them a tear.

might please your lordship yet better, a fears): it is not now indeed a time to think cobler) but in truth, of a very tolerable of myself, when one of the nearest and family; and my mother of an ancient one, longest ties I have ever had is broken all as well born and educated as that lady on a sudden, by the unexpected death of whom your lordship made choice of to be poor Mr. Gay. An inflammatory fever the mother of your own children; whose hurried him out of this life in three days. merit, beauty, and vivacity (if transmitted He died last night at nine o'clock, not to your posterity) will be a better present deprived of his senses entirely at last, and than even the noble blood they derive only possessing them perfectly till within five from you : a mother, on whom I was ne. hours. He asked for you a few hours bever obliged so far to reflect, as to say, she fore, when in acute torment by the inflamspoiled me; and a father, who never found mation in his bowels and breast. His efhimself obliged to say of me, that he dis- fects are in the Duke of Queensberry's cusapproved my conduct. In a word, my tody. His sisters, we suppose, will be his lord, I think it enough, that my parents, heirs, who are two widows ; as yet it is such as they were, never cost me a blush; not known whether or no he left a will.and that their such as he is, never cost Good God! how often are we to die be

fore we go quite off this stage? In every I have purposely omitted to consider friend we lose a part of ourselves, and the your lordship’s criticisms on my poetry. best part. God keep those we have left! As they are exactly the same with those of Few are worth praying for, and one's self the fore-mentioned authors, I apprehend the least of all. they would justly charge me with partiali- I shall never sec you now, I believe; one ty, if I gave to you what belong to them; of your principal calls to England is at an or paid more distinction to the same things end. Indeed he was the most amiable by when they are in your mouth, than when far, his qualities were the gentlest; but I they were in theirs. It will be shewing love you as well, and as firmly. Would both them and you (my lord) a more par- to God the man we have lost had not been ticular

respect, to observe how much they so amiable nor so good! but that's a wish are honoured by your imitation of them, for our own sakes, not for his. Sure, if which indeed is carried through your whole innocence and integrity can deserve hapepistle. I have read some where at school piness, it must be his. Adieu! I can add (though I make it no vanity to have for nothing to what you will feel, und diminish got where) that Tully naturalized a few nothing from it.

Ibid. phrases at the instance of some of his friends. Your lordship has done more in

§ 45. Enty. honour of these gentlemen; you have au

Envy is almost the only vice which thorized not only their assertions, but their is practicable at all times, and in every style. For example, A flow that wants place: the only passion which can never skill to restrain its ardour,-a dictionary lie quiet for want of irritation ; its efthat gives us nothing at its own expence. fects, therefore, are every where disco-As luxuriant branches bear but little verable, and its attempts always to be fruit

, so wit unprun'd is but raw fruit-- dreaded. While you rehearse ignorance, you still

Itis impossible to mention a name, which enough to do it in verse— Wits are any advantageous distinction has made but glittering ignorance. The account of eminent, but some latent animosity will how we pass our time-and, The weight burst out. The wealthy trader, however on Sir R. w's brain. You can ever


may abstract himself from public alreceive from no head more than such a head fairs, will never want those who bint with (as no head) has to give : your lordship Shylock, that ships are but boards, and would have said never receive instead of thai no man can properly be termed rich ever, and any head instead of no head. But whose fortune is at the mercy of the winds. all this is perfectly new, and has greatly The beauty adorned only with the unam

Pope. bitious graces of innocence and modesty,

provokes whenever she appears, a thousand $44. The Death of Mr. Gay. murmurs of detraction, and whispers of It is not a time to complain that you suspicion. The genius, even when he have not answered my two letters (in the endeavours only to entertain with pleaslast of which I was impatient under some ing images of nature, or instruct by un



enriched our language.

contested principles of science, yet suffers formed by their pride, who have lost their persecutions from innumerable critics, virtue. whose acrimony is excited merely by the It is no slight aggravation of the inpain of seeing others pleased, of hearing juries which envy incites, that they are applauses which another enjoys.

committed against those who have giveti The frequency of ervy makes it so fa- no intentional provocation; and that the miliar, that it escapes our notice: por do sufferer is marked out for ruin, not be we often reflect upon its turpitude or ma- cause he has failed in any duty, but lolignity, till we happen to feel its influence. cause he has dared to do more than was When he that has given no provocation to required. malice, but by attempting to excel in some Almost every other crime is practisedly useful art, finds himself pursued by multi- the help of some quality which might have tudes whom he never saw, with inplaca- produced esteem or love, if it had been well bility of personal resentment; when he employed; but envy is a more unmited perceives clamour and malice let loose and genuine evil; it pursues a hateful eni upon him as a public enemy, and incited by despicable means, and desires not sa by every stratagem of defamation ; when much its own happiness as another's mi he hears the misfortunes of his family, or sery. To avoid depravity like this, it is the follies of his youth, exposed to the not necessary that any one should aspiru world ; and every failure of conduct, or to heroism or sanctily ; but only, that he defect of nature, aggravated and ridiculed; should resolve not to quit the rank which he then learns to abhor those artifices at nature assigns, and wish to maintain the which he only laughed before, and discovers dignity of a human being. how much the happiness of life would be

Ramblu. advanced by the eradication of envy from the human heart.

