the absurdity, he then says, it means, 'zdly. A hill, a rising ground; and that this sense is very rare,' Although it has this sense in every instance he has given for a contrary senle : oor has he given, nor could he give, any instance where this substantive has any other sense than that which he says is so rare. But this is like all the rest from this quarter ; and I repeat it again, the book is a disgrace to the country

“ Frerer, Falconer, Wachter, and De Broffes, have all laboriously and learnedly (but, I think, not happily;) considered the word Dun.

“ From what Camden says of the ancient names (Danmonii or Dunmonii, and Dobuni,) of the inhabitants of Cornwall and Glou. ceiirshire, and of the two rivers (Daven or Dan or Dun or Dun) in Cheshire and in Yorkiire; it seems as if he supposed, that our English word down came to us from the Britons.

«Solinus, he obferves, called the Cornish men Dunmonia; " which name seems to come from their dwelling there under hills. For their habitation all over this country is low and in vallies ; which manner of dwelling is called, in the British tongue, Danmunith. In which fenfe also the province next adjoining is, at this day, named by the Britons, Duffneint, that is to say, Low vallies.'

“ Of the Dobuni he says- This, their name, I believe, is formed from Duffen, a British word; because the places where they planted themselves were, for the most part, low, and lying under the hills.'

“Speaking of the river in Cheshire, he says, -Then cometh this Dan, or, more truly, Daven, to Davenport, commonly called Dan. port.'

« Of the river in Yorkshire, he says,- The river Danus, commonly called Don or Dune, so termed, as it should seem, because it is carried in a channel low and sunk in the ground : for so much figni. fieth Dan in the British language.'

“ Selden, in his notes on the first song of Drayton's Polyolbion, gives full affent to Camden's etymology. He says, - Duffneint, i.e. low valleys in British, as judicious Camden teaches me.'

"Milton, I doubt not on the same authority, calls the river "the galphy DUN.'

" Rivers arise; whether thou be fon

• Of utmost Tweed, or Oose, or gulphy Dun.' “ And Bishop Gibson concurs with the fame; translating, without any dissent, the marginal note, Duffen Britannicè profundum five depressum,' in these words, Diffen, in British, deep or low.'

" How then, against such authorities, shall I, with whatever rea. son fortified, venture to declare, that I am far from thinking that the Anglo-Saxons received either the name of these rivers, or their word DUN ADUN, (which is evidently our word down, A DOWN, diffe. rently spelled,) in any manner from the Britith language? And as for Duffen, (from which, with Camden, I think the words proceeded, ) we have it in our own language the Anglo-Saxon, and with the same meaning of funk, depreffum, deep, or low.

" If, with Camden, we can suppose the Anglo-Saxon Dun to have proceeded through the gradations of

S Duven, Duun, Dun, Don, Down.

Daven, Davn, Dan. " I should think it more natural to derive both the name of the rivers and the preposition from DUFEN, the past participie of the Anglo-Saxon verb DUFIAN, mergere, to fink, to plunge, to dive, to dip. And the usual prefix to the Anglo-Saxon pariiciples, A, in ADUN, strongly favours the fuppofition. In most of the passages too, in which the preposition or adverb down is used in English, the sense of this participle is clearly exprefled; and, without the lat straining or twiiting, the acknowledged participle may be put imiead of the fuppofed preposition: although there may, perhaps, be foune passages in which the preposition Down is used, where the meaning of the participle may not so plainly appear.” Pp. 445—450. UPON, UP, OVER, Bove, ABOVE, have all one common

origin and fignification, the Sıxon ufon, ufan, ufa. We
think Mr. Tooke might have derived these from up, a
word common in Thwaite's Heptateuch, and, as f and р
approximate each other in found, up would have been
clearer and more simple to an English reader, though we
know that the comparative and superlative degrees are
written with an f, yet as ufera, ufematst, up, upper,
upmost; BOVE, is be-up, or ufa; ABOve, is on-be-up, or
on-be-ufa. We shall take this opportunity of shewing
the fimilarity of the northern languages, especially as
they exemplify the meaning of these particles.
« Germ.

Anf. Auber.

oben. Ober. Oberfte.
Dutch. Op. Opper. Opperlite.

Boven. Over. Overfte.
Daoith. Oven. Over. Overfte.

Swedish. Uppe. Ofwer. Ofwerfte.

Up. Ofre. Ypperfl." P. 451, note.
Mr. Tooke obferves--

“ You will not expect me to waste a word on the prepositions touching, concerning, regarding, refpeeling, relating 10, Javing, exa cept, excepting, according to, granting, allowing, considering, nota withstanding, neighbouring, &c. nor yet on the compound preposi. tionis In-ro, Un-to, Ur-til, Out-of, Through-out, From-off, &c."

P. 455• Relative to adverbs Mr. Tooke translates the observation of Servius “ Omnis pars orationis, quando definit elle quod eft,


migrat ia adverbiuin.” Every word, when a grammarian knows not what to make of it, he calls an adverb. The most prolific branch of this family are the words terminating in ly, synonymous with like, as goodly, goodlike. He then proceeds to a different class, and begins withADRIFT, which he states to be the past participle, (we be

lieve that Mr. Tooke, if ever he favours the public with his observations on the English verb, will discard participles as well as gerunds,) adrifed, adrif'd, adrift, from the

Anglo-Saxon drifan, adrifan, to drive. AGHAST, Mr.Tooke says, may be the past participle agazed,

but, as he observes, that this word always denotes a considerable degree of terror, which is not denoted by the verb, to gaze, for we may gaze with delight, with wonder, with admiration, we suggest whether it may not more probably be derived from a ghaft (Saxon) a ghost, astounded

as by a ghost. AGO, GO, Y GO, GON, AGON, GONE, AGONE, are all used

indiscriminately by our old English writers as the past participle of the verb to go, and he illustrates this by

numerous authorities. Asunder is asundren, or afondrian, (Saxon,, separated as par

) ticles of fand are. ASTPAY is from straw, (Saxon,) strewed or scattered as Araw,

and for this Mr. T. quotes“ reaping where thou has not sown, and gathering where thou has not strawed.” Matt.

