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sun; receive their light from the distri- this astonishing grand furniture of the bution of his rays, and derive their com- skies? What, but a dim speck, hardly perfort from his benign agency.
ceivable in the map of the universe? It is The sun, which seems to perform its observed by a very judicious writer, that daily stages through the sky, is in this re• if the sun himself, which enlightens that spect fixed and immoveable; 'tis the great part of the creation, was extinguisbed, and axle of heaven, about which the globe we all the host of planetary worlds, which inhabit, and other more spacious orbs, move about him, were annihilated, they wheel their stated courses. The sun, would not be missed by an eye that can though seemingly smaller than the dial it take in the whole compass of nature, any illuminates, is abundantly larger than this more than a grain of sand upon the seawhole earth, on which so many lofty moun- shore. The bulk of which they consist, tains rise, and such vast oceans roll. A and the space which they occupy, is so exline extending from side to side through ceedingly little in comparison of the whole, the centre of that resplendent orb, would that their loss would leave scarce a blank measure more than eight hundred thou- in the immensity of God's works. If then, sand miles; a girdle formed to go round its not our globe only, but this whole system, circumference, would require a length of be so very diminutive, what is a kingdom millions. Were its solid contents to be e- or a country? What are a few lordships
, timated, the account would overwhelm or the so much admired patrimonies of our understanding, and be almost beyond those who are styled wealthy? When I the power of language to express. Are we measure them with my own little pittance, startled at these repurts of philosophy ? they swell into proud and bloated dimenAre we ready to cry out in a transport of sions : but when I take the universe for surprize, “ How mighty is the Being who my standard, how scanty is their size, how kindled such a prodigious fire, and keeps contemptible their figure! they shrink alive from age to age such an enormous into pompous nothings. Spectator. mass of fame!" let us attend our philosophic guides, and we shall be brought ac. ✓ 108. The Character of Toby Bumper. quainted with speculations more enlarged and more inflaming.
It is one of the greatest advantages of This sun, with all his attendant planets, education, that it encourages an ingeniu. is but a very little part of the grand ma- ous spirit, and cultivates a liberal dispochine of the universe: every star, though sition. We do not wonder that a lad wbo in appearance no bigger than the diamond has never been sent to school, and whose that glitters upon a lady's ring, is really a faculties have been suffered to rust at the vast globe, like the sun in size and in hall-house, should form too close an intiglory; no less spacious, no less lumi. macy with his best friends, the groom and nous, than the radiant source of the day: the game-keeper ; but it would amaze us so that
every star is not barely a world, to see a boy well educated cherish this illbut the centre of a magnificent system; placed pride, of being, as it is called, ile has a retinue of worlds, irradiated by its head of the company. A person of this beams, and revolving round its attractive humble ambition will be very well casinfluence, all which are lost to our sight tent to pay the reckoning, for the honou! in unmeasurable wilds of ether. That of being distinguished by the title of the the stars appear like so many diminutive gentleman,' while he is unwilling to asso and scarce distinguishable points, is ow- ciate with men of fashion, lest they should ing to their immense and inconceivable be his superiors in rank or fortnne ; 07 distance. Immense and inconceivable in- with men of parts, lest they should exceed deed it is, since a ball, shot from a loaded him in abilities. Sometimes indeed it cannon, and flying with unabated rapidity, happens that a person of genius and leartmust travel at this impetuous rate almost ing will stoop to receive incense of mean seven hundred thousand years, before it and illiterate fatterers in a porter-house could reach the nearest of these twinkling and cyder cellar; and I remember to bave luminaries.
