the legislature may amend and perpetuate it.

The ground of the first part of this opinion rests upon the universal admisson, that by common law alla, giance, absolute, unqualified and perpetual is due from every subject to his sovereign ; consequently an oath to render it conditional, qualified or temporary, contravenes the purity of natural ligeance, and is of a treasonable quality. The ground of the second part of the opinion will be manifest to every one, who reads the enacting part of this statute, and impartially compares it with the secret, proscriptive and unauthorized obligation or oath of an Orangeman, as settled by the Grand Lodge of Dublin, on the roth of January, 1810, as hereafter printed.

Sect. III. « And be it enacted by the authority * aforesaid, That every person or persons, who shall

administer, or cause to bę administered, tender, or "cause to be tendered, or be present, aiding or ase " sisting at the administering or tendering, or who " shall, by threats, promises, persuasion, or other un... “ due means cause, procure or induce to be taken by 6 any person or persons in Ireland, upon a book or " otherwise, any oath or engagement, importing to o bind the person or persons taking the same, to be of 6 any association, brotherhood, committee, society or " confederacy whatsoever, in reality formed, or to be «« formed for seditious purposes, or to disturb the public

peace, or to injure the persons or property of any

“ person

person or persons whatsoever, to do or omit or re« fuse to do any act or acts whatsoever, under what" ever name, description or pretence such association, « brotherhood, committee, society or confederacy shall

assume or pretend to be formed or constituted ; or

any oath or agreement, importing to bind the person, “ taking the same to obey the orders or rules or com“ mands of any committee or other body of men not

lawfully constituted, or of any captain, leader or com* mander (not appointed by, or under the authority of of his Majesty, his heirs or successors,) or to assemble at " the desire or command of any such captain, leader, 4.commander or committee, or of any person or per“sons not having lawful authority, or not to inform « or give evidence against any brother, associate or

confederate, or other person, or not to reveal or « discover his or her having taken any illegal oath, or

not to reveal or discover any illegal oath or agree" ment, which

may

be administered or tendered to him 66 or her, or the import thereof, whether such oath « shall be afterwards so administered, or tendered or “ not, or whether he or she shall take such oath, or « enter into such engagement or not, being by due “ course of law convicted thereof, shall be adjudged “ guilty of felony, and be transported for life: And

every person, who shall take in Ireland, any such “ oath or engagement, importing so to bind him or her * as aforesaid, and being by due course of law thereof " convicted, shall be adjudged guilty of felony, and * be transported for seven years."

Beyond Beyond the obligation of his sworn duty of allegiance, the author is impelled by a sense of the importance of Ireland to the stability of the British empire, to exert his further efforts to induce the prejudiced and the blind, justly to appreciate, and earnestly to co-operate in bringing into action the powerful energies of a gallant, warm-hearted and loyal people Insulting is the pretence to establish tranquility, peace : and happiness in the country by those, who refuse, or neglect to rout up and utterly to destroy the plants of discord so prodigally sown, so guardedly trenched, so artfully bleached and softened under the richest mould, so tenderly fostered throughout the land. Having thoroughly examined the nature and properties of this deadly exotic for the benefit of the country, in which its culture has been so powerfully forced, he cannot consistently withhold for one hour the result of his enquiries. He therefore publishes separately this disquisition before the history of Ireland since the Union, to which it was intended as an introduction, can appear before the public.

The Author anticipates the indulgences of every real Irishman, for introducing the followiag sheets to the notice of the public in the words of the greatest master of impressive and figurative reasoning, the rostrum. ever boasted. On moving for the release of a learned judge from illegal imprisonment under an English warrant he noticed the dead silence, into which the public had been frowned on the sad occasion, and rejoiced in that factitious dumbness, because, when all was hushed, when nature slept, the weakest voice' was heard.

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