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black velvet mask; at anothet it was blot- to others, of assuming the same character ted with patches : and at present it is crust- of distinguished infamy. Few are so to. ed over with plaister of Paris. In those tally vitiated, as to have abandoned all seribattered belles who still aim at conquest, timents of shame ; and when every other this practice is in some sort excusable; but principle of integrity is surrendered, we it is surely as ridiculous in a young lady to generally find the confict is still main. give up beauty for paint, as it would be to tained in this last post of retreating virtue. draw a good set of teeth merely to fill their In this view, therefore, it should seem, the places with a row of ivory.
function of a satirist may be justified, notIndeed so common is the fashion among withstanding it should be true (what an the young as well as the old, that when I excellent moralist has asserted) that his am in a group of beauties, I consider them chastisements rather exasperate than reas so many pretty pictures; looking about claim those on whom they fall. Perhaps me with as little emotion as I do at Hud- no human penalties are of any inoral adson's : and if any thing fills me with ad- vantage to the criminal himself; and the miration, it is the judicious arrangement principal benefit that seems to be derived of the lints, and delicate touches of the from civil punishments of any kind, is painter. Art very often seems almost to their restraining influence upon the convie with nature : but my attention is too duct of others. frequently diverted by considering the tex- It is not every man, however, that is ture and hue of the skin beneath ; and the qualified to manage this formidable bow. picture fails to charm, while my thoughts The arrows of satire unless they are pointare engrossed by the wood and canvass. ed by virtue, as well as wit, recoil upon
Connoisseur. the hand that directs them, and wound none
but him from whom they proceed. AcØ 101. Advantages of well-directed Satire cordingly Horace rests the whole success pointed out.
of writings of this sort upon the poet's A satyrist of true genius, who is warmed being integer ipse ; free himself from those by a generous indignation of vice, and immoral strains which he points out in whose censures are conducted by candour others. There cannot, indeed, be a more and truth, merits the applause of every odious, nor at the same time a more confriend to virtue. He may be considered templible character, than that of a vicious as a sort of supplement to the legislative satirist : authority of his country; as assisting the unavoidable defects of all legal institutions Quis coelum terris non misceat & mare colo, for regulating the manners, and striking Si fur displiceat Verri, homic.da Milona ?
Juv. terror even where the divine prohibitions themselves are held in contempt. The
The most favourable light in which a strongest defence, perhaps against the in- censor of this species could possibly be vie roads of vice, among the more cultivated ed, would be that of a public executioner, part of our species, is well-directed ridi. who inflicts the punishment on others, cule: they wko fear nothing else, dread to which he has already merited himself. But be marked out to the contempt and indig. the truth of it is, he is not qualified even nation of the world. There is no succeed for so wretched an office; and there is ing in the secret purposes of dishonesty, nothing to be dreaded from the satirist of without preserving some sort of credit known dishonesty, but his applause. among mankind; as there cannot exist a
Fitzosborne's Letters, more impotent creature than a knave convict. To expose, therefore, the false pre
Ø 102. Juvenal and Horace compared as tensions of counterfeit virtue, is to disarm
Satirists. it at once of all power of mischief, and to I would willingly divide the palm beperform a public service of the most advan- twixt these poets upon the two heads of iageous kind, in which any man can em- profit and delight, which are the two ends ploy his time and his talents. The voice, of poetry in general. It must be granted indeed, of an honest satirist is not only be by the favourers of Juvenal, that Horace neficial to the world, as giving an alarm is the more copious and profitable in his against the designs of an enemy so dane instructions of human life : but in my pargerous to all social intercourse ; but as pro- tioular opinion, which I set not up for a ving likewise the most efficacious preventive standard to better judgements, Juvenal is