heard of a poet, who was once caught is While, beholding this vast expanse, I a brothel, in the very fact of reading bis learn my own extreme meanness, I would verses to the good old mother, and a circle also discover the abject littleness of all ter- of her daughters. restrial things. What is the earth, with all There are some few, who have been led her ostentatious scenes, compared with into low company, merely from an affecta:
tion of humour, and from a desire of see- veral shocks to his constitution, and often ing the droller scenes of life, have de involved him in unlucky scrapes. He has scended to associate with the meanest of been frequently bruised, beaten, and kickthe mob, and picked their cronies from ed, by the bullies of Wapping and Fleetlanes and alleys. The most striking in- ditch ; and was once soundly drubbed by stance I know of this low passion for drol- a soldier for engaging with his trull. The lery, is Toby Bumper, a young fellow of last time I saw him he was laid up with family and fortune, and not without ta- two black eyes, and a broken pate, which lents, who has taken more than ordi- he got in a midnight skirmish, about a nary pains to degrade himself; and is now mistress, in a night-cellar. Connoisseur, become almost as low a character, as any of those whom he has chosen for his com. $ 109. Causes of national Characters. panions. Toby will drink purl in a morning, smoke his pipe in a night-cellar, dive The vulgar are very apt to carry all for a dinner, or eat black puddings at Bar- national characters to extremes; and have tholomew-fair, for the humour of the ing once established it as a principle, that thing. He has also studied, and practises, any people are knavish, or cowardly, or all the plebeian arts and exercises, under ignorant, they will admit of no exception, the best masters; and has disgraced himself but comprehend every individual under with every impolite accomplishment. He the same character. Men of sense conhas had many a set-to with Buckhorse; and demn these undistinguishing judgments; has now and then the honour of receiving though at the same time they allow, that a fall from the great Broughton himself. cach nation has a peculiar set of manners, Nobody is better known among the back and that some particular qualities are more ney-coachmen, as a brother-whip; at the frequently to be met with among one peonoble game of prison-bars, he is a match ple than among their neighbours. The even for the natives of Essex and Cheshire; common people in Switzerland have surely and he is frequently engaged at the Artil- more probity than those of the same rank in lery ground with Faulkner and Dingate at Ireland; and every prudent man will, from cricket; and is himself esteemed as good a that circumstance alone, make a difference bat as either of the Bennets. Another of in the trust which he reposes in each. We Toby's favourite amusements is, to attend have reason to expect greater wit and the executions at Tyburn; and it once gaiety in a Frenchman than in a Spaniard, happened, that one of his familiar intimates though Cervantes was born in Spain. An was unfortunately brought thither; when Englishman will naturally be ihought to Toby carried his regard to his deceased have more wit than a Dane, though Tyfriend so far, as to get himself knocked cho Brahe was a native of Denmark. down in endeavouring to rescue the body Different reasons are assigned for these from the surgeons.
national characters, while some account As Toby affects to mimic, in every par- for them from moral, and others from phy. ticular, the art and inanner of the vulgar, sical causes. By moral causes I mean all he never fails to enrich his conversatiou circumstances which are fitted to work on with their emphatic oaths and expressive the mind, as motives or reasons, and which dialect, which recommends him as a man render a peculiar set of manners habitual of excellent humour and high fun, among to us. Of this kind are the nature of the the Choice Spirits at Comus's Court, or at government, the revolutions of public af. the meeting of the Sons of sound Sense and fairs, the plenty or penury in which the Satisfaction. He is also particularly fa- people live, the situation of the nation mous for singing those cant songs, drawn with regard to its neighbours, and such up in the barbarous dialect of sharpers and like circumstances. By physical causes, I pick-pockets; the humour of which he mean those qualities of the air and climate, often heightens, by screwing up his mouth, which are supposed to work insensibly on and rolling about a large quid of tobacco the temper, by altering the tone and habit between his jaws. These and other like of the body, and giving a particular conaccomplishments frequently promote him plexion; which, though reflection and reato the chair in these facetious societies. son may sometimes overcome yet will it
Toby has indulged the same notions of prevail among the generality of mankind, humour, even in his amours; and is wello and have an influence on their manners. kuown to every street-walker from Cheap- That the character of a nation will very side to Charing-cross. This has given se much depend on moral causos must be evident to the most superficial observer; pudence. It is observed, that all the vir. since a nation is nothing but a collection of lues are represented by both painters and individuals, and the manners of individuals statuaries under female shapes ; but if any are frequently determined by these causes. one of them has a more particular title to As poverty and hard labour debase the that sex, it is Modesty. I shall leave it to minds of the common people, and render the divines to guard them against the opthem unfit for any science and ingenious posite vice, as they may be overpowered profession, so where any government be- by temptations; it is sufficient for me to comes very oppressive to all its subjects, it have warned them against it, as they may must have a proportional effect on their be led astray by instinct. Spectator temper and genius, and must banish all the liberal arts from amongst them.
Ø 111. Chastity a valuable Virtue in e The same principle of moral causes
Man. fixes the characters of different professions, But as I am now talking to the world and alters even the disposition which the yet untainted, I will venture to recommend particular members receive from the hand chastity as the noblest male qualification. of nature. A soldier and a priest are dif- It is, methinks, very unreasonable, that ferent characters in all nations and all the difficulty of attaining all other good ages, and this difference is founded on habits, is what makes them honourable ; circumstances, whose operation is external but in this case the very attempt is beand unalterable.
come very ridiculous : but in spite of all The uncertainty of their life makes sol- the raillery of the world, truth is still truth, diers lavish and generous, as well as and will have beauties inseparable from it. brave: their idleness, as well as the large I should, upon this occasion, bring exanisocieties which they form in camps or ples of heroic chastity, were I not afraid garrisons, inclines them to pleasure and of having my paper thrown away by the gallantry; by their frequent change of modish part of the town, who go no farcompany they acquire good breeding and ther, at best, than the mere absence of ill, an openness of behaviour; being employed and are contented to be rather irreproachonly against a public and open enemy, able than praise-worthy. In this particuthey become candid, honest, and unde- lar, a gentleman in the court of Cyrus signing; and as they use more the labour reported to his majesty the charms and of the body than the mind, they are com- beauty of Panthea; and ended his panemonly thoughtless and ignorant.
