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ing, the most exquisite tortures; and the and our intermediate situation, we must common people of all countries are de- . acknowledge that, with regard to inferior lighted with nothing so much as bull-bait- animals, just such a bring is a sportsman. ings, prize-fightings, executions, and all
Jeryns. spectacles of cruelty and horror. Though civilization may in some degree abate this Ø 157. On the Duties of School Boys, from native ferocity, it can never quite extir- the pious and judicious ROLLIN. pate it: the most polished are not ashamed Quinctilian says, that he has included to be pleased with scenes of little less bar- almost all the duty of scholars in this one barity, and to the disgrace of human na- piece of advice which he gives them, to ture, to dignify them with the name of love those who teach them, as they love sports. They arm cocks with artificial the sciences which they learn of them; weapons, which nature had kindly denied and to look upon them as fathers, from to their malevolence, and, with shouts whom they derive not the life of the body of applause and triumph, see them plunge but that instruction which is in a manner them into each other's hearts: they view the life of the soul. Indeed this sentiwith delight the trembling deer and de- ment of affection and respect, suffices to fenceless hare, flying for hours in the ut- make them apt to learn during the time of most agonies of terror and despair, and their studies, and full of gratitude all the at last, sinking under fatigue, devoured by rest of their lives. It seems to me to in. their merciless pursuers ; they see with joy clude a great part of what is to be expecthe beautiful pheasant and Irarmless par- ted from them. tridge drop from their flight, weltering in Docility, which consists in submitting their blood, or perhaps perishing with to directions, in readily receiving the inwounds and hunger, under the cover of structions of their masters, and reducing some friendly thicket to which they have them to practice, is properly the virtue of in vain retreated for safety: they triumph scholars, as that of masters is to teach over the unsuspecting fish whom they have well. The one can do nothing without decoyed by an insidious pretence of feed- the other; and as it is not sufficient for a ing, and drag him from his native element labourer to sow the sced, unless the earth by a hook fixed to and tearing out his after having opened its bosom to receive entrails: and to add to all this they spare it, in a manner hatches, warms and mois. neither labour nor expence to preserve tens it ; so likewise the whole fruit of inand propagate these innocent animals, struction depends upon a good correspondfor no other end but to multiply the objects ence between the masters and the scholars. of their persecution.
Gratitude for those who have laboured What name would we bestow on a su- in our education, is the character of an perior being, whose whole endeavours were honest man, and the mark of a gocd employed, and whose whole pleasure con- heart. Who is there among us, says Ci. sisted in terrifying, ensnaring, tormenting cero, that has been instructed with any and destroying mankind; whose superior care, that is not highly delighted with the faculties were exerted in fomenting ani- sight or even the bare remembrance of mosities amongst them, in contriving en. his preceptors, masters, and the place gines of destruction, and inciting them to where he was taught and brought up? Seuse them in maiming and murdering each neca exhorts young men to preserve alother ? whose power over them was em- ways a great respect for their masters, to ployed in assisting the rapacious, deceiving whose care they are indebted for the the simple, and oppressing the innocent ? amendment of their faults, and for having who, without provocation or advantage, imbibed sentiments of honour and probity. should continue from day to day, void of Their exactness and severity displease all pity and remorse, thus to torment man- sometimes at an age when we are not in kind for diversion, and at the same time a condition to judge of the obligations we endeavour with his utmost care to preserve owe to them ; but when years have ripentheir lives, and to propagate their species, ed our understanding and judgement, we in order to increase the number of victims then discern that what made us dislike devoted to his malevolence, and he de- them, I mean admonitions, reprimands, lighted in proportion to the miseries he and a severe exactness in restraining the occasioned ? I say, what name detestable passions of an imprudent and inconsider. enough could we find for such a being; ate age, is expressly the very thing which yet, if we impartially consider the case, should make us esteem and love them