$ 46. EPICURUS, a Review of his Envy is, indeed, a stubborn weed of

Character. the mind, and seldom yields to the culture I believe you will find, my dear Jamil

. of philosophy. There are, however, con- ton, that Aristotle is still to be preferred 10 siderations, which, if carefully implanted Epicurus. The former made some usctul and diligently propagated, might in time experiments and discoveries, and waschoverpower and repress it, since no one gaged in a real pursuit of knowledge, alcan nurse it for the sake of pleasure, as though his manner is much perplesed. its effects are only shame, anguish, and The latter was full of vanity and ambition. perturbation.

Ile was an impostor, and only aimed at It is, above all other vices, inconsistent deceiving. Ile scemed not to believe the with the character of a social being, be- principles which he has asserted. He corro cause it sacrificestruth and kindness to very mitted the government of all things to weak temptations. He that plunders a chance. His natural philosophy is absurd

. wealthy neighbour, gains as much as he His moral philosophy wants its properbasis

, takes away, and improves his own condi. the fear of God. "Monsieur Bayle, one of tion in the same proportion as he impairs his warmest advocates, is of the last opianother's; but he that blasts a flourishing nion, where he says, On ne sauroit pas eine reputation must be content with a small assez de bien de l'honnéteté de ses meurs, di dividend of additional same, so small as can assez de mal de ses opinions sur la religiero afford very little consolation to balance the His general maxim, That happiness CDguilt by which it is obtained.

sisted in pleasure,was too much unguarded I have hitherto avoided mentioning that and must lay a foundation of a most des dangerous and empirical morality, which structive practice: although, from bis temcures one vice by means of another. But per and constitution, lie made his life sufenvy is so base and detestable, so vile in its ciently pleasurable to himself and agree original, and so pernicious in its effects, able to the rules of true philosophy. Ile that the predominance of almost any other fortune exempted him from care and sokquality is to be desired. It is one of those citude; his valetudinarian habit of body lawless enemies of society, against which from intemperance. Ile passed the greatest poisoned arrows may honesily be used. part of his time in his garden, where he Let it therefore be constantly remem- enjoyed all the elegant amusements et les bered, that wboever envies another, con- There he studied. There he tauglit be fesses bis superiority, and let those be re- philosophy. This particular lapis site

tion greatly contributed to that tranquillity virtue of one generation was transfuseri, of mind and indolence of body, which he by the magic of example, into several : made his chief ends. He had not, how- and a spirit of heroism was maintained erer, resolution sufficient to meet the gra- through many ages of that commondual approaches of death, and wanted that wealth. constancy which Sir William Temple ascribes to him: for in his last moments,

Dangerous,when copied without Judgment. then he found that his condition was des- Peter of Medicis had involved himself perate, he took such large draughts of in great difficulties, when those wars and wine, that he was absolutely intoxicated calamities began which Lewis Sforza first and deprived of his senses; so that he died drew on and entailed on Italy, by flatmore like a bacchanal than a philosopher. tering the ambition of Charles the Eighth, Orrery's Life of Swift. in order to gratify his own, and calling the

French into that country. Peter owed his § 47. Example, its Prevalence.

distress to his folly in departing from the Is it not Pliny, my lord, who says, that general tenor of conduct his father Lauthe gentl est, he should have added the rence had held, and hoped to relieve himmost effectual way of commanding, is by self by imitating his father's example in example? Mitius jubetur exemplo. The one particular instance. At a time when harshest orders are softened by example, the wars with the Pope and king of Naples and tyranny 'itself becomes persuasive. had reduced Laurence to circumstances of What pity it is that so few princes have great danger, he took the resolution of golearned this way of commanding ! Buting to Ferdinand, and of treating in person again ; the force of example is not con- with that prince.

