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“ A kind of tennis play is also a favourite diverfion among them, and they are very hardy and dexterous at it. They strike the ball with their feet, knees, or elbows, whither they choose, and receive it back ; thus keeping it for some time in continual motion, without its touching the ground. The ball is generally of the size of a man's head, hollow, and made of matted reeds.
“ Their manner of falutation consists in touching the forehead, with the right hand, accompanied by a slight inclination of the body.
"The Mahometan religion is predominant over the whole island. It is said, chat far inland, over the mountains, towards the south side of the illand, there are still fome of the aboriginal idolatrous nations to be met with. Mosques, or places of prayer of the Mahometans, are erected all over the island ; there is a very famous one near Cheriton, but I did not see it. They are very particular and nice about the tombs of their faints, and will suffer nothing unbecoming to be done upon, or near them ; an instance of which has been already related.
" They have both male and female phyticians, who have been known to effect very surprizing cures, by means of their knowledge of the medicinal and vulnerary herbs, produced in their country.
They have sometimes greater practice among the Europeans, at Batavia, than those physicians, who have been regularly bred, and come over from Europe ; yet they have no knowledge whatever of ana. tomy. Much friction in the affected parts, is one of their chief means of cure. This is done with two fingers of the riglrt hand, which are prefled down by the left, and passed continually downwards after having first anointed the part with water, mixed with fine ground wood or oil.
“ For the purposes of agriculture, they use buffalos instead of hor. ses; though there are enough of the last, but of a diminutive fize. These buffalos are very large animals, bigger and heavier than our largest oxen, furnished wish great cars, and horns which project ftraight forward, and are bent inwards. A hole is lored through the cartilage of the nose, and these huge animals are guided by a cord, which is passed through it. They are generally of an ath grey co. lour, and have little eyes. They are so accuftoned to be conducted three times a day into the water to cool themselves, that without it they cannot be brought to work. The female gives milk, but it is jittle valued by the Europeans, on account of its acrimonious nature.”
In defcribing Batavia, the author gives an account, both of the place itself, and of the Asiatics, with which the European settlers have the most frequent intercourse. Among others, he particularly mentions the Chinese ; of whom his opinion is by no means favourable.
“ The Chinese quarter" (he fays