Thus we see that Marcus Aurelius, one of began to shine through the vale of childthe wisest and most illustrious emperors houd ; I had still left me, says he, my son that Rome ever had, thanked the gods for Quinctilian, in whom I placed all my pleatwo things especially—for his having had sure and all my hopes, and comfort enough excellent tutors himself, and that he had I might have found in him : for, having found the like for his children,
now entered into his tenth year, he did Quinctilian, after having noted the dif- not only produce blossoins like his youngferent characters of the mind in children, er brother, but fruits already formed, and draws, in a few words, the image of what beyond the power of disappointment.-I he judged to be a perfect scholar; and have much experience; but I never saw certainly it is a
amiable one : “ For in any child, I do not say only so many my part," says he, “ I like a child who is excellent dispositions for the sciences, nor encouraged by commendation, is animated so much taste, as his masters know, but by a sense of glory, and weeps when he so much probity, sweetness, good nature, is outdone, A noble emulation will gentleness, and inclination to please and always keep him in exercise, a reprimand to oblige, as I discerned in him. will touch him to the quick, and honour “ Besides this, he had all the advanwill serve instead of a spur. We need tages of nature, a charming voice, a not fear that such a scholar will always pleasing countenance, and a surprising give himself up to sullenness.” Mihi facility in pronouncing well the two lanille detur puer, quem laus excitet, quem guages, as if he had been equally born gloria juvet, qui virtus fleat. Hic erit for both of them. alendus ambitu : hunc mordebit objur- “ But all this was no more than hopes. gatio : hunc honor excitabit : in hoc I set a greater value upon his admirable desidiam nunquam verebor.
virtues, his equality of temper, his reHow great a value soever Qninctilian solution, the courage with which he bore sets upon the talents of the mind, he es- up against fear and pain; for how were his teems those of the heart far beyond them; physicians astonished at his patience under and looks upon the others as of no value a distemper of eight months continuance, without them. In the same chapter from when at the point of death he comforted whence I took the preceding words, he me himself, and bade me not to weep for declares, he should never have a good him! and delirious as he sometimes was opinion of a child, who placed his study at his last moments, his tongue ran on in occasioning laughter, by mimicking nothing else but learning and the sciences, the behaviour, mien, and faults of others : O vain and deceitful hopes !” &c. and he presently gives an admirable reason Are there many boys amongst us, of for it : “ A child,” says he, “ cannot whom we can truly say so much to their be truly ingenious, in my opinion, unless advantage as Quinctilian says here of his be be good and virtuous; otherwise Ison? What a shame it would be for them, should rather choose to have him dull and if, born and brought up in a Christian heavy than of a bad disposition.” Non country, they had not even the virtues of dabit
spem bonæ indolis, qui hoc imitandi Pagan children! I make no scruple to restudio petit, ut ridcatur. Nam probus peat them here again--docility, obedience, quoque imprimis erit ille vere ingeniosus: respect for their masters, or rather a degree alioqui non pejus duxerim tardi esse in- of affection, and the source of an eternal genii, quam mali.
gratitude; zeal for study, and a wonderful He displays to us all these talents in the thirst after the sciences, joined to an abeldest of his two children, whose character horrence of vice and irregularity; an adhe draws, and whose death he laments in mirable fund of probity, goodness, gentleso eloquent and pathetic a strain, in the ness, civility, and liberality; as also pabeautiful preface to his sixth book. I shall tience, courage, and greatness of soul in beg leave to insert here a small extract of the course of a long sickness. What then it, which will not be useless to the boys, was wanting to all these virtues That as they will find it a model which suits which alone could render them truly well with their age and condition. worthy the name, and must be in a man
After having mentioned his younger ner the soul of them, and constitute their son, who died at five years old, and des- whole value, the precious gift of faith and cribed the graces and beauties of his coun- piety ; the saving knowledge of a Meditenance, the prettiness of his expressions, ator; a sincere desire of pleasing God, the vivacity of his understanding, which and referring our actions to him.
A PP E N D I X.