The resolution appears fided to those alone that pass immediately in history imprudent and almost desperate: under our sight: the examples that me- were we informed of the secret reasons on mory suggests have the same effect in their which this great man acted, it would apdegree, and an habit of recalling them will pear very possibly a wise and safe measure, soon produce the habit of imitating them. It succeeded, and Laurence brought back In the same epistle from whence I cited a with him public peace and private security. passage just now, Seneca says, that Clean- When the French troops entered the dothes had never become so perfect a copy of minions of Florence, Peter was struck with Zeno, if he had not passed his life with a panic terror, went to Charles the Eighth, him; that Plato, Aristotle, and the other put the port of Leghorn, the fortresses of philosophers of that school

, profited more Pisa, and all the keys of the country into by the example than by the discourses of this prince's hands : whereby he disarmed Socrates. (But here, by the way, Seneca the Florentine commonwealth, and ruined mistook ; Socrates died two years accord- himself. He was deprived of his authoing to some, and four years according to rity, and driven out of the city, by the júst others, before the birth of Aristotle; and indignation of the magistrates and people ; bis mistake might come from the inaccu- and in the treaty which they made after. racy of those who collected for him ; as wards with the king of France, it was stiErasmus observes, after Quintilian, in his pulated that he should not remain within judgment on Seneca.) But be this, which an hundred miles of the state, nor his browas scarce worth a parenthesis, as it will, thers within the same distance of the city he adds, that Metrodorus, Hermachus, and of Florence. On this occasion GuicciarPolyxenus, men of great note, were formed dini observes how dangerous it is to govern by living under the same roof with Epicu- ourselves by particular examples; since to rus, not by frequenting his school. These have the same success, we must have the are instances of the force of immediate ex- same prudence, and the same fortune; and ample. But your lordship knows, citizens since the example must not only answer of Rome placed the images of their ances- the case before us in general, but in every tors in the vestibules of their houses ; so minute circumstance. Bolingbroke. that whenever they went in or out, these venerable bustoes met their eyes, and re

$ 48. Erile only an imaginary Eril. called the glorious actions of the dead, to

To live deprived of one's country is in. fire the living, to excite them to imitate tolerable. Is it so ? How comes it then

great forefathers.

to pass that such numbers of men live out The success answered the design. The of their countries by choice? Observe how

and even emulate

the streets of London and of Parisare crowd. faculties, and born under the same laws of ed. Call over those millions by name, and nature. ask them one by one, of what country they Weshall see the same virtues and vices, are : how many will you find, who from flowing from the same principles, but varied different parts of the earth come to inhabit in a thousand different and contrary modes, these great cities, which afford the largest according to that infinite variety of laws, opportunities and the largest encourage and castoms which is established for the ment to virtue and vice? Some are drawn same universal end, the preservation of soby ambition, and some are sent by duty; ciety. We shall feel the same revolution many resort thither to improve their minds, of seasons, and the same sun and moon will and many to improve their fortunes ; others guide the course of our year. The same bring their beauty, and others their clo azure vault bespangled with stars, will be quence to market. Remove from hence every where spread over our heads. There and go to the utmost extremities of the is no part of the world from whence we may East or West ; visit the barbarous nations not admire those planets which roll, like of Africa, or the inhospitable regions of ours, in different orbs round the same centhe North, you will find no climate so bad, tral sun; from whence we may not discover no country so savage, as not to have some an object still more stupendous, that army people who come from abroad, and inhabit of fixed stars hung up in the imniense space those by choice.

of the universe; innumerable suns, whose Amongnumberless extravagances which beams enlighten and cherish the unknown pass through the minds of men, we may worlds which roll around them: and whils justly reckon for one that notion of a secret I am ravished by such contemplations as affection, independent of our reason, and these, whilst my soul is thus raised up to superior to our reason, which we are sup- heaven, it imports me little what ground posed to have for our country; as if there I tread upon.

Bolingbroke. were some physical virtue in every spot of ground, which necessarily produced this

§ 49. The Lore of Fame. effect in every one born upon it.

I can by no means agree with you in

thinking that the love of fame is a passion Amor patriæ ratione valentior omni.

which either reason or religion condemns, This notion may have contributed to the I confess, indeed, there are some who have security and grandeur of states. It has represented it as incovsistent with botb; therefore been not unartfully cultivated, and I remember, in particular, theexcellent and the prejudice of education has been author of The Religion of Nature deliwith care put on its side. Men have come neated, has treated it as highly irrational in this case, as in many others, from be- and absurd. As the passage falls in so lieving that it ought to be so, to persuade thoroughly with your own turn of thought, others, and even to believe themselves that you will have no objection, I imagine, to it is so.

my quoting it at large, and I give it you,

at the same time, as a very great autbority Cannot hurt a reflecting Man.

on your side. “In reality," says that writer, Whatever is best is safest ; lies out of the " the man is not known cver the more reach of human power ; can neither be to posterity, because his name is transgiven por taken away. Such is this great “ mitted to them: He doth not live because and beautiful work of nature, the world. “ his name does. When it is said, Juhim Such is the mind of man, which contem- “ Cæsar subdued Gaul, conquered Peaplates and admires the world, whereof it pey, &c. it is the same thing as to say, makes the noblest part. These are inse

