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and found that it was a young man who had spent some part of his time in North-West America.
“ On the shores,” says the author, " the villages appeared numer. ous, large, and in good repair; and the furrounding country, pleasingly interfperfid with deep, though not extentive valleys; which, with the plains near the fea-tide, ple ented a high degree of cultivation and fertility. The apparent docility of these people, who have been represented by former visitors as the most daring and unmanageable of any who belong to the Sandwich Islands, might, probably, be attributed in a great ineasure, to the absence of their tighting men, and to our maniteit superiority in numbers, regularity in point of order, and mili. tary government ; which seemed to make a wonderful impression on all who were permitted to come on board, and who, to a man, appeared very much afraid of fire arms. This was cvinced, on our mounting guard to put the centinels round the ship. On this occasion they all hattily paddled towards the shore, and it was not without much perluation that they were induced to return.” P. 162. Vol. I.
" After caulking the decks, I purposed to execute such trivial repairs at this place, as might be found neceflary to the rigging, &c. &c. provided that the water, for which I was alone folicitous, could be procured, as the abundant and excellent refreshments we had o'h. tained at Otaheite, and the high state of health which we had en. joyed fince our leaving Dusky Bay, rendered supplies of any other nature a secondary confideration.
“For this purpose, attended by two armed boats, and a guard of seven marines, I landed, accompanied by Mr. Mudige, Mr. Whidbey, and Mr. Menzies. Our boats remained perfectly quiet on the beach, hasing palled on the shore between some rocks, which completely protected it from the surf. The natives who were prut receivel us in a very orderly manner; we were given to underitand that good water was to be had in abundance at some distance, to which ihey readily undertook to conduct us. Our guides led us to the nortiiward, through the village, to an exceedingly well-nade causeway. This opened to our view a spacious plain, which, in the immediata vicinity of the village, had the
open coinmon fields in England; but, on advancing, the major part appeared divided into fields of irregular shape and figure, which were feparated from each other by low stone walls, and were in a very high state of cultiva. tion,"
The author gives an account of the productions of these lands. The chief article of their crops is the taro-rout. The foil, however, though tolerably rich, is very inferior to that of Malavai and other parts of Otahcite. At Woahoo, Capt. Vancouver, with accuracy and discrimination, describes the physical and noial diversities between the Sandwich and
Otaheite islands,* and of the manners and dispositions of the inhabitants of both, draws a very interesting picture :
“ At Woahoo,” says the author, « nature seems only to have afted a common part in her dispensations of vegetable food for the service of men, and to have almost confined them to the taro plant, the railing of which is attended with much care, ingenuity, and manual labour. In the several parts of its culture, its inhabitants, whether planting, weeding, or gathering, muft, during the whole of the operations, be up to their middle in mud, and exposed to the rays of the vertical sun; whereas, on the plains of Otaheite, the surface teems, as it were, spontaneously, with •he moit abundant produce of esculent vegetables, without the help of induitry to low, plant, or rear them, or the allistance of the aqueducts, which these people contruct with great labour and ingenuity, to insure them crops. There the continued groves of the lofty and umbrageous bread fruit, apple, palm, and other trees, afford a cool retreat to these favoured islanders ; here the inhabitants know not the luxury of such retirement. Nor did it appear in the vegetable kingdom alone thai nature here had been icore favourable ; the human fpecies, though, without doubt, originally of the same nation, differ exce lively; and it would seem that the conparative benevolence of the Oraheiteans and these people was about equal to the natural fertility of the foil in which they respectively lived. It may, however, appear rather uncharitable to form any decided opinion, on fo short an aequaintance, yet first impressions will ever have their influence, on visiting different countries, under circumstances similar, or nearly so. On such occasions it is scarcely possible to avoid comparisons, in which one must neceffarily fuffer. On our landing at Otaheite, the effufions of friend hip and hospitality were ezident in the counte. nances of cvery one we met. Each endeavoured to anticipate our wants and our wishes by the most fascinating attention, and by sedu. loully striving to be first in performing any little service we required; inviting us to take refreshments at every house we approached, and manifeiting a degree of kindness that would juftly be extolled amongst the most polised nations. At Woahoo we were regarded with an unwelcome austerity, and our wants treated, by the generality, with a negligent indifference. In the course of our walk they ex. hibited no alliduity to please, nor did they appear apprehenfive left offence should be given; no refreshments were offered, nor had we an invitation to any of their houses. Their general behaviour was diftantly civil, apparently directed by a defire to establish a peaceable
* The Sandwich are 20 degrees north latitude, and 160 weft longitude ; the Otaheite 20 fouth latitude, and 150 west longitude ; the former is nearly straight west from Mexico, the latter from Peru,
intercourse with strangers, from whom there was a prospect of deriv. ing many valuable acquisitions, which would be unattainable by any other mode of conduct, as they must have been convinced, inimedi. ately on our landing, that we were too powerful to be conquered, and too much upoo our guard to suffer the least indignity by surprize."
Having stated his first impressions from these different ilanders, he goes on to give an account of the observations which he made, after a more thorough acquaintance with the Sandwich Islands. One fact he mentions is highly illustrative of the shameful manners of savage life ::
“ The readiness of the whole sex to surrender their persons, without any exceptions, and without the least importunity, could not fail, at the moment, to incur our censure and dislike, and, on reflection, our disgust and aversion. I have read much, and seen something, in my several visits to this ocean, of the obscenity attributed to the inhabitants of Otaheite and the Society Inands ; but no indecency that ever came under my obfervation could be compared with the excesive wantonness presented in this excursion."
