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each of them being the source of the best excluding either of them from taking posand most grateful satisfactions that Hea- session of our bosoms. ven has conferred on the sons of men. They who insist that utility is the first But I should be glad to know what the and prevailing motive, which induces manreal value of this boasted exemption from kind to enter into particular friendships," care, which they promise their disciples, appear to me to divest the association of jusely amounts to ? an exemption flattering its most amiable and engaging principle. to self-love, I confess; but which, upon For, to a mind rightly disposed, it is not so many occurrences in human life, should be much the benefits received, as the affecrejected with the utmost disdain. For tionate zeal from which they flow, that nothing, surely, can be more inconsistent gives them their best and most valuable with a well-poised and manly spirit, than recommendation. It is so far indeed from to decline engaging in any laudable action, being verified by fact, that a sense of our or to be discouraged from persevering in wants is the original cause of forming these it, by an apprebension of the trouble and amicable alliances ; that, on the contrary, solicitude with which it may probably be it is observable, that none have been more attended. Virtue herself, indeed, ought distinguished in their friendships than those w be totally renounced, if it be right to whose power and opulence, but, above all, avaid every possible means that may be whose superior virtue (a much firmer supproductive of uneasiness : for who, that is port) have raised them above every neces. actuated by her principles, can observe the sity of having recourse to the assistance of condact of an opposite character, without others, being affected with some degree of secret The true distinction, then, in this ques. dissatisfaction? Are not the just, the brave, tion is, that " although friendship is cerand the good, necessarily exposed to the tainly productive of utility, yet utility is disagreeable emotions of dislike and aver- not the primary , motive of friendship." sion, when they respectively meet with in- Those selfish sensualists, therefore, who, stances of fraud, of cowardice, or of vil. Julled in the lap of luxury, presume to lany? It is an essential property of every maintain the reverse, have surely no claim well-constituted mind, to be affected with to attention; as they are neither qualified pain, or pleasure, according to the nature by reflection, nor experience, to be compeof those moral appearances that present tent judges of the subject. themselves to observation.
Good Gods! is there a man upon the If sensibility, therefore, be not incompa- face of the earth, who would deliberately tible with true wisdom (and it surely is accept of all the wealth and all the affluence not, unless we suppose that philosophy this world can bestow, if offered to him deadens every finer feeling of our nature) upon the severe terms of his being uncon. what just reason can be assigned, why the nected with a single mortal whom he could sympathetic sufferings which may result love, or by whom he should be beloved ? from friendsbip, should be a sufficient in- This would be to lead the wretched life of ducement for banishing that generous af, a detested tyrant, who, amidst perpetual fection from the human breast ? Extinguish suspicions and alarms, passes his miserable all emotions of the heart, and what differ- days a stranger to every tender sentiment, ence will remain, I do not say between and utterly precluded from the heart-felt man and brute, but between man and a satisfactions of friendship. mere inanimate clod? Away then with Melmoth's Translation of Cicero's Lelius. those austere philosophers, who represent virtoe as hardening the soul against all the
§ 117. The Art of Happiness. softer impressions of humanity! The fact, certainly, is much otherwise : a truly good Almost every object that attracts our man is, upon many occasions, extremely notice has its bright and its dark side. Fusceptible of tender sentiments, and his He who habituates himself to look at the beart expands with joy, or shrinks with displeasing side, will sour his disposition, SOTTOW, as good or ili fortune accompanies and consequently impair his happiness ; his friend. Upon the whole, then, it may while he, who constantly beholds it on the fairly be concluded, that, as in the case of bright side, insensibly meliorates his tem. virtue, so in that of friendship, those pain- per, and, in consequence of it, improves ful sensations, which may sometimes be his own happiness, and the happiness of all produced by the one, as well as by the about him. other, are equally insufficient grounds for Arachne and Melissa are two friends.
They are, both of them, women in years, though it be on a heath or a common, and and alike in birth, fortune, education, and she will discover numberless beauties, unaccomplishments. They were originally observed before, in the hills, the dales, the alike in temper too; but, by different ma- brooms, brakes, and the variegated flowers nagement, are grown the reverse of each of weeds and poppies. She enjoys every other. Arachne has accustomed herself to change of weather and of season, as bringlook only on the dark side of every object.
