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but the endowments of the mind? For my by inheritance, as theirs : but earned by part, I shall always look upon the bravest toil, by abstinence, by valour; amidst man as the noblest man. Suppose it were clouds of dust, and seas of blood : scenes enquired of the fathers of such Patricians of action, where those effeminate Patricians, as Albinus and Bestia, whether, if they who endeavour by indirect means to dehad their choice, they would desire sons of preciate me in your esteen, have never their character, or of mine; what would dared to shew their faces. Sallust. they answer but that they should wish the worthiest to be their sous ? If the Patri- $ 27. The Character of CATALINE, cians have reason to despise me, let them likewise despise their ancestors; whose no- Lucius Catalino was descended of an il. bility was the fruit of their virtue. Do they lustrious family : he was man of great envy the honours bestowed upon me? let vigour, both of body and mind, but of a them envy likewise, my labours, my ab- disposition extremely profligate and destinence, and the dangers I have undergone praved. From his youth he took pleasure for my country, by which I have acquired in civil wars, massacres, depredations, and them. But those worthless men lead such intestine broils; and in these he employed a life of inactivity, as if they despised any his younger days. His body was formed honours you can bestow, whilst they as- for enduring cold, bunger, and want of pire to honours as if they had deserved rest, to a degree indeed incredible: his then by the most industrious virtue. They spirit was daring, subtle, and changeable: lay claim to the rewards of activity, for he was expert in all the arts of simulation their having enjoyed the pleasures of lux- and dissimulation; covetous of what beury; yet none can be more lavish than they long d 10 others, lavish of his own; vio• are in praise of their ancestors : and they lent in his passions; he had cloquence imagine they honour themselves by cele- enough, but a small share of wisdom. His brating their forefathers; whereas they do boundless soul was constantly engaged in the very contrary: for, as much as their extravagant and romantic projects, too ancestors were distinguished for their vir- bigh to be attempted. tues, so much are they disgraced by their After Sylla's usurpation, he was fired vices. The glory of ancestors cast a light with a violent desire of seizing the goindeed, upon their posterity ; but it only vernment; and provided he could but serves to shew what the descendants are. carry his point, he was not at all soliciIt alike exhibits to public view their degc- tous by what means. His spirit, naturally neracy and their worth. I own, I cannot violent, was daily more and more hurried boast of the deeds of my forefathers; but on to the execution of his design, by his I hope I may answer the cavils of the Pa- poverty, and the consciousness of bis tricians, by standing up in defence of what crimes; both which evils he had heightI have myself done.

cned by the practices above-mentioned. Observe now, my countrymen, the in- lle was encouraged to it by the wickedjustice of the Patricians. They arrogateness of the state, thoroughly debauched to themselves honours, on account of the by luxury and avarice; vices equally faexploits done by their forefathers; whilst tal, though of contrary natures. they will not allow me the due praise, for

Sallust, by Jr. Roue. performing the very same sort of actions in my own person. ile has no statues, they ý 28. Speech of Titus QUINCTIUS 10 cry, of his family. llc can trace no ve- the Romans, when the Æqui and ocrable line of ancestors. What then? Volsci, taking adrantage of their isIs it matter of more praise to disgrace testine commotions, raraged their one's illustrious ancestors, than to become Country to the gates of Rome. illustrious by one's own good behaviour ? What if I can shew no statues of my fa- Though I am not conscious, O Romans, mily? I can shew the standards, the ar- of any crime by me committed, it is yet mour, and the trappings, which I have with the utmosť shame and confusion that myself taken fron the vanquished : I can I appear in your assembly. You have seen shew the scars of those wounds which I it-posterity will know it !—in the fourth have received by facing the enemies of consulship of Titus Quinctius, the .£qu my country. These are my statues. These and Volsci (scarce a match for the Hemici are the honours I boast of. Not left me alone) came in arms to the very gates of

Rome,

Rome, and went away again unchastised! we under defcat. When you are to corThe course of our manners, indeed, and tend with us, you can seize the Aventine the state of our affairs, have long been hill, you can possess yourselves of the such, that I had no reason to presage much Mons Sacer. food; but, could I have imagined that so The enemy is at our gates, the Æsqui. great an ignominy would have befallen me line is near being taken, and nobody stirs this year, I would, by banishment or death to hinder it. But against us you are va(if all other means had failed) have avoided Jiant, against us you can arm with dilithe station I ain now in. What! might gence. Come on then, besiege the senateRome then have been taken, if those men house, make a camp of the forum, fill the who were at our gates had not wanted jails with our chief nobles; and when you courage for the attempt? ----Rome taken, have achieved these glorious exploits, whilst I was consul!--Of honours I had then, at last, sally out at the Æsquiline sufficient--of life enough-more than gate, with the same fierce spirits, against enough-I should have died in my third the enemy. Does your resolution fail consulate.