Of the institutions, government, and commercial pursuits of those illanders, Capt. Vancouver was enabled to acquire farther and more accurate knowledge than had been attained on their first discovery by Capt. Cook. Their manners, or rather their dispositions, have undergone a considerable alteration since their intercourse with Europeans. The traffic for arms and ammunition has encouraged enterprizing Chieftains to almost incessant war, of which the consequences have been conquest and charge of government. In the pretligacy of the fexes they do not much diffur from the Javeresc, Malayans, and other inhabitants of the oriental islands, and eastern continent of India, which intemperance, to a certain degree, justifies the theory of Montesquieu, and other French philofophers, who ascribe many of the diversities of intelleclual and moral character to physical causes; but, if thoroughly examined, may, with much more probability, be imputed in a greater degree, to the want of philofophy to invigorate their characters, and of a religion which tends to restrain the passions.
Leaving the Sandwich I lands our navigators passed over to the western coast of North America, and arrived at New Albion, near the place which Sir Francis Drake first difcovered. A pleasing and courteous de portment distinguished these people.' In their figure and character they appear confiderably to resemble the first discovered Americans, as defcribed by Dr. Robertson. In his account of New Albion, our author makes many observations of peculiar importance
to adventurers in the fur trade. The account of the coast is replete with nautical knowledge, and deferves well to be ftudied by those who may afterwards, either from choice of stress of weather, be induced or driven to visit those regions. Tite most dreadful distemper of this country is the small pox, the fury of which they have not learned to prevent by inoculation, or moderate by judicious regimen and medicines. The vegetable productions of the country are, in the higher and colder grounds, nearly the same as those of Canada, and, in the warmer temperatures, those of Pennfylvania and the adjacent states. Their quadrupeds are very few in species and in numbers. A few wild dogs, several rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice, and one black bear, were the only four-footed creatures they beheld, except the skunk, the most intolerable and offenfive animal they had ever experienced. Birds, cspecially aquatic, were numerous, but shy and vigilant. Fishes were in finall numbers, and fitter for oil than for food. Even repfiles were rare and very harmless.
Desolate as this part of the western continent now appeared, there were indications that it had formerly been much more populous than at present : -" In our different excurfions," fays the author, " particularly those in the neighbourhood of Port Discovery, the scull, limbs, ribs, and back bones, or some other veiliges of the human body, were found, in many places, promiscuously scattered about the beach in great numbers. Similar relics were also frequently met with during our survey in the boats; and I was informed by the officers that, in their several perambulations, the like appearances had presented themfelves fo repeatedly, and in such abundance, as to produce an idea that the environs of Port Discovery were a general cemetery for the whole of the surrounding country. Notwithftanding these circumitances do not amount to a direct proof of the extensive population they indicate, yet, when combined with other appearances, they warranted an opinion, that, at no very remote period, this country had been far more populous than at present. Some of the human bodies were found disposed of in a very singular manner. Canoes were suspended between two or more trees, about twelve feet from the ground, in which were the keletons of two or three persons ; others, of a larger size, were hauled up into the outskirts of the woods, which contained from four to feven skeletons, covered over with a broad plank. In some of these broken bows and arrow's were found, which at firit gave rise to a conjecture, that there might have been warriors, who, after being mortally wounded, had, whilst their strength remained, hauled up their canoe for the purpose of expiring quietly in them. Bat, on a farther examination, this became improb.ible, as it would hardly have been poilible to have preserved the
regularity of position in the agonies of death ; or to have defended their fepulchres with the broad plank with which each was covered,"
Sailing farther to the northwards, they anchored off Refto's tation Point, and found a very romantic country, in which Mr. Menzies made several botanical discoveries. The people were inoffensive, hospitable, and afliduous in their attention. They coasted northwards to Nootka, during which part of their voyage the observations of our author were chiefly aftronomical and nautical. As they approached Nootka Sound, they anchored near a large village, and were visited by Chella-Rees, its chief, and afterwards conducted by him to the village, where the people appeared well-disposed, as did the chieftain himself, although somewhat troublesome to. Capt. Vancouver, by his irrelitible propensity to thieving, which tempted him to commit depredations that could be of no service to himself, his friends, or adherents :
“ He (Cheila-Rees) remained on board most part of the day; and, as he fat at my elbow, whilst writing, saw me frequently advert to a small memorandum-book, which he managed to take away in the moft dexterous manner, unperceived. Having occasion for its use, and knowing no other person had been near me, the purloiner could not be mistaken. A Sandwich island mat which I had given him, he had contrived to fold up in a very small compass, and in the center of it was the miiling book. He appeared somewhat ashamed at the detection, but more mortified at my taking away the presents he had received ; these were, however, about two hours afterwards, reitored, on his contrition and penitential application. Stealing a book, incapable of being, in the leaft degree, serviceable to him, or useful 10 any other perion than the owner, strongly marked that natural inora dinate propenlity to thieving, which, with few exceptions, influences the whole of the uncivilized world, preventing them, as if impelled, by mere instinct, and deftitute of reason, to restrain such incli. sations."
Those persons who, in civilized and enlightened countries, are anxious to poffefs, without any view to use, if they reflect, will find themselves represented by this poor savage ; and that they, in appropriating what neither benefits themselves, nor others, are no more than Chefla-Rees and the memorandumbook.—Continuing their voyage in the fame direction, they arrived at Nootka Sound.
(To be concluded in our next.)