XXV. 24. Atwist is the Saxon alwisted, twisted from twa, twi, two,

(hence twine). Askew is from the Danish skiew, wry, crooked. AskANT, ASKANCE, from the Dutch schuin, of like import,

oblique, &c. We reserve our farther observations on the adverbs, and remarks on Mr. Tooke's politics, for a future number.

(To be continued.)

Art. III. Specimens and Parts ; containing a History of the

County of Kent, and a Dissertation on the Laws, from the Reign of Edward the Confesor to Edward the First; of a Topographical, Commercial, Civil, and Nautical History of South Britain, with its gradual and comparative Progress in


Trade, Arts, Polity, Population, and Shipping, from authentic
Documents. By Samuel Henshall, Clerk, M.A. Fellow
of Brazen-Note College, Oxford. 4to. Pp. 175. Price
los. 6d. Faulder, Bond Street; Rivingtons, St. Paul's
Church Yard, London. 1798.
"HIS ample title promises a performance of no ordinary

plan and purpose:

To collect information and convey instruction," he tells us, in his prospectus, to investigate the purest fources of knowledge, arrange his materials in luminous order and regular system, and thence render himself clear and accurate ; to detail the authority on which each record is framed, and thereby ascertain its credit with precision; and to abhor fiction, and boldly and uniformly deliver truth with fimplicity and sincerity, appear the proper object and duty of an historian. To such ends are our views directed, and by such principles shall our narrative be regulated. The evidence on which this history will principally depend, for proving its statements at an early period, may properly, perhaps, be termed internal.

It will be ex. tracted from authentic documents, the celebrated Autograph of Domesday, the Fædera of Rymer, the Anglo-Saxonic and Norman Laws, the National Records, the Rolls of Parliament, Journals, Statutes, &c. &c. By the liberal and judicious patronage of his Majesty and both Houses of Parliament, a great part of this valu. able information has been presented to the public from the press ; fome lodged in public libraries for the advantage of the student; and the whole is known and more generally consulted than at any former ara. When such opportunities are afforded, fach advantages pre. sented, it may appear itrange that the annals and sentiments of ignorant and bigotted chroniclers or monks, * fhould have chiefly occu. pied the attention of English historianis. It is our design to reject every thing that comes in a questionable shape, our will to transmit faits, not opinions. But, to proceed to our plan :- This history will be comparative and progresive, will consist of fix grand parts or divisions, each containing several chapters or differtations on different subjects. The first division or period will contain the presumed state of the nation, on the subjects we treat upon, in the reigns of Edward the Confeflor, William, and the succeeding Mo.

“ We place not implicit confidence in ccclefiaftical charters, since we are certain that many Latin ones.were forged, to escape the rapacity of the Normans, who could not read the Saxon records. Vide Hickefii Thesaur. pallım.”As Reviewers, we ihink ourselves bound to fuggeft, that this declaration, thus repeated from Hickes, is more large than true, and that Hickes's reasonings on the point fail at times. NO, XI, VOL. 111.



narchs, previous to the first Parliament fummoned in 1265, assembled probably in 1295. Here our foundation must be established, and we wish to procure every article that can render it compact, folid, and irremoveable. But though our first æra will occupy two quarto volumes, one comprizing a Topographical Description of South Bri. tain, the other its Civil History, no other distinctive period will extend beyond half a volume, till we arrive at the eighteenth cen. tury, if Providence permits so diftant a continuation. It is presumed that nine similar numbers will complete our first æra ; for in subsequent fasciculos, published every three months, the topographi. cal and historical description of two, or occasionally three or more, counties will be given. It is the wiíh of the author to continue his maps on a similar plan with the specimen exhibited; but, if the work meets not with encouragement from the public, he certainly mult decline the heavy expence of engraving, abridge his topographical descriptions, and compress his arranged matter. To ascertain this question, he will naturally calculate the number of copies sold previous to the continuation of this work, or the number of sub. scribers who please to transmit their names to Mr. Faulder, Bond Street, as patrons of a similar continuation for the counties of Surrey and Sussex, including an historical dissertation on • Ranks and Sera vices' during the same period, or any other of the eight subsequent numbers. Our next division will extend to the æra generally ascribed to modern history, the conclusion of the reign of the seventh Henry. In this and every subsequent division, our differta. tions will particularly fpecify the certain advances in each depart. ment, since the preceding statement. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, terminated nearly with the lives of Elizabeth and William the Third, fupply us with proper opportunities for other divisions of our history, and a retrospective and comparative view of our progress in trade, arts, polity, population, and shipping. The present century furnishes such extensive materials in commerce and science, exhibits fucb astonishing proofs, even of a quadruple increase in our imports and exports, our revenue and shipping, our elegant accommodations with the luxurious means of indulgence, and such extent of refinement and presumed civilization, as at least approximates to a frivolity of manners, that we shall pause and retrace our situation at the close of the reign of George the Second, according to our established arrangement. The sixth part or division will comprehend our farther general progress, comparative advance, and unexampled extent of commerce, delicacy, and riches, and will conclude with the eighteenth century, in the important reign of a mild, merciful, and beloved Prince, the patron of arts, navigation, and science, the fa. ther of his country.*" Pp.ii.--v.


* « To appland Princes, at the present moment, is hazardous and un. pagriotic; but when any Citizen thall have proved, that George


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