gyric by telling him, that since he was 'Tis a trite but not altogether a false at leisure, he would carry him to visit her. maxim, that priests of all religions are the But that prince, who is a very great man same; and though the character of the to this day, answered the pimp, because be profession will not in every instance pre- was a man of quality, without roughness
, vail over the personal character, yet is it and said with a smile, “ If I should visit sure always to predominate with the greater her upon your introduction, now I have number. For as chemists observe, that leisure, I don't know but I might go again spirits when raised to a certain height upon her own invitation when I ought to are all the same, from whatever materials be better employed.” But when I cast they be extracted ; so these men being about all the instances which I have met elevated above humanity, acquire an unio with in all my reading, I find not one so form character which is entirely their generous, so honest, and so noble, as that own, and which is in my opinion, gene- of Joseph in holy writ. When his master rally speaking, not the most amiable that had trusted bim so unreservedly (to speak is to be met with in human society ; it is it in the emphatical manner of the scrip in most points opposite to that of a sol. ture) “ He knew not aught he had, save dier, as is the way of life from which it is the bread which he did eat," he was so derived.
Hume's Essays. unhappy as to appear irresistibly beautiful
to his mistress; but when this shameless $ 110. Chastity an additional Ornament
woman proceeds to solicit him, how galto Beauty.
lant is his answer ! “ Behold my master There is no charm in the female sex, wotteth not what is with me in the house, that can supply the place of virtue. With. and hath committed all that he hath to my out innocence beauty is unlovely, and qua- hand; there is none greater in the house lity contemptible; good-breeding dege than 1, neither hath be kept back any nerates into wantenness, and wit into im- thing from me but thee, because thou art
his wife.” The same argument, which is generally a person of great fortune and a base mind would have made to itself for weak intellects: committing the evil, was to this brave
« Who will as tenderly be led by th' nose, man the greatest motive for forbearing it, “ As asses are."
SHAKESPEARE. that he could do it with impunity: the malice and falsehood of the disappointed Ile plays, not that he has any delight in woman naturally arose on that occasion, cards and dice, but because it is the faand there is but a short step from the shion; and if whist or hazard are propractice of virtue to the hatred of it. It posed, he will no more refuse to make would therefore be worth serious consider- one at the table, than among a set of hard ation in both sexes, and the matter is of drinkers, he would object drinking bis importance enough to them, to ask them- glass in turn, because he is not dry. selves whether they would change light
There are some few instances of men of ness of heart, indolence of mind, cheerful sense, as well as family and fortune, who meals, untroubled slumbers, and gentle have been dupes and bubbles. Such an dispositions, fora constant pruriency which unaccountable itch of play has seized shuts out all things that are great or in- them, that they have sacrificed every thing different, clouds the imagination with in- to it, and have seemed wedded to seven's sensibility and prejudice to all manner of the main, and the odd trick. There is delight, but that which is common to all not a more melancholy object than a gencreatures that extend their species ?
tleman of sense thus infatuated. He makes A loose behaviour, and an inattention himself and family a prey to a gang of vilto every thing that is serious, flowing from lains more infamous than highwaymen; some degree of this petulancy, is observe and perhaps, when his ruin is completed, able in the generality of the youth of both he is glad to join with the very scoundrels sexes in this age. It is the one common
that destroyed him, and live upon the spoil face of most public meetings, and breaks of others, whom he can draw into the in upon the sobriety, I will not say seve
same follies that proved so fatal to him
self. rity, that we ought to exercise in churches. The pert boys and flippant girls are but Here we may take a survey of the chafaint followers of those in the same incli- racter of a sharper; and that he
have nations at more advanced years. I know no room to complain of foul play, let us not who can oblige them to mend their begin with his excellences. You will permanners; all that I pretend to, is to enter haps be startled, Mr. Town, when I menmy protest, that they are neither fine gen- tioned the excellences of a sharper; but a tJemen nor fine ladies for this behaviour. gamester, who makes a decent figure in As for the portraitures which I would
the world, must be endued with many
propose, as the images of agreeable men and amiable qualities, which would undoubts women, if they are not imitated or re. edly appear with great lustre, were they garded, I can only answer, as I remember not eclipsed by the odious character at Mr. Dryden did on the like occasion, fixed to his rrade. In order to carry on when a young fellow, just come from the the common business of his profession, he play of Cleomenes, told him, in raillery, must be a man of quick and lively parts, against the continency of his principal attended with a stoical calmness of tema character; If I had been alone with a per, and a constant presence of mind. He lady, I should not have passed my time must smile at the loss of thousands; and like your Spartan: “ That may be," an.
is not to be discomposed, though ruin swered the bard with a very grave face; stares him in the face. As he is to live “ but give me leave to tell you, Sir, you among the great he must not want politeare no hero.”