you for this? Go then, and behold from But who are they that our dastardly our walls your lands ravaged, your houses enemies thus despise ?--the consuls, or plundered and in flames, the whole counyou, Romans? If we are in fault, depose try laid waste with fire and sword. Ilave us, or punish us yet more severely. If you any thing here to repair these dayou are to blame—may neither gods nor mages? Will the Tribunes make up your men punish your faults ! only may you losses to you? They will give you words repent! No, Romans, the confidence of as many as you please ; bring impeachour eneinics is not owing to their courage, ments in abundance against the prime men or lo their belief of your cowardice: they in the state; hcap laws upon laws; assemhave been too often vanquished, not to blies you shall have without end : but will know both themselves and you. Discord, any of you return the richer from those discord, is the ruin of this city! The assemblics? Extinguish, 0 Romans, these cternal disputes between the senate and fatal divisions; generously break this the people are the sole cause of our mis. cursed enchantment, which keeps you fortunes. While we will set no bounds buried in a scandalous inaction. Open to our dominion, nor you to your liberty; your eyes, and consider the management while you impatiently endure Patrician of those ambitious men, who to make magistrates, and we Plebeian ; our ene- theinselves powerful in their party, study mies take heart, grow elated, and pre- nothing but how they may foment divisumptuous. In the name of the immortal sions in the commonwealth. If you can gods, what is it, Romans, you would have? but summon up your former courage, if You desired Tribunes; for the sake of you will now march out of Rome with peace, we granted them. You were eager your consuls, there is no punishment you to have Decemvirs; we consented to their can inflict which I will not submit to, if I creation. You grew weary of these De- do not in a few days drive those pillagers cemvirs; we obliged them to abdicate. out of our territory. This terror of war, Your hatred pursued them when reduced with which you seem so greviously struck, to private men; and we suffered you to shall quickly be removed from home to put to death, or banish, Patricians of the their own cities.

Ilooke, first rank in the republic. You insisted upon the restoration of the Tribuneship; $ 29. MicrosA to JUGURTHA. we yielded : we quietly saw Consuls of your own faction elected. You have the You know, Jugurtha, that I received protection of your Tribunes, and the pri- you under my protection in your early vilege of appeal; the Patricians are sub- youth, when left a helpless and hopeless jected to the decrees of the Commons. orphan. I advanced you to high honours Under pretence of equal and impartial in my kingdom, in the full assurance that laws, you have invaded our rights; and you would prove grateful for iny kindness We have suffered it, and we still suffer it. to you; and that, if I came to have chilWhen shall we see an end of discord? dren of my own, you would study to repay When shall we have one interest, and to them what you owed to me. Hitherto one common country? Victorious and I have had no reason to repent of my fatriumphant, you show less temper vours to you. For, to oinit all former in

stances

you

stances of your extraordinary merit, your bad so signally vanquished the squadrong late behaviour in the Numantian war has of the enemy upon the Rhone; or to lereflected upon me, and my kingdom, a gions, by whom that same enemy, flying new and distinguished glory. You have, before them to avoid a battle, did in effect by your valour, rendered the Roman com. confess themselves conquered? But, as monwealth, which before was well affected these troops, having been enrolled for to our interest, much more friendly. In Spain, are there with my brother Cneius, Spain, you have raised the honour of my making war under my auspices (as was the name and crown. And you have sur- will of the senate and people of Rome) I, mounted, what is justiy reckoned one of the that you might have a consul for your greatest difñculties; having, by your me- captain, against Hannibal and the Cartharit, silenced envy. My dissolution seems ginians, have freely offered myself for this now to be fast approaching. I therefore war. You, then, have a new general ; beseech and conjure you, my dear Jugur- and I a new army. On ibis account, a tha! by this right hand; by the remem- few words from me to you will be neither brance of my past kindness to you; by the improper nor unseasonable. honour of my kingdom; and by the ma- That you may not be unapprised of what jesty of the gods; be kind to my two sons, sort of enemies you are going to encounter, whom my favour to you has made your or of what is to be feared from them, they brothers; and do not think of forming a are the very same whom, in a former war, connexion with any stranger, to the pre- you vanquished both by land and sea; the judice of your relations. It is not by arms, same from whom you took Sicily and nor by treasures, that a kingdom is secured, Sardinia, and who have been these twenty . but by well affected subjects and allies. years your tributaries. You will not, I And it is by faithful and important ser. presume, march against these men, with vices, that friendship (which neither gold only that courage with which you are wont will purchase, nor arms extort) is secured. to face other enemies; but with a certain But what friendship is more perfect, than anger and indignation, such as

