chard says,

spend in sleep! forgetting that “ The your king. Handle your tools without sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that mittens: remember, that, “ The cat in there will be sleeping enough in the grave,” gloves catches no mice," as Poor Richard as Poor Richard says.

says. It is true there is much to be done, “ If time be of all things the most pre- and, perhaps, you are weak-banded; but cious, ivasting time must be,” as Poor Ri- stick to it steadily, and you will see great

“ the greatest prodigality ;" effects; for “ Constant dropping wears since, as he elsewhere tells us, " Lost away stones: and by diligence and patime is never found again; and what we tience the mouse ate in two the cable; and call time enough always proves little little strokes fell great oaks.” enough." Let us then up and be doing, • Methinks f hear some of you say, and doing to the purpose, so by diligence “ Must a man afford himself no leisure:” shall we do more with less perplexity. I will tell thee, my friend, what Poor Ri“ Sloth makes all things difficult, but in- chard says ; Employ thy time well, if dustry all easy; and he that riseth late thou meanest to gain leisure; and, since must trot all day, and shall scarce over- thou art not sure of a minute, throw not take his business at night: wbile laziness away an hour.” Leisure is time for doing travels so slowly, that poverty soon over- something useful: this leisure the diligent takes him. Drive thy business, let not man will obtain, but the lazy man never ; that drive thee; and early to bed, and early for, « A life of leisure and a lite of lazi. to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, ness are two things. Many, without laand wise," as Poor Richard


bour, would live by their wits only, but . So what signifies wishing and hoping they break for want of stock ;" whereas for better times? We may make these industry gives comfort, and plenty, and times better, if we hestir ourselves. “ In- respect. “ Fly pleasures, and they will dustry need not wish, and he that lives follow you. The diligent spinner has a upon hope will be fasting. There are no large shift; and now I have a sheep and a gains without pains; then help hands, for cow, every body bids me good morrow.” I have no lands, or, if I have, they are II... But with our industry we must smartly taxed.

“Ile that hath a trade, likewise be steady, settled, and careful, hath an estate; and he that hath a calling, and oversee our own affairs with our own hath an office of profit and honour,” as eyes, and not trust too much to others; Poor Richard says; but then the trade for, as Poor Richard says, must be worked al, and the calling well I never saw an oft removed tree, followed, or neither the estate nor the office Nor yet an oft remoreil family,

That throve so well as those that settled be." will enable us to pay our taxes. If we are industrious we shall never starve; for, at • And again, “ Three removes is as bad the working man's house hunger looks in, as a fire:” and again, Keep ihy shop but dares not enter.” Nor will the bailiff and thy shop will keep thee:" and again, or the constable enter, for, “industry pays

If you
would have

your business done, debts, while despair increaseth them.” go; if not, send.” And again, What though you have found no treasure, “ He that by the plough would thrive, nor has any rich relation left you a lega

Ilimself must either bold or, Diligence is the mother of good "And again, " The eye of the master luck, and God gives all things to industry. will do more work than both his hands :" Then plow deep, while sluggards sleep, and again, “ Want of care does us more and you shall have corn 10 sell and to damage than want of knowledge :” and keep.” Wor

while it is called to-day, again, “ Not to oversee workmen, is for you

know not how much you may be to leave them your purse open.” Trusthindered to-morrow. “ One to-day is ing too much 10 others' care is the ruin of worth two to-morrows," as Poor Richard many; for, “ In the affairs of this world, says; and farther, “Never leave that till men are saved, not by faith, but by the to-morrow, which you can do to-day” want of it.” but a man's own care is profitIf you were a servant would you not be able; for, you

would have a faithful ashamed that a good master should catch servant, and one that you like,-serve you idle? Are you then your own mas. yourself. A little neglect may breed ier? be ashamed to catch yourself idle, great mischief; for want of a nail the when there is so much to be done for shoe was lost; for want of a shoe the yourself, your family, your country, and horse was lost; and for want of a horse


- If

the rider was lost,” being overtaken and yet this folly is practised every day at slain by the enemy; all for want of a little auctions, for want of minding the almacare about a horse-shoe nail.

nack. Many a one, for the sake of tinery III. “So much for industry, my friends, on the back, have gone with a hungry and attention to one's own business ; but belly and half starved their families; to these we must add frugality, if we Silks and sattins, scarlet and velvets, would make our industry more certainly put out the kitchen-fire," as Poor Richard successful. A man may if he knows not says. These are not the necessaries of how to save as he gets, “ keep his nose all life; they can scarcely be called the convehis life to the grindstone, and dies not niences: and yet only because they look worth a groat at last.” A fat kitchen pretty, how many want to have them ?makes a lean will; and,