ing with it something of health or conve. If a new poem or play makes its appear- nience. In conversation, it is a rule with ance, with a thousand brilliances, and but her, never to start a subject that leads to one or two blemishes, she slightly skims any thing gloomy or disagreeable. You over the passages that should give her plea- therefore never hear her repeating her sure, and dwells upon those only that fill own grievances or those of her neighher with dislike. If you shew her a very bours; or (what is worst of all) their faults excellent portrait, she looks at some part and imperfections. If any thing of the of the drapery which has been neglected, latter kind be mentioned in her hearing, or to a hand or singer which has been left she has the address to turn it into enterunfinished. Her garden is a very beauti- tainment, by changing the most odious ful one, and kept with great neatness and railing into a pleasant raillery. Thus elegancy; but if you take a walk with her Melissa, like the bee, gathers honey from in it, she talks to you of nothing but blights every weed; while Arachne, like the spiand storms, of snails, and caterpillars, and der, sucks poison from the fairest Aowers. how impossible it is to keep it from the The consequence is, that, of two tempers litter of falling leaves and worm-casts.--- once very nearly allied, the one is ever If you sit down in one of her temples, to sour and dissatisfied, the other always gay enjoy a delightful prospect, she observes and cheerful; the one spreads an
that there is too much wood, or too versal gloom, the other a continual sunlittle water; that the day is too sunny, or shine. too gloomy; that it is sultry, or windy; There is nothing more worthy of our and finishes with a long harangue upon attention, than this art of happiness. Ia the wretchedness of our climate.- When conversation, as well as life, happiness very you return with her to the company, in often depends upon the slightest incidents. hope of a little cheerful conversation, she The taking notice of the badness of the casts a gloom over all, by giving you the weather, a north-east wind, the approach history of her own bad health, or of some of winter, or any trifling circumstance of melancholy accident that has befallen one the disagreeable kind, shall insensibly rob of her daughter's children. Thus she in- a whole company of its good humour, and sensibly sinks her own spirits, and the spi- Aing every member of it into the vapours. rits of all around her; and, at last, disco. If, therefore, we would be happy in ourvers, she knows not why, that her friends selves, and are desirous of communicating are grave.
that happiness to all about us, these minuMelista is the reverse of all this. By tiæ of conversation ought carefully to be constantly habituating herself to look only attended to. The brightness of the sky, the on the bright side of objects, she preserves lengthening of the day, the increasing a perpetual cheerfulness in herself
, which, verdure of the spring, the arrival of any by a kind of happy contagion, she com- little piece of good news, or whatever carniunicates to all about her. If any mis- ries with it the most distant glimpse of joy, fortune has befallen her, she considers it shall frequently be the parent of a social might have been worse, and is thankful to and happy conversation. Good-manners Providence for an escape.
She rejoices exact from us this regard to our company. in solitude, as it gives her an opportunity The clown may repine at the sunshine of knowing herself; and in society, be that ripens the harvest, because his turnips cause she can communicate the happiness are burnt up by it ; but the man of refineshe enjoys.
She opposes every man's vir- ment will extract pleasure from the thuntue to his failings, and can find out some- der-storm to which he is exposed, by rething to cherish and applaud in the very marking on the plenty and refreshment worst of her acquaintance. She opens which may be expected from the succeed. every book with a desire to be entertained ing shower. or instructed, and therefore seldom misses Thus does politeness, as well as good what she looks for. Walk with her, sense, direct us to look at every object on
the bright side; and, by thus acting, we had helped with an artificial white and cherish and improve both. By this prac- red; and she endeavoured to appear more tice it is that Melissa is become the wisest graceful than ordinary in her mien, by a and best-bred woman living; and by this mixture of affectation in all her gestures. practice, may every person arrive at that She had a wonderful confidence and asagreeableness of temper, of which the surance in her looks, and all the variety of natural and never failing fruit is Happi- colours in her dress, that she thought were
Harris. the most proper to shew her complexion to advantage. She cast her eyes upon
her. $ 118. Happiness is founded in Rectitude self, then turned them on those that were of Conduct.