would that which ought to obtain between bro- feel if you saw your slaves on a sudden rise thers? What fidelity can be expected up in arms against you. Conquered and among strangers, if it is wanting among enslaved, it is not boldness, but necessity relations ? The kingdom I leave you is in that urges them to battle, unless you can good condition, if you govern it properly; believe that those who avoided fighting if otherwise, it is weak. For by agree. when their army was entire, have acment a small state increases: by division a quired better hope by the loss of twogreat one falls into ruin. It will lie upon thirds of their horse and foot in the pai. you, Jugurtha, who are come to riper sage of the Alps. years than your brothers, to provide that But you have heard, perhaps, tha, r.o misconduct produce any bad effect. though ihey are few in number, they are And, it any difference should arise between men of stout hearts and robust bodies; you and your brothers (which may the heroes of such strength and vigour, as pogods avert!) the public will charge you, thing is able to resist. - Mere etfigies. nas however innocent you may be, as the ag- shadows of men! wretches, emaciated gressor, because your years and abilities with hunger and benumbed with cold! give you the superiority. But I firmly bruised and battered to pieces among the persuade myself, that you will treat them rocks and craggy cliffs! their weapons with kmaness, and that they will honour broken, and their horses weak and fourand esteem you, as your distinguished vir- dered! Such are the cavalry, and such the tục cscrves.

Sallust. infantry, with which you are going to

contend ; nut enemies, but the fragments $ 30. Speech of Publius Scipio tothe of enemies. There is nothing which I

Roman Army before the Battle of the more apprehend, than that it will be TICIN.

thought Hannibal was vanquished by the

Alps, before we had any contlict with him. Were you, soldiers, the same army But, perhaps, it was fitting it should be which I had with me in Gaul, I might so; and that, with a people and a leader well forbear saying any thing to you at who had violated leagues and covenants

, this time : for what occasion could there the gods themselves, without man's bels be to use exhortation to a cavalry that should begin the war, and bring it to a

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pear conclusion : and that we, who, next young man, they coine hither to overturn to the gods, have been injured and of- our state, and lay waste our country. I fended, should happily finish what they could wish, indeed, that it were not so; bave begun.

and that the war we are now engaged I need not be in any fear that you in concerned only our own glory, and should suspect me of saying these things not our preservation. But the contest at merely to cacourage you, while inwardly present is not for the possession of Sicily I have different sentiments. What hin- and Sardinia, but of Italy itself: nor is dered me from going into Spain? That there behind us another army, which, if was my province, where I should have we should not prove the conquerors, may had the less dreaded Asdrubal, not Han- make head against our victorious enenibal, to deal with. But hearing, as I mies. There are no more Alps for them passed along the coast of Gaul, of this to pass, which might give us leisure to enemy's march, I landed my troops, sent raise new forces. No, soldiers; here you the horse forward, and pitched my camp must make your stand, as if you were upon the Rhone.

A part of my cavalry just now before the walls of Rome. Let encountered, and defeated that of the every one reflect, that he is now to de. enemy. My intantry not being able to find, not his own person only, but his overtake theirs, which fled before us, I re- wife, his children, his helpless infants. turned to my fleet : and, with all the ex. Yet, let not private considerations alone pedition I could use in so long a voyage by possess our minds: let us remember that sca and land, am come to meet them at the eyes of the senate and the people of the foot of the Alps. Was it, then, my in Rome are upon us; and that, as our clination to avoid a contest with this tre- force and courage shall now prove, such mendous Hannibal ? and have I met with will be the fortune of that city, and of the him only by accident and unawares? or Roman empire.

Hooke. am I come on purpose to challenge him to the combat? I would gladly try whether 31. Speech of HANNIBAL to the CARibe earth, within these twenty years has THAGINIAN Army, on the same Ocbrought forth a new kind of Carthagi- casion. nians ; or whether they be the same sort of men who fought at the Ægates, and I know not, soldiers, whether you or whom, at Eryx, you suffered to redeern your prisoners be encompassed by fortune themselves at eighteen denarii per head: with the stricter bonds and necessities. whether this Hannibal, for labours and 'Two seas inclose you on the right and journies, be, as he would be thought, the left; not a ship to fly to for escaping. Berival of Hercules; or, whether he what fore you is the Po, a river broader and his father left him, a tributary, a vassal, a more rapid than the Rhone; behind you slave of the Roman people. Did not the are the Alps; over which, even when your consciousness of his wicked deed at Sa- numbers were undiminished, you were guntum torment him and make him des- hardly able to force a passage dere then, perate, he would have some regard, if soldiers, you must either conquier or die, not to his conquered country, yet surely the very first hour you meet the enemy. 10 his own family, in his father's memory,