By these and other extravagancies, the Many estates are spent in the getting, genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced Siuce women for tea forsook spinning and to borrow of those whom they formerly

knitting, And men for punch forsook hewing and despised, but who, through industry and splitting.”

frugality have maintained their standing; “ If you would be wealthy, think of in which case it appears plainly, that, “ A saving, as well as of getting. The Indies ploughman on his legs is higher than a have not made Spain rich, because her out- gentleman on his knees," as Poor Richard goes are greater than her in-comes." says. Perhaps they have had a small estate

* Away, then, with your expensive fol. left them, which they kuew not the lies, and you will not ihen have so much getting of; they think, “ It is day, and cause to complain of hard times, heavy

it will never be night:" that a little to be taxes, and chargeable families; for spent out of so much is not worth minding;

but “ Always taking out of the meal tub “ Women and wine, game and deceit,

• Make the wealth small, and the want great,” and never putting in, soon comes to the And farther, “ What maintains one vice,

bottom," as Poor Richard says; and then,

“ When the well is dry, they know the would bring up two children.” You may

worth of water.” think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little have known before, if they had taken his

But this they might punch now and then, diet a little more

advice. costly, cloaths a little finer, and a little en

“ If you would know the value tertainment now and then, can be no great he that goes a borrowing goes a sorrow

of money go and try to borrow some; for matter; but remember, “Many a litle makes a mickle.” “ Beware of little ex

ing,” as Poor Richard says; and, indeed,

so does he that lends to such people, pences ;' " A small leak will sink a great when he goes to get it in again.' Poor ship," as Poor Richard says; and again, Dick farther advises and “ Who dainties love, shall beggars prove;"

says, and moreover, “ Fools make feasts, and

“ Pond pride of dress is sure a very curse,

Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse." wise men eat them." Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and And again, “ Pride is as loud a beggar as vick-nacks. You call them goods; but, Want, and a great deal more saucy."

When if you do not take care they will

have prove

you got one fine thing, you evils to some of you. You expect they must buy ten more, that your appearance will be sold cheap, and perhaps ibey may may be all of a-piece; but poor Dick for less than they cost; but if you have says, “ It is easier to suppress the first no occasion for them, they must be dear to desire, than to satisfy all that follow it.”

And it is as truly foily for the poor to you. Remember what Poor Richard

says, Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere ape the rich, as for the frog to swell, in long ibou shalt sell thy necessaries.” And order to equal the ox. again," At a great pennyworth pause a

“ Vessels large may venture more, while:” he means, that perhaps the cheap

But little boats should keep pear shore." ness is apparent only, and not real; or the It is however a folly soon punished; for, bargain, by straitening thee in thy business, as Poor Richard says, “ Pride that dines may do thee more harm than good. For on vanity, sups on contempt; Pride breakin another place he says, “ Many have fasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty, been ruined by buying good penny- and supped with Infamy.” And after all, worths.” And, « It is foolish to lay out of what use is the pride of appearance, money in a purchase of repentance; and for which so much is risked, so much is



suffered? It cannot promote health, nor you can bear a little extravagance with-
ease pain; it makes no increase of merit out injury, but
in the person, it creates envy, it hastens For age and want save while you may,

No morning sun lasts a whole day.”
But what madness it must be to run • Gain may be temporary and uncer-
in debt for these superfluities? We are tain; but ever, while you live,


is offered, by the terms of this sale, six constant and certain ; and “ It is casier to months credit; and that, perhaps, has in- build two chimnies, than to keep one in duced some of us to attend it, because we

fuel," as Poor Richard says: So,“ Rather cannot spare the ready money, and hope go to bed supperless, than rise in debt.” now to be fine without it. But, ah ! think

“ Get what you can, and what you get hold, what you

do when you run in debt; you 'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into give to another power over your liberty. gold.” If you cannot pay at the time, you

will And when you have got the philosobe ashamed to see your creditor; you will pher's stone, sure you will no longer combe in fear when you speak to him; you will plain of bad times, or the difficulty of make poor pitiful sneaking excuses, and, paying taxes. by degrees, come to lose your veracity, IV. · This doctrine, my friends, is reaand sink into base, downright lying; for, son and wisdom : but, after all, do not de“ 'The second vice is lying, the first is run. pend too much upon your own industry, ning in debt,” as Poor Richard says; and and frugality, and prudence, though exagain, to the same purpose, “ Lying rides cellent things; for they may all be blasted upon Debt's back :” whereas a free-born without the blessing of Ileaven : and, Englishman ought not to be ashamed nor therefore, ask that blessing humbly, and afraid to see or speak to any man living. be not uncharitable to those that at preBut poverty often deprives a man of all sent seem to want it, but comfort and spirit and virtue. . It is hard for an

help them.

