(Continued from P, 41.)

E proceed to accompany Mr. Tooke in his investiga

tion of the ci-devant prepositions and adverbs of our language, for particles of such denomination have been the common sink and repository of all heterogeneous unknown corruptions. This author, in his letter to Mr. Dunning, publithed in 1778, aflerted that there is not, nor is it posible there should be, a word in any language, which has not a complete meaning and signihcation, even when taken by itself. Adjectives, prepositions, adverbs, &c. have all complete, separate meanings, not difficult to be discovered.” In our previous examination we have exhibited Mr. Tooke's illustration of the prepositive and connective conjunctions, as falsely discriininated by the elegant Harris, according to the system delivered down to him by grammarians and philosophers on Greek and Latin principles. The particular proofs, deduced by the author of Eπεα Ιτεροεντα, to exemplify the meaning of prepositions and adverbs, are equally convincing to us, in general, as those exhibited in favour of his etymology and conjunctions.

We admire and applaud the perspicacious penetration and ļaborious investigation of Mr Tooke, and are fully convinced that his philological studies will greatly contribute to the found learning of his countrymen. But we like not the scorner buoyed up by his own self-consequence, fitting in the hyper-critical chair, boasting of his knowledge of all languages, and oftentatiously displaying his knowledge by quotations and derivations from the Old English, Latin, Greek, Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, French, Norman French, Italian, Spanish, Teutonic, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, German, Ruffian, Gothic, Maso-Gothic, Hebrew, Persian, and Chaldean languages, and exulting by comparison of his own superiority over the great

xicographer of this country, who, he affirms, was “conversant with no languages but English, Latin, and Greek.” (P. 302.) Surely the meinory of this “coryphæus of literature and democracy” inust have failed him, for we are convinced that Dr. Johnson could ably tranflate from the French and Italian, and he certainly knew the Saxon characters sufficiently to consult a Lexicon, which is all the knowledge Mr. Tooke pofleffes of some languages, whence he deduces his derivations. The “high-blown pride” and vanity of this



writer, however, will not be satisfied with having his own merit acknowledged, but an elevated pillar must be erected to his faine, from the demolished tablets and monuments of Spenser, Warton, Tyrrwhitt, Harris, Lowth, and “ Johnson, the worst posible authority,” (P. 567,) on all etymological subjects. Of this, however, we are assured, that if such men as Wilkins, Ben Jonson, Skinner, and Lye, had not prepared and cleared the way for this pretended autodidantiuc, Parfon Horne, he might have laboured not only 30, but 60 years, before he could have edited such a work as the first part of the Diversions of Purley.

We shall now proceed, according to the arrangement adopted by us in reviewing the conjunctions, to exhibit Mr. Tooke's derivations of the prepositions and adverbs, though we believe that philosophical grammarians will not be justified in diflinguishing them by such appellations for the future. THOROUGH is proved on the authority of the Anglo-Saxon,

Gothic, Dutch, German, Teutonic, and Greek, to have the fame import as door, anciently spelt and pronounced

as floor. FROM is beginning, origin, source, fountain, author, from

frum, Anglo-Saxon and Gothic, of such signification. Of is the same as consequence, offspring, fucceffor, follower,

from nf, a fragment of afarn, or aforo, -of such meaning; this is illustraied by the Ruffian peterhof, which modern

affectation has charged into petrovitz. For, to which Dr. Johnson ascribes forty-six different

significations, and Greenwood eighteen, Mr. Tooke derives from fairina, cause, Gothic, and certainly if caufe is fubftituted in the place of for, it precisely conveys

the idea. The prepositions if, unless, but, without, finee, have been already explained when we considered the conjunctions. To is act, effect, result, confummation, from the Gothic taui,

derived from tho, to ači; da, the auxiliary verb, is derived from the same root, and has the same meaning as ad in the Latin, which Mr. T. derives from agere, agitum, pronounced agdum, abbreviated ad, or actum at, for every reader knows how frequently the Latin poets

dropped the final um. Till is the while, synonymous with the time, contracted till. Şans is a French preposition, implying abfence, from the old Italian funza.

WITH has been explained amongst the conjunctions, figni

fying, in one sense, to join, and we still retain with, withe, withers, and wither-band; in another, derived from the Saxon wurthen, it is of the same import with

be, or by, and By is the imperative byth, derived from beon, to be ; for be and

by was written indifferently by our anceitors, “As Damville beright ought to have the leading of the army, but, Lycause thei be cofen Germans to the Admirall, thei be

mistrusted ” (1568 Lodge's Illuft.) Be is generally used with a word understood as inftrument,

cause, agent, &c. whence the omitted word has often

been improperly attributed to by. Between is the Saxon imperative, be and twegen, or twain,

betwixt two. Betwixt is be and twos, Gothic two, Saxon betwoyx, of like


part, hind part, á low place, the side. Beneath means the same as below, be- neath ; neath, an ob

solete word, but to be traced in nether, nethermosi, neothe, Anglo-Saxon; from whence the geographical nadir; and hence the whole serpentine class was denominated nudr in the Gothic, and nedre in the Anglo-Saxon ; the Eng

lith adder pronounced anather in the North-west counties. Under is on neder. Beyond is begeond, Anglo-Saxon ; begoned, i. e. be palled. Ward is Anglo-Saxon weard, to look at; so garder means to

protect, to keep, to watch, to ward, or guard; so in Enga lish the same agent is very properly called a looker, a warden, a warder, an overseer, a keeper, a guard, or a guardian. Accordingly ward may be joined to the name of any person, or place, or thing, to or from which our view or fight may be directed, as Romeward, homeward,

Godward. ATHWART, from thweort, Anglo-Saxon, wrested, twisted;

and English, thwart, swerve, veer; the Gothic is tuz

wergan, whence we presume may be deduced 10-fwagger. AMONG, EMONGE, AMONGE, AMONGES, AMONGEST,

AMONGST, from the Anglo-Saxon, gemang, gemeneged

English, mingled, i. e. mixed. YMELL Mr. Tooke says is y-medled, i. e. mixed, mingled, hence our common medley.