But the same fortune which has thus to the treaty written with Ilamilcar's own laid you under the necessity of fighting, hand. We might have starved him in has set before your cyes those rewards of Eryx; we might have passed into a frica victory, than which no men are ever wont with our viciorious fleet; and, in a few to wish for greater from the immortal days, have destroyed Carthage. At their gods. Should we, by our valour, recorer Lunble supplication, we pardoned them; only Sicily and Sardinia, which were rawe released them, when they were closely vished from our fathers, those would be shut up, without a possibility of escaping; no inconsiderable prizes. Yet, what are ve made peace with them, when they those? The wealth of Rome; whatever were conquered. When they were dis. riches she has heaped together in the spoils tressed by the African war, we considered of nations; all these with the masters of then, we treated them as a people under them, will be yours. You have been long our protection. And what is the return enough employed in driving the cattle they make us for all these favours ? upon the vast mountains of Lusitania and Lnder the conduct of a hair-brained Celtiberia ; you have hitherto met with

no

no reward worthy of the labours and ry; you any allies, most faithful and <a. dangers you have undergone. The time liant; you, Carthaginians, whom not only is now come, to reap the full recompence your country's cause, but the justest anger, of your toilsome marches over so many impels to battle. The hope, the courage, mountains, and rivers, and through so of assailants, is always greater than of those many nations, all of them in arms. This who act upon the defensive. With bostilc is the place which fortune has appointed banners displayed, you are come down to be ihe limits of your labour; it is upon Italy ; you bring the war. Grief, here that you will finish your glorious injuries, indignitics, fire your minds, and warfare, and receive an ample recom- spur you forward to revenge.-- First, they pence

of your completed service. For I demanded me; that I your gencral, would not have you imagine, that victory should be delivered up to them: next, all will be as difficult as the name of a Roman of you who had fought at the siege of $awar is great and sounding. It has often guntum: and we were to be put to deaih happened, that a despised enemy has given by the extremest tortures. Proud and a bloody battle; and the most renowned cruel nation ! every thing must be yours, kings and nations have by a small force and at your disposal ! you are to prescribe been overthrown. And if you but take to us with whom we shall make war, with away the glitter of the Roman name, whom we shall make peace. You are to what is there wherein they may stand in sct us bounds: to shut us up within hills competition with you? For, (to say no. and rivers ; but you, you are not to obthing of your service in war, for twenty serve the linits which yourselves hare years together, with so much valour and fixed ! “ Pass not the Iberus.” What success) from the very pillars of Hercules, next ? " Touch not the Saguntines. $afrom the occan, from the utmost bounds guntum

is

upon the Iberus, move not a of the earth, through so many warlike na- “ step towards that city." Is it a small tions of Spain and Gaul, are you not come

matter then at you have deprived us of hither victorious ? And with whom are ourancient possession, Sicily and Sardinia? you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an you would have Spain too. Well, we shall undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished, yield Spain and then--you will pass into besieged by the Gauls the very last sum- Africa. Will pass, did I say ?—this very mer; an army, unknown to their leader, year they ordered one of their consuls into and unacquainted with him.

Africa, the other into Spain. No, solOr shall I, who was born, I might al. diers; there is nothing left for us, but most say, but certainly brought up, in the what we can vindicate with our swords. tent of my father, that most excellent Come on, then. Be men. The Romans general ; shall I, the conqueror of Spain may, with more safety, be cowards, they and Gaul; and not only of the Alpine have their own country behind them, have nations, but which is greater still, of the places of refuge to fly to, and are secure Alps themselves; shall I compare myself from danger in the roads thither; but for with this half-year captain! a captain, be you, there is no middle fortune between forc whom should one place the two ar- death and victory. Let this be but well mies, without their cnsigns, I am per- fixed in your minds; and once again, I suaded he would not know to which of say, you are conquerors.

Hooke. them he is consul. I estcem it no small advantage, soldiers, that there is not one § 32. The Character of HANNIBAL ainong who has not often been an eye-witness of my exploits in war ; not Hannibal being sent to Spain, on his one of whose valour I myself have not arrival there attracted the eyes of the been a spectator, so as to be able to name whole army. The veterans believed Hathe times and places of his noble achieve- milcar was revived and restored to them : ments ; that with soldiers, whom I have they saw the same vigorous countenance, a thousand times praised and rewarded, the same piercing eye, the same complexand whose pupil I was before I becamé ion and features. But in a short time his their general, I shall march against an behaviour occasioned this resemblance of army of men strangers to one another. his father to contribute the least towards On what side socver I turn my eyes, I his gaining their favour. And, in truth

, behold all full of courage and strength. never was there a genius more happily A veteran infantry: a most gallant caval- formed for two things, most manifestly

coulrusy

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