Remember, Job suffered, empty bag to stand upright.”-What and was afterwards prosperous. would you think of that prince or of that • And now to conclude, Experience government, who should issue an edict keeps a dear school, but fools will learn forbidding you to dress like a gentleman in no other,” as Poor Richard says, and or gentlewoman, on pain of imprison- scarce in that: for it is true, ment or servitude? Would you not say give advice, but we cannot give conduct." that you were free, have a right to dress However, remember this, “ They that as you please, and that such an edict will not be counselled cannot be helped ;" would be a breach of your privileges, and and farther, that, “If you will not hear such a government tyrannical ? and yet Reason, she will surely rap your knucyou are about to put yourself under that kles," as Poor Richard

says.' Tyranny, when you run in debt for such

Thus the old gentleman ended his hadress? Your creditor has authority, at bis rangue. The people heard it and appleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, proved the doctrine, and immediately, by confining you in gaol for life, or by sel. practised the contrary, just as if it had ling you for a servant, if you

should not

been a common serinon ; for the auction be able to pay him. When you have got opened, and they began to buy extravayour bargain, you may, perhaps, think gantly. I found the good man had tholittle of payment; but, as poor Richard roughly studied my Almanacks, and die says,

“ Creditors have better memories gested all I had dropt on those topics than debtors; creditors are a superstitious during the course of twenty-five years, . sect, great observers of set days and times.” The frequent mention he made of me The day comes round before you are must have tired any one else; but my aware, and the demand is made before vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, you are prepared to satisfy it; or, if you though I was conscious that not a tenth bear your

debt in mind, the term, which part of the wisdom was my own, which he at first seemed so long, will, as it lessens, ascribed to me; but rather the gleanings appear extremely short: Time will seem

that I had made of the sense of all ages to have added wings to his heels as well as and nations. However, 1 resolved to be his shoulders. “Those have a short Lent, the better for the echo of it, and though who owe money to be paid at Easter.”

I had at first determined to buy stuff for a At present, perhaps, you may think your- new coat, I went away, resolved to wear selves in thriving circumstances, and that my old one a little longer, Reader, if


66 We may

thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be motive, which is at all fitted to influence as great as mine.--I am, as ever, thine to a reasonable mind, which does not call serve thee, RICHARD SAUNDERS. us to this. One virtuous disposition of

soul is preferable to the greatest natural § 155. In Praise of Virtue.

accomplishments and abilities, and of more Virtue is of intrinsic value and good value than all the treasures of the world. desert, and of indispensible obligation; If you are wise, they, study virtue, and not the creature of will, but necessary and contemn every thing that can come in immutable : not local or temporary, but competition with it. Remember, that of equal extent and antiquity with the di- nothing else deserves our anxious thought vine mind : not a mode of sensation, but or wish. Remember, that this alone is everlasting truth; not dependent on power honour, glory, wealth, and happiness. but the guide of all power. Virtue is the Secure this, and you secure every thing; foundation of honour and esteem, and the lose this, and all is lost.

Price. source of all beauty, order and happiness in nature. It is what confers value on § 156. On Cruelty to inferior Animals. all the other endowments and qualities of Man is that link of the chain of univer. a reasonable being, to which they ought to sal existence, by which spiritual and cor. be absolutely subservient, and without poreal beings are united : as the numbers which the more eminent they are, the and variety of the latter his inferiors are more bideous deformities and the greater almost infinite, so probably are those of curses they become. The use of it is not the former his superiors; and as we see contined to any one stage of our existence that the lives and happiness of those below or to any particular situation we can be us are dependent on our wills, we may reain, but reaches through all the periods sonably conclude, that our lives and bap. and circumstances of our beings. Many piness are equally dependent on the wills of the endowments and talents we now of those above us; accountable, like ourpossess, and of which we are too apt to be selves, for the use of this power, to the proud, will cease entirely with the pre- Supreme Creator and Governor of all sent state : but this will be our ornament things. Should this analogy be well foundand dignity in every future stale to which ed, how criminal will our account appear we may be removed. Beauty and wit when laid before that just and impartial will die, learning will vanish away, and judge! How will man, that sanguinary all the arts of life be soon forgot; tyrant, be able to excuse himself from the but virtue will remain for ever. This charge of those innumerable cruelues inunites us to the whole rational creation, flicted on his unoffending subjects comand fits us for conversing with any order mitted to his care, formed for his benefit, of superior natures, and for a place in and placed under his authority by their any part of God's works. it procures us common Fether? whose mercy is over all the approbation and love of all wise and his works, and who expects that bis augood beings, and renders them our allies thority should be exercised not only with and friends. But what is of unspeakably tenderness and mercy, but in conformity greater consequence is, that it makes God to the laws of justice and gratitude. our friend, assimilates and unites our But to what horrid deviations from minds to his, and engages his almighty these benevolent intentions are we daily power in our defence. Superior beings witnesses ! no small part of mankind deof all ranks are bound by it no less than rive their chief amusements from the deaths ourselves. It has the same authority in and sufferings of inferior animals; a much all worlds that it has in this. The fur- greater, consider them only as engines ther any being is advanced in excellence of wood, or iron, useful in their several and perfection, the greater is his attache occupations. The carman drives his ment to it, and the more he is under its horse, and the carpenter his nail, by influence. To say no more, 'tis the law repeated blows; and so long as these of the whole universe: it stands first in produce the desired effect, and they the estimation of the Deity; its original both go, they neither reflect or care is bis nature: and it is the very object whether either of them have any sense that makes him lovely.