To accustom young People to the innocent and agreeable Employment of observing nature, it was judged proper to insert the following, affording them an useful MODEL, and much valuable Information.
b signifies-- buds swelled.
buds beginning to open.
flowers beginning to open. F
flowers full blown. i
leaves beginning to openl. L
leaves quite out. . p.
fruit nearly ripe. R. P.
fruit quite ripe: E
emerging out of the ground D
I. MONTH. January
Honeysuckle, 458, Lonicera periclymenum, 1. 23. Archangel, red. 240. 2. Lamium purpureum, F.
Hasel-nut tree, 439. Corylus avellana, f.
Holly, 466. Ilex aquifolium, f.
Chickweed, 347.6. Alsine media, F.
II. MONTH. February 4. WOOD LARK, 69. 2. Alauda arborea, sings.
Elder tree, 461. Sambucus nigra, f.
GEESE, 136. 1. Anas, anser, begin to lay.
* The wagtail is said by Willoughby to remain with us all the year in the severest weather. It seems to me to shift its quarters at least, if it does not go out of England. However, it is certainly a bird of passage in some countries, if we can believe Aldrovandus, the Author of the Swed sh Ca. lendar, and the author of the treatise De Migrationibus Avium. Linnæus observes, S. N. Art. Motacilla, that most birds which live uvou insects, and not grains, migrate,
* CHIAFFINCU, Ss. Fringilla cælebs, sings. 20. Thermometer, 11. Highest this month.
Thermometer, 2. Lowest this month,
, 11. Ribes
III. MONTH. March 2. ROOKS, 39.3. Corrus frugilegus, begin to build.
Thermom. 10. 4. TIIRUSU, 64. 2. Turdus musicus, sing's.
Thermometer, 11. 5. DOVE, RING, 62.9. Columba palumbus, coves. 7. Thermometer, 0. Louest this month. 11. Sallow.
Bay, 1688. II. Laurus nobilis, l.
Asp. 416. 3. Populus tremula, F. 26. Specdiell, germander, 279. 4. Veronica agrestris, F.
Alder, 422. Alnus betula, F.
Parsnep, cow, 205. Heracleum sphondylium, E.
Thermometer, 25.50. Ilighest this month. 29. Cherry tree, 463. Prunus cerasus, B.
arrant busb, 456.1. Ribes rubrum, B.
Birch, 443. Betula alba, L.
Salix Babylonica, L.
* Lioveas says, that the female chaffinch goes to Italy alone, through Holland ; and that the male in the spring, changing its note, foretells the summer: and Gesner, ornithol. p. 358. says, that tt kemale chaffinch disappears in Switzerland in the winter, but not the in ale.
† Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. 11. § 5. says, that bees do not come out of their hives before May 1' seems to blaine Aristotle for saying that they come out in the begian ng of Spring, i. e. Jari
Narcissus, pale, 371. 2. Narcissus pseudonar. 3. Holly, 466.1. Nex aquifolium, f.
Bramble, 467. 1. Rubus fruticosus, L.
Cleavers, 225. Galium aparine, E.
APPLE TREE, 451. 1. 2. Pyrus malus, B.
Briar, 454. 1. Rosa canina, L.
Maple, 470. 2. Acer campestre, B.
*SWALLOW, 71.2. Hirundo urbica, returns. 7. Filberd, 439. Corylus avellana, L.
Sallow, Salix, L.
Willow, weeping, Salis Babylonica, b.
Sycamore, 470. Acer pseudoplatanus, L.
Auricula, 1082. H. Primula auricula, b. 10. Bay, 1688. H. Laurus nobilis, L.
Hornbeam, 451. Carpinus betulus, b.
Quince tree, 1452. H. Pyrus cydonia, L. 11. Elder, water, 460. Viburnum opulus, L.
* According to Ptolemy, swallows return to Ægypt about the latter end of January.
f. From morn 'till eve, 'tis music all around ;