" the conqueror of Pompey was Julius Ca perably ours, and as long as we remain in “ sar, i.e. Cæsar and the conqueror of Pets one, we shall enjoy the oiber.

pey is the same thing ; Cæsar is as much anarch therefore intrepidly wherever we “ known by one designation as by the are led by the course of human accidents. “ other. The amount then is only two Wherever they lead us, on what coast so- “ that the conqueror of Pompey conqerta ever we are thrown by them, we shall not “ ed Pompey; or rather, since Pomper * and ourselves absolutely strangers. We as little known now as Cæsar, somebody shall meet with men and women, crcatures “conquered somebody. Such a poor for of the same figure, endowed with the same ness is this boasted immortality! sad

Let us


ti such is the thing called glory among us! birth, is herself represented as rejoicing “ To discerning men this fame is mere air; that all generations should call her blessed. " and what they despise, if not shun.” To be convinced of the great advantage

But surely " 'twere to consider too cu- of cherishing this high regard to posterity, , riously,” as Horatio says to Hamlet, this noble desire of an after-life in the

to consider thus." For though fame breath of others, one need only look back with posterity should be, in the strict upon the history of the ancient Greeks and analysis of it, no other than what it is here Romans. What other principle was it, described, a mere uninteresting proposition which produced that exalted strain of viramountingto nothing more than that some- tue in those days, that may well serve as a body acted meritoriously; yet it would not model to these? Was it not the consentiens necessarily follow, that true philosophy laus bonorum, the incorrupta vor bene jico would banish the desire of it from the hu- dicantum (as Tully calls it), the concurman breast. For this passion may be (as rent approbation of the good, the uncormost certainly it is) wisely implanted in our rupted applause of the wise, that animated species, notwithstanding the corresponding their most generous pursuits? object should in reality be very different To confess the truth, I have been ever from what it appears in imagination. Do inclined to think it a very dangerous at. not many of our most refined and even tempt, to endeavour to lessen the motives contemplative pleasuresowetheir existence of right conduct, or to raise any suspicion to our inistakes? It is but extending (I concerning their solidity. The temper and will not say, improving) some of our senses dispositions of mankind are so extremeto a higher degree of acuteness than we ly different, that it seems necessary they now possess them, to make the fairest views should be called into action by a variety of of pature, or the noblest productions of incitements. Thus, while some are willart, appear horrid and deformer. To see ing to wed virtue for her personal charms, things as they truly and in themselves are, others are engaged to take her for the sake would not always, perhaps, be of advan- of her expected dowry: and since her foltage to us in the intellectual world, any lowers and admirers have so little hopes more than in the natural. But, after all, from her in present, it were pity, mewho shall certainly assure us, that the plea- thinks, to reason them out of any imaginsure of virtuous famedies with its possessor, ed advantage in reversion. and reaches not to a farther scene of ex

Fitzosborne's Letters. istence? There is nothing, it should scem, either absurd or unphilosophical insuppos

$ 50. Enthusiasm. ing it possible at least, that the praises of 'Though I rejoice in the hope of secing the good and the judicious, that sweetest enthusiasm expelled from her religious domusic to an honest ear in this world, may minions, let me intreat you to leave her in be echoed back to the mansions of the the undisturbed enjoyment of her civil next: that the poet's description of fame possessions. To own the truth, I look upon may be literally true, and though she walks enthusiasm, in all other points but that of upon earth, she may yet lift her head into religion, to be a very necessary turn of heaven.

mind; as indeed it is a vein which nature But can it be reasonable to extinguish a seems to have marked with more or less passion which nature has universally lighted strength in the tempers of most men. No up in the human breast, and which we con- matter what the object is, whether busistantly find to burn with most strength and ness, pleasures, or the fine arts; whoever brightness in the noblest and best formed pursues them to any purpose must do so bosoms ? Accordingly revelation is so far, con amore : and inamoratos, you know, of from endeavouring (as you suppose) to every kind, are all enthusiasts. There is cradicate the seed which nature hath thus indeed a certain heightening faculty which deeply planted, that she rather seems, on universally prevails through our species; the contrary to cherish and forward its and we are all of us, perhaps in our sevegrowth. To be eralted with honour, and to ral favourable pursuits, pretty much in the be had in everlasting remembrance, are in circumstances of the renowned knight of the number ofthose encouragements which La Mancha, when he attacked the barthe Jewish dispensation offered to the vir- ber's brazen bason, for Mambrino'sgolden tuous; as the person from whom the sacred helmet. author of the Christian system received his What is Tully's aliquid immensum in



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