of feeling. The butcher knocks down Such is the importance of virtue.—of the stately ox, with no more com. what consequence, therefore, is it that we passion than the blacksmith hammers a practise it. There is no argument or horse shoe : and plunges his kuife into


the throat of the innocent lamb, with as less animals intended for our sustenance ; little reluctance as the taylor sticks his and that they are so intended, the agreeaneedle into the collar of a coat.

ble Havour of their flesh, to our palates, If there are some few, who, formed in and the wholesome nutriment which it ad. a softer mould, view with pity the suffer- ministers to our stomachs, are sufficient ings of these defenceless creatures, there is proofs : these as they are formed for our scarce one who entertains the least idea, use, propagated by our culture, and fed that justice or gratitude can be due to their by our care, we have certainly a right to merits or their services. The social and deprive of life, because it is given and prefriendly dog is hanged without remorse, if, served to them on that condition ; but ibis by barking in defence of his master's per- . should always be performed with all the son and property, he happens unknowing- tenderness and compassion which so disly to disturb his rest: the generous horse, agreeable an office will permit; and no cir. who has carried his ungrateful master for cumstances ought to be omitted, which many years with ease and safety, worn out can render their executions as quick and with age and infirmities contra ted in his easy as possible. For this, Providence has service, is by him condemned to end his wisely and benevolently provided, by miserable days in a dust-cart, where the forming them in such a manner, that their more he exerts his little remains of spirit, Nesh becomes rancid and unpalatable by the more he is whipped to save the stupid painful and lingering death, and has thus driver the trouble of whipping some other compelled us to be merciful without comless obedient to the lash. Sometimes hav- passion, and cautious of their suffering, for ing been taught the practice of many unna- the sake of ourselves : but if there are any tural and useless feats in a riding house, he whose tastes are so vitiated, and whose is at last turned out, and consigned to the hearts are so hardened, as to delight in dominion of a hackney.coachman, by whom such inhuman sacrifices, and to partake he is every day corrected for performing of them without remorse, they should be those tricks which he has learned under so looked upon as dæmons in human shapes, long and severe a discipline. The sluggish and expect a retaliation of those tortures bear, in contradiction to his nature, is which they have inflicted on the innocent, taught to dance, for the diversion of a for the gratification of their own depraved malignant mob, by placing red-hot irons and unnatural appetites. under his feet; and the majestic bull is So violent are the passions of anger and tortured by every mode which malice can

revenge in the human breast, that it is not invent, for no offence, but that he is gen- wonderful that men should prosecute their tle and unwilling to assail his diabolical real or imaginary enemies with cruelty and tormentors. These, with innumerable malevolence; but that there should exist in other acts of cruelty, injustice, and ingra- nature a being who can receive pleasure titude, are every day committed, not only from giving pain, would be totally increwith impunity but without censure, and dible, if we were not convinced by melaneven without observation ; but we may be choly experience, that there are not only be assured, that they cannot finally pass many, but that this unaccountable dispoaway unnoticed and unrctaliated.

sition is in some measure inherent in the The laws of self defence undoubtedly nature of man; for, as he cannot be taught justify us in destroying those animals who by example, nor led to it by temptation, would destroy us, who injure our proper- or prompted to it by interest, it must ties and annoy our persons, but not even

be derived from his native constitution these, whenever their situation incapaci. and is a remarkable confirmation of what tates them from hurting us. I know of no revelation so frequently inculcates--that right which we have to shoot a bear on an he brings into the world with him an inaccessible island of ice, or an eagle on original depravity, the effects of a fallen and the mountain's top; whose lives cannot in- degenerate state; in proof of which we need jure us, nor deaths procure us any benefit. only observe, that the nearer he approaches We are unable to give life, and therefore to a state of nature, the more predominant ought not wantonly to take it away from the disposition appears, and the more viothe meanest insect, without sufficient rea- lently it operates. We see children laughson; they all receive it from the same be- ing at the miseries which they inflict

on nevolent band as ourselves, and have every unfortunate animal that comes therefore an equal right to enjoy it.

within their power, all savages are ingeGod has been pleased to create number. nious in contriving and happy in execut


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