present, to see how they liked her, and All men pursue Good, and would be often looked on the figure she made in happy, if they knew how: not happy for her own shadow. Upon her nearer apmiautes, and miserable for hours ; but proach to Hercules, she stepped before the bappy, if possible, through every part of other lady, who came forward with a retheir existence. Either, therefore, there is gular, composed carriage, and running up 3. good of this steady durable kind, or to him, accosted him after the following there is gone. If done, then all good must be transient and uncertain ; and if so, an “ My dear Hercules," says she, object of the lowest value, which can little find you are very much divided in your deserve either our attention or inquiry. thoughts upon the way of life that you But if there be a better good, such a good ought to chuse : be my friend, and follow as we are seeking ; like every other thing, me; I will lead you into the possession of it must be derived from some cause; and pleasure, and out of the reach of pain, that cause must be either external, internal, and remove you from all the noise and or mixed ; in as much as, except these disquietude of business. The affairs of three, there is no other possible. Now a either war or peace shall have no power steady, durable good, cannot be derived to disturb you. Your whole employment from an external cause ; by reason, all de- shall be to make your life easy, and to rived from externals must Auctuate as they entertain every sense with its proper gra. fluctuate. By the same rule, not from a tifications. Sumptuous tables, beds of mixture of the two; because the part roses, clouds of perfumes, concerts of which is external will proportionably de. music, crowds of beauties, are all in reastroy its essence. What then remains but diness to receive you. Come along with the cause internal ; the very cause which me into this region of delights, this world we have supposed, when we place the of pleasure, and bid farewell for ever to Sovereign Good in Mind-in Rectitude care, to pain, to business.” Hercules of Conduct
Ibid. hearing the lady talk after this manner,
desired to know her name: to which she $ 119. The Choice of Hercules.
answered, “ My friends, and those who When Hercules was in that part of his are well acquainted with me, call me Hapyouth, in which it was natural for him to piness ; but my enemies, and those who consider what course of life he ought to would injure my reputation, have given me pursue, be one day retired into a desert, the name of Pleasure.” where the silence and solitude of the place By this time the other lady was come very much favoured his meditations. As up, who addressed herself to the young he was musing on his present condition, hero in a very different manner :-“ Her. and rery much perplexed in himself on the cules,” says she, “ I offer myself to you, state of life he should chuse, he saw two because I know you are descended from women, of a larger stature than ordinary, the Gods, and give proofs of that descent, approaching towards him. One of them by your love to virtue, and application to had a very noble air, and graceful deport- the studies proper for your age. This ment ; her beauty was natural and easy, makes me hope you will gain, both for her person clean and unspotted, her eyes yourself and me, an immortal reputation. cast towards the ground with an agreeable But before I invite you into my society Teserve, her motion and behaviour full of and friendship, I will be open and sincere modesty, and her raiment as white as snow. with you ; and must lay this down as an The other had a great deal of health and established truth, that there is nothing loridness in her countenance, which she truly valuable, which can be purchased
without pains and labour. The Gods have set a price upon every real and noble plea- Letters on the Choice of Company. sure. If you would gain the favour of the
$ 120. LETTER I. Deity, you must be at the pains of worshipping him; if the friendship of good SIR, men, you must study to oblige them; if As
you are now no longer under the you would be honoured by your country, eye of either a parent, or a governor, but you must take care to serve it; in short, wholly at liberty to act according to your if you would be eminent in war or peace, own inclinations ; your friends cannot be you must become master of all the qualifi- without their fears, on your account; they cations that can make you so. These are cannot but have some uneasy apprehenthe only terms and conditions upon which sions, lest the very bad men, with whom I can propose happiness.”
you may converse, should be able to ef. The Goddess of Pleasure here broke in face those principles, which so much care upon her discourse : “ You see," said she, was taken at first to imprint, and has been « Hercules, by her own confession, the since to preserve,
you. way to her pleasures is long and difficult ; The intimacy, in which I have, for whereas that which I propose is short and many years, lived with your family, suf
u Alas !” said the other lady, fers me not to be otherwise than a sharer whose visage glowed with passion, made of their concern, on this occasion ; and up of scorn and pity, “what are the plea- you will permit me, as such, to lay before sures you propose
e? To eat before you you those considerations, which, while are hungry, drink before you are athirst, they shew you your danger, and excite sleep before you are tired; to gratify ap- your caution, may not be without their use petites before they are raised, and raise in promoting your safety. such appetites as nature never planted. That it should be the endeavour of our You never heard the most delicious music, parents, to give us just apprehensions of which is the praise of one's-self; nor saw things, as soon as we are capable of rethe most beautiful object, which is the ceiving them; and in our earlier years, work of one's own hands. Your yotaries to stock our minds with useful truths- to pass away their youth in a dream of mis- accustom us to the use of our reason, the taken pleasures ; while they are hoarding restraint of our appetites, and the governup anguish, torment, and remorse, for old ment of our passions, is a point, on which,
I believe, all are agreed, whose opinions “ As for me, I am the friend of Gods, about it you would think of any conseand of good men ; an agreeable com- quence. panion to the artizan ; an household
From a neglect in these particulars, you dian to the fathers of families ; a patron see so many of one sex, as much girls at and protector of servants ; an associate in sixty, as they were at sixteen-their folall true and generous friendships. The lies only varied—their pursuits, though banquets of my votaries are never costly, differently, yet equally, trifling ; and you but always delicious; for none eat or drink thence, likewise, find near as many of the at them, who are not invited by hunger other sex, boys in their advanced years and thirst. Their slumbers are sound, and as fond of feathers and toys in their riper their wakings cheerful. My young men age, as they were in their childhood-liv. have the pleasure of hearing themselves ing as little to any of the purposes praised by those who are in years; and son, when it has gained its full strength, those who are in years, of being honoured as they did when it was weakest. And, by those who are young. In a word, my indeed, from the same source all those followers are favoured by the Gods, be- vices proceed, which most disturb and disloved by their acquaintance, esteemed by tress the world. their country, and, after the close of their When no pains are taken to correct our labours, honoured By posterity.”