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FOR AGAINST, (in the Anglo-Saxon, according to Mr. T.

ongegen,) the more generally written ongen, as so spelt three times in Matt. x. verse 35, we shall give in the words of the author, for we do not approve of his etymo

logy of it. " I can only say that I believe it to be a past participle, derired from the fame verb (whatever it be, for I know it 101,) from which comes the collateral Dutch verb Yegener, to meet, rencontrer, to oppofe, &c. And I am the more contirmed in this conje ture, bē. cause, in the roon of this preposition, the Dutch employ jrgens from jegenen ; and the Danes Mod and I mod, from their verh Möler, of the fame, meaning: and the Suedes Emot from their verb Mota, of the same meaning. The Danish and Swedish verbs from the Gothic MOTGAN; whence also our verb, to meet, and the Dutch Moeten, Gemoeteu.P. 423. Amid, or AMIDST, speak for themselves. They are nearly

the Anglo-Saxon on-middes, in the midst, as middle is

mid dael, mid-deal, or mid-part. ALONG is on-long, or on-length, in one sense; but along, as

along of you, is from lengran, Anglo-Saxon, to long, to lengthen, to make long, to fretch out, to produce, and has the same sense as produced, according to Mr. Tooke.

This last etymology appears forced. ROUND, AROUND, ASIDE, A BOARD, ACROSS, ASTRIDE,

require no explanation. DURING is from the French, durant ; PENDING, from pen

dant ; OPPOSITE, from oppofitus, Latin ; MOIENING, from moyennant ; SAVE, from the verb, to save; OUTCEPT, from out and capere; OUT-TAKE, and OUT

TAKEN, speak for themselves. NIGH, NEAR, NEXT, from Anglo-Saxon nih, neahg, super

lative nehft. Instead is the Saxon on-fiede, in-stede, i. e. in place, or

Gothic, stads, hence we have, go in their stead, " homestead, bedstead, roadficad, girdlestead, (Rom. of the Rose) noonfteid, steadfast, fteady; and from this root there has probably been a corruption that has much .puzzled our etymologists. In the Danish collateral language there is stedfader, stedmoder, ftedbroder, fledsögter, stedbarn, Stedfon, fieddotter, our stepfather, stepmother, stepbrother, itepfilter, stepbarn, (Yorkshire) itepson, stepdaughter,

which originaliy was stedfather, &c. AFTER, Gothic, afiaro, Anglo-Saxon, æfter, comparative of aft; anHIND, AFT (the language of our sailors) and


BACK, were indifferentlyused by our forefathers as syno

nymous, behindan, beæfian, and onbac, On the words down, ADOWN, we will exhibit Mr. Tooke's comment at length, a fair specimen of his boldness in conje&ture, of the temper with which he treats preceding lexicographers, and the dogmatism of his critiques.

“ Down, Adown. "In the Anglo-Saxon Dun, ADUN. Minthew and Junius derire it from Arow, subeo.

"Skinner fays --Speciofe alludit Gr. Auw.'
" Lye fiys- Non male reteres ad Arm, Doun profundus.'

S. Johnson, in point of etymology and the meaning of words, is always himself.

Adown, the adverb, he says, is from A, and Down; and means--Or the ground.'

"Adown, the preposition, means-Towards the ground.'

“ But though A DOWN comes from A, and Down---Down, the preposition, he says, comes from ADUNA, Saxon: and means; ift. Along a descent; and, 2dly. Towards the mouth of a river.'

“ Down, the adverb, he fays, means-On the ground.' "down, the subitantive, he says, is from Dun, Saxon, a Hill; but is used now as if derived from the adverb : for it means, iít. A large open plain or valley.'

“And as an initance of its meaning a valley, lie immediately presents us with Salisbury Plain.

On the Downs as we see, near Wilion the fait,

• A halt'ned hare from greedy greyhound go.' “He then gives four instances more to thew that it means a vallez ;* in every one of which it means hills or riling grounds. To complete

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Now mark the infolence of Mr. Tooke. He here fees an ab. surdity where none exists, for wherever there is a Hill, there must necellarily be a Valley, and vice versâ. But “we can give an infance where this substantive does not fignify a Hill, but a Valley indisputably.” (Saxon Gospels, Luke, chap. iii. 5.) ÆLC DENU BYTH GEFYLLED, AND ÆLC MUNT AND BEORH BYTH GENYTIIERUD,

BEOTH ON GERIHTE & UNGERYDU ON SMETHE WEGAS. In obsolete English, cach Down (or Den, or Dean, for their origin is the fame) beth filled, and each mount and barrow* beeth neatberedt and thwartedt beeth aright for on right,) and rugged on smooth ways. In our tranllation. Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the erooked shall be made ftraight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth.” Surely this is not a specimen that Dr. Johnson's “ book is a disgrace to the country." • Or brow. + See preceding explanation of beneath. See also athwart.


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