Guardian. ness and affability; he must be submis
sive, but not servile; he must be master of $ 112. The Characters of Gamesters.
an ingenuous liberal air, and have a seem
ing openness of behaviour. The whole tribe of gamesters may be
These must be the chief accomplishranked under two divisions : Every man ments of our hero; but lest I should be who makes carding, dicing, and betting accused of giving too favourable a like. his daily practice, is either a dupe or a ness of him, now we have seen his outside, sharper; two characters equally the ob- let us take a view of bis heart. There jects of envy and admiration. The dupe we shall find avarice the main spring that
moves the whole machine. Every game- smile, although he is provoked; when he ster is eaten up with avarice; and when must look serene in the height of despair ; this passion is in full force, it is more and when he must act the stoic, without strongly predominant than any other. It the consolation of one virtuous senti. conquers even lust; and
conquers it ment, or one moral principle! How uneffectually than age. At sixty we look at happy must he be, even in that situation a fine woman with pleasure, but when from which he hopes to reap most benefit: cards and dice have engrossed our atten- I mean amidst stars, garters, and the va. tion, women and all their charms are rious herds of nobility! Theirlordships are slighted' at five-and-twenty. A thorough not always in a humour to play: they gamester renounces Venus and Cupid for choose to laugh; they choose to joke; in Plutus and Ames-acc, and owns no mis- the mean while our hero must patiently tress of his heart except the queen of await the good hour, and must not only trumps. His insatiable avarice can only join in the laugh, and applaud the joke, be gratificd by hypocrisy; so that all but must humour every turn and caprice those specious virtues already mentioned, to which that set of spoiled children, called and which, if real, might be turned to bucks of quality, are liable. Surely his the benefit of mankind, must be directed in brother Thicket's employment, of sauna gamester towards the destruction of his tering on horseback in the wind and rain fellow-creatures. His quick and lively till the Reading coach passes through parts serve only to instruct and assist him Smallberry-green, is the more eligible, in the most dexterous method of packing and no less honest occupation. the cards and cogging the dice; his for- The sharper has also frequently the titude, which enables him to lose thou. mortification of being thwarted in his de sands without emotion, must often be signs. Opportunities of fraud will not for practised against the stings and reproaches ever present themselves. The false dice of his conscience, and his liberal deport- cannot be constantly produced, nor the ment and affected openness is a specious packed cards always be placed upon the veil to recommend and conceal the black- table. It is then our gamester is in the est villainy.
greatest danger. But even then, wben die It is now necessary to take a second sur- is in the power of fortune, and has no vey of his heart; and as we have seen its thing but mere luck and fair play on bis vices, let us consider its miseries. The side, he must stand the brunt, and perhaps covetous man, who has not sufficient cou- give away his last guinea, as coolly as he rage or inclination to encrease his fortune would lend a nobleman a shilling. by bets, cards, or dice, but is contented Our hero is now going off the stage, to hoard up thousands by thefts less pub- and his catastrophe is very tragical. The lic, or by cheats less liable to uncertainty, next news we hear of him is his death
, lives in a state of perpetual suspicion and atchieved by his own hand, and with his terror: but the avaricious fcars of the own pistol. An inquest is bribed, he is gamester are infinitely greater. He is con- buried at midnight--and forgotten before stantly to wear a mask; and like Monsieur sun-rise. St. Croix, coadjuteur to that famous empoi- These two portraits of a sharper, where sonneuse, Madame Brinvillier, if his mask in I have endeavoured to shew different falls off, he runs the hazard of being suffo- likenesses in the same man, put me in cated by the stench of his own poisons. I mind of an old print, which I remember have seen some examples of this sort not at Oxford, of Count Guiscard. At first many years ago at White's. I am uncer- sight he was exhibited in a full-bottomed tain whether the wretches are still alive; wig, a hat and a feather, embroidered but if they are still alive, they breathe cloaths, diamond buttons, and the full like toads under ground, crawling amidst court dress of those days; but by pulling old walls , and paths long since unfre- a string the folds of the paper were shifted
the face only remained, a new body came But supposing that the sharper's hypo- forward, and Count Guiscard appeared to crisy remains undetected, in what a state be a devil.
Connoisseur of mind must that man be, whose fortune depends upon the insincerity of his heart, $118. The Tatler's Advice to his Sister the disingenuity of his behaviour, and the Jenny; a good Lesson for young Ladici. false bias of his dice! What sensations My brother Tranquillas being gone out must be suppress, when he is obliged to of town for some days, my sister Jenny serie