bad inclinations, before they become conWe know, by the life of this memorable formed and fixed in us; they acquire, at hero, to which of these two ladies he gave length, that power over us, from which up his heart ; and, I believe, every one we have the worst to fear, we give way to who reads this, will do him the justice to them in the instances where we see plainest, approve his choice. Tatler. how grievously we must suffer by our corr
piace-we know not how to resist them, certainly, form a very unfavourable opinion Dotwithstanding the obvious ruin which of my capacity, or of my morals. If nature will be the consequence of our yielding to had given me a good understanding, and them.
much of my time passed in reading : were I don't say, that a right education will be I to read nothing but what was trifing, it a beneficial, as a wrong one is hurtful: would spoil that understanding, it would the very best may be disappointed of its make me a trifler: and though formed proper effects.
with commendable dispositions, or with Though the tree you set be put into an none very blameable ; yet if my favourite excellent soil, and trained and pruned by authors were such as encouraged me to the skilfullest hand; you are not, however, make the most of the present hour ; not sure of its thriving : vermin may destroy to look beyond it, to taste every pleasure all your hopes from it.
that offered itself, to forego no advantage When the utmost care has been taken that I could obtain such as gave vice noto send a young man into the world well thing to fear, nor virtue any thing to hope, principled, and fully apprised of the reason. in a future state : you would not, I am sbleness of a religious and virtuous life ; sure, pronounce otherwise of those writers, he is, yet, far from being temptation proof than that they would hurt my natural dishe even then may fall
, may fall into position, and carry me lengths of guilt, the worst both of principles and practices; which I should not have gone, without and he is very likely to do so, in the place this encouragement to it. where you are, if he will associate with Nor can it be allowed, that reading those who speak as freely as they act; and wrong things would thus affect me, but it who seem to think, that their understand. must be admitted, that hearing them would ing would be less advantageously shewn, not do it less. Both fall under the head were they not to use it in defence of their of conversation ; we fitly apply that term vices.
alike to both ; and we may be said, with That we may be known by our com- equal propriety, to converse with books, pady, is a truth become proverbial. The and to converse with men. The impresends we have to serve may, indeed, occa- sion, indeed, made on us by what we sion us to be often with the persons, whom hear, is, usually, much stronger than ve by no means resemble ; or, the place, that received by us from what we read. in which we are settled, keeping us at a That which passes in our usual intergreat distance from others, if we will con- course is listened to, without fatiguing verse at all, it must be with some, whose us : each, then, taking his turn in speakmanners we least approve. But when we ing, our attention is kept awake: we mind have our choice -- when no valuable inte throughout what is said, while we are at Test is promoted by associating with the liberty to express our own sentiments of it, corrupt--when, if we like the company of to confirm it, or to improve upon it, or to the wise and considerate, we may have it ; object to it, or to hear any part of it rethat we then court the one, and shun the peated, or to ask what questions we please other, seems as full a proof, as we can well concerning it. give, that if we avoid vice, it is not from Discourse is an application to our eyes, the sense we have of the amiableness of as well as ears ; and the one organ is here
so far assistant to the other, that it greatly Had I a large collection of books, and increases the force of what is transmitted never looked into any that treated on to our minds by it. The air and action of grave and useful subjects, that would con. the speaker gives no small importance to tribute to make me wiser or better ; but his words : the very tone of his voice adds took those frequently, and those only, into weight to his reasoning; and occasions my hands, that would raise my laughter, that to be attended to throughout, which, or that would merely amuse me, or that had it come to us from the pen or the would give me loose and impure ideas, or press, we should have been asleep, before that inculcated atheistical or sceptical no- we had read half of it. tions, or that were filled with scurrility and That bad companions will make us ag invective, and therefore could only serve bad as themselves, I don't affirm. When to gratify my spleen and ill-nature; they, we are not kept from their vices by our who knew this to be my practice, must, principles, we may be so by our constitu