the more delightful author. I am profited and fops, so 'tis a harder thing to make by both, I am pleased with both; but I owe a man wise, than to make him honest : for more to Horace for my instruction, and the will is only to be reclaimed in the one, more to Juvenal for my pleasure. This, but the understanding is to be informed in as I said, is my particular taste of these two the other. There are blind sides and folauthors: they who will have either ofthem lies, even in the professors of moral philo. to excel the other in both qualities, can sophy; and there is not any onc set of them scarce give better reasons for their opinion that Horace has not exposed. Which, as than I for mine : but all unbiassed readers it was not the design of Juvenal, who was will conclude, that my moderation is not wholly employed in lashing vices, some of to be condemned. To such impartial men them the most enormous that can be ima. I must appeal ; for they who have already gined, so, perhaps, it was not so much his formed their judgement, may justly stand talent, Omne vafer vitium, ridenti Flaccus suspected of prejudice ; and though all amico, tangit,&admissus circum præcordia who are my readers will set up to be my ludit. This was the commendation that judges, I enter my caveat against them Persius gave him ; where, by vitium, he that they ought not so much as to be of means those little vices which we call sol. my jury; or if they be admitted, 'tis but lies, the defects of human understanding, reason that they should first hear what I or at most the peccadillos of life, rather have to urge in the defence of my opinion. than the tragical vices, to which men are
That Horace is somewhat the better in- hurried by their unruly passions and exe structor of the two, is proved hence, that orbitant desires. But on the word omne his instructions are more general, Juvenals which is universal, he concludes with me more limited : so that, granting that the that the divine wit of Horace let nothing counsels which they give are equally good untouched ; that he entered into the utmost for moral use, Horace, who gives the most recesses of nature ; found out the impero various advice, and most applicable to all fections even of the most wise and grave, occasions which can occur to us in the as well as of the common people ; discocourse of our lives as including in his dis- vering even in the great Trebatius, to wbona courses not only all the rules of morality, he addresses the first Satire, his bunting but also of civil conversation ; is undoubt- after business, and following the court : as edly to be preferred to him who is more well as in the persecutor Crispinus, bis circumscribed in his instructions, makes impertinence and importunity. 'Tis true them to fewer people, and on fewer occa« he exposes Crispinus openly as a common sions, than the other. I may be pardoned nuisance; but he rallies the other as a for using an old saying, since it is true and friend, more finely. The exhortations of to the purpose, Bonum quo communius eo Persius are confined to noblemen ; and the melius. Juvenal, excepting only his first stoick philosophy is that alone which he satire, is in all the rest confined to the ex- recommends to them : Juvenal exhorts to posing some particular vice: that he lashes, particular virtues, as they are opposed to and there be sticks. His sentences are truly those vices against which he declaims ; bu! shining and instructive; but they are Horace laughs to shame all follies, and insprinkled here and there, Horace is teach- sinuates virtue rather by familiar examples ing us in every line, and is perpetually than by the severity of precepts. moral ; he had found out the skill of Vir. This last consideration seems to incline gil, to hide his sentences; to give you the the balance on the side of Horace, and to virtue of them without shewing them in give him the preference to Juvenal, not their full extent : which is the ostentation only in profit, but in pleasure. But after of a povt, and not his art. And this Petro- all, I must confess that the delight which nius charges on the authors of his time, as Horace gives me is but languishing. Be a vice of writing, which was then grow. pleased still to understand, that I speak of ing on the age: Ne sententiæ extra corpus my own taste only : he may ravish other orationis emineant. lle would have them men; but I am too stupid and insensible to weaveu into the body of the work, and not be tickled. Where he barely grins himself
, appear embossed upon it, and striking and as Scaliger says, only shews his whito directly on the reader's view. Folly was teeth, he cannot provoke me to any laughter. the proper quarry of Ilorace, and not vice: His urbanity, that is, his good manners, and as ihere are but few notoriously wicke are to be commended, but his wit is faint ; ed men, in comparison with a shoal of fools and his salt, if I may dare to say so, almost
insipid. insipid. Juvenal is of a more vigorous and place. A man may be capable, as Jack masculine wit : he gives me as much plea. Ketch's wife said of her servant, of a plain sure as I can bear: he fully satisfies myex- piece of work, a bare hanging: but to pectation : he treats his subject home: his make a malefactor die sweetly, was only spleen is raised, and he raises mine: I have belonging to her husband. I wish I could the pleasure of concernment in all he says: apply it to myself, if the reader would be he drives his reader along with him : and kind enough to think it belongs to me. when he is at the end of his way, I wil. The character of Zimri in my Absalom, lingly stop with him. If he went another is, in my opinion, worth the whole poem stige, it would be too far, it would make 'tis not bloody, but 'tis ridiculous enough : a journey of a progress, and turn the de- and he for whom it was intended, was too light into fatigue. When he gives over, 'tis witty to resent it as an injury. If I had a siga the subject is exhausted, and the wit railed, I might have suffered for it justly : of man can carry it no farther. If a fault but I managed mine own works more can be justly found in him, 'tis that he is happily; perhaps more dexterously. I sometimes too luxuriant, too redundant; avoided the mention of great crimes, and says more than he needs, like my friend the applied myself to the representing of blind Plain Dealer, but never more than pleases. sides, and little extravagances, to which, Add to this, that his thoughts are as just as the wittier a man is, he is generally the those of Ilorace, and much more elevated. more obnoxious. It succeeded as I wish. His expressions are sonorous and more ed, the jest went round, and he was out in noble, his verse more numerous, and his his turn who began the frolic. Ibid. words are suitable to his thoughts, sublime and lofty. All these contribute to the plea- $ 104. The IVorks of Art defective in sure of the reader; and the greater the soul
entertaining the Imagination. of lim who reads, his transports are the
If we consider the works of nature and greater. llorace is always on the amble, art, as they are qualified to entertain the Juvenal on the gallop; but his way is imagination, we shall find the last very deperpetually on carpet-ground. He goes fective, in comparison of the former, for with more impetuosity than Horace, but though they may sometimes appear as as securely; and the swiftness adds more beautiful or strange, they can have nothing lively agitation to the spirits. Dryden. in - them of that vastness and immensity,
which affords so great an entertainment to § 103. Delicate Satire not easily hit off. the mind of the beholder. The one may
be as polite and delicate as the other, but How easy is it to call rogue and villain, can never shew herself so august and mage and that wiúily! but how hard to make a nificent in the design. There is something man appear a fool, a blockhead, or a knąve, more bold and masterly in the rough carewithout using any of those opprobrious less strokes of nature, than in the nice terms! Tospare the grossness of the names, touches and embellishments of art. The and to do the thing yet more severely, is beauties of the most stately garden or to draw a full face, and to make the nose palace lie in a narrow compass, the imaand cheek stand out, and yet not to em- gination immediately runs them over, and ploy any depth of shadowing. This is requires something else to gratify her; but, the mystery of that noble trade, which yet in the wide fields of nature, the sight wanno master can teach to his apprentice: he ders up and down without confinement, may give the rules, but the scholar is never and is fed with an infinite variety of images, the nearer in his practice. Neither is it without any certain stint or number. For true, that this fineness of raillery is offen- this reason we always find the poet in love sive. A witty man is tickled while he is with a country life, where nature appears hurt in this manner; and a fool feels it not. in the greatest perfection, and furnishes The occasion of an offence may possibly out all those scenes that are most apt to be given, but he cannot take it, if it be delight the imagination. granted, that in effect this way does more mischief; that a manis secretly wounded; Scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus et fugit and though he be not sensible himself, yet
HOR. the malicious world will find it out for him:
Hic secura quies, et nescia fallere vita. yet there is still a vaștdifference betwixt the Speluncæ, vivique lacus, hic frigida Tempe,
Dives opum variarum; hic latis otia fundis, slovenly butchering ofa man, and the fine. Mugitusque boum, molle que sub arbore somni. ness of a stroke that separates the head from
VIRG. the body, and leaves it standing in its
But though there are several of these more accurate productions of art. On this wild scenes that are more delightful than account our English gardens are not so cuany artificial shows; yet we find the works tertaining to the fancy as those in France of nature still more pleasant, the morethey and Italy, where we see a large extent of resemble those of art : for in this case our ground covered over with an agreeable pleasure rises from a double principle; mixture of garden and forest, which reprefrom the agrecableness of the objects to the sent every where an artificial rudeness, eye, and from their similitude to other ob- much more charmingthan that neatness and jects: we are pleased as well with compar. elegance which we meet with in those of ing their beauties, as with surveying them, our own country. It might, indeed, be of and can represent them to our minds either ill consequence to the public, as well as unas copies or originals. Hence it is that profitable to private persons, to alienate so we take delight in a prospect which is well much ground from pasturage and the laid out, and diversified with fields and plough, in many parts of a country that meadows, woods and rivers ; in those ac. is so well peopled, and cultivated to a far cidental landskips of trees, clouds, and greater advantage. But why may not a cities, that are sometimes found in the whole estate be thrown into a kind of garveins of marble ; in the curious fret-work den by frequent plantations, that may turn of rocks and grottos; and, in a word, in as much to the profit as the pleasure of any thing that hath such a variety or re- the owner? A marsh overgrown with wilgularity as may seem the effects of design, lows, or a mountain shaded with oaks, are in what we call the works of chance.
not only more beautiful, but more benefi.
cial, than when they lie bare and unadornAdvantage from their Similarity to those ed. Fields of corn make a pleasant pros. of Nature.
pect, and if the walks were a little taken
care of that lic between them, if the natural If the products of nature rise in value, embroidery of the meadows were helped according as they more or less resemble and improved by some small additions of those of art, we may be sure that artificial art, and the several rows of hedges set off works receive a greater advantage from by trees and flowers that the soil was catheir resemblance to such as are natural; pable of receiving, a man might make a because here the similitude is not only plea- pretty landskip of his own possessions. sant, but the pattern more perfect. The
Spectator. prettiest landskip I ever saw, was onc drawr. on the walls of a dark room,
which stood 105. On the Progress of the Arts. opposite on one side to a navigable river, The natural progress of the works of and on the other to a park. The experi- men is from rudeness to convenience, from ment is very common in optics. Here you convenience to clegance, and from elegance might discover the waves and fluctuations to nicety. of the water in strong and proper colours, The first labour is enforced by necessity. with a picture of a ship entering at one The savage finds himself incommoded by end, and sailing by degrees through the 'heat and cold, by rain and wind; he shelwhole piece. On another there appeared ters himself in the hollow of a rock, and the green shadow of trees, waving to and learns to dig a cave where there was none "fro with the wind, the herds of deer among before. He finds the sun and the wind exo them in miniature, leaping about upon the cluded by the thicket, and when the acciwall. I must confess the novelty of such dents of the chase, or the convenience of a sight may be one occasion of its pleasant- pasturage, leads him into more open places, ness to the imagination, but certainly the he forms a thicket for himself, by planting chief reason is its near resemblance to na- stakes at proper distances, and laying ture, as it does not only, like other pictures branches from one to another. give the colour and figure, but the motion The next gradation of skill and industry of the things it represents.
produces a house, closed with doors, and We have before observed, that there is divided by partitions ; and apartments are generally in nature something more grand multiplied and disposed according to the and august, than what we meet with in the various degrees of power orinvention : imcuriosities of art. When, therefore, we see provement succeeds improvement, as he this imitated in any measure, it gives us a that is freed from a greater evil gross nobler and more exalted kind of plcasure impatient of a less, till ease in time is adthan what we receive from the nicer and vanced to plcasure.
The mind, set free from the importuni- that there are several other worlds within ties of natural want, gains leisure to go in our view, greater and more glorious than search of superfluous gratifications, and our own! “ Ay, but,” says some illiterate adds to the uses of habitation the delights fellow," I enjoy the world, and leave it to of prospect. Then begins the reign of others to contemplate it.” Yes, you eat, synimetry; orders of architecture are in- and drink, and run about upon it; that is, vented, and one part of the edifice is con- you enjoy as a brute ; but to enjoy as a formed to another, without any other rea- rational being is to know it, to be sensible son than that the eye may not be offended. of its greatness and beauty, to be delighted
The passage is very short from elegance with its harmony, and, by these reflecto luxury. Ionic and Corinthian columns tions, to obtain just sentiments of the alare soon succeeded by gilt cornices, inlaid mighty mind that framed it. floors, and petty ornaments, which shew The man who, unembarrassed with vul. rather the wealth than the taste of the pos, gar cares, leisurely attends to the Aux of
Idler. things in heaven and things on earth, and
observes the laws by which they are go $ 106. The Study of Astronomy peculiar- verned, hath secured to himself an easy ly delightful.
and convenient seat, where he beholds In fair weather, when my heart is cheer- with pleasure all that passes on the stage ed, and I feel that exaltation of spirits of nature, while those about him are, some which results from light and warmth, fast asleep, and others struggling for the joined with a beautiful prospect of nature, highest places, or turning their eyes from I regard myself as one placed by the hand the entertainment prepared by Providence, of God in the midst of an ample theatre, to play at push-pin with one another. in which the sun, moon, and stars, the Within this ample circumference of the fruits also and vegetables of the earth, per- world, the glorious lights that are hung petually changing their positions or their on high, the meteors in the middle region, aspects, exhibit an elegant entertainment the various livery of the earth, and the to the understanding as well as to the eye. profusion of good things that distinguish
Thunder and lightning, rain and hail, the seasons, yield a prospect which annithe painted bow and the glaring comet, hilates all human grandeur. Tatler. are decorations of this mighty theatre ; and the sable hemisphere studded with
$ 107. The planctary and terrestrial spangles, the blue vault at noon, the glo
Worlds comparatively considered. rious gildings and the rich colours in the To us, who dwell on its surface, the earth horizon, I look on as so many successive is by far the most extensive orb that our scenes.
eyes can any where behold: it is also When I consider things in this light, clothed with verdure, distinguished by methinks it is a sort of impiety to have no trees, and adorned with variety of beautiattention to the course of nature, and the ful decorations; whercas, to a spectator revolutions of the heavenly bodies. To be placed on one of the planets, it wears an regardless of those phænomena that are uniform aspect, looks all luminous, and placed within our view, on purpose to en- no larger than a spot. To beings who still tertain our faculties, and display the wis- dwell at greater distances, it entirely disdon and power of our Creator, is an af, appears. front to Providence of the same kind, (I That which we call alternately the mornhope it was not impious to make such a ing and the evening star (as in one part of simile) as it would be to a good poet to sit the orbit she rides foremost in the procesout his play without minding the plot or sion of night, in the other ushers in and beauties of it. And yet how few are there anticipates the dawn) is a planetary world, who attend to the drama of nature, its arti- which with the four others that so wonficial structure, and those admirable scenes derfully vary their mystic dance, are in whereby the passions of a philosopher are themselves dark bodies, and shine only by gratefully agitated, and his soul affected reflection; have fields, and seas, and skies with the sweetemotions of joy and surprise. of their own, are furnished with all ac
How many fos-hunters and rural squires commodations for animal subsistence, and are to be found all over Great Britain, are supposed to be the abodes of intellecwho are ignorant that they have lived all tual life; all which, together with this time in a planet; that the sun is several carthly habitation, are dependant." thousand times bigger than the earth; and grand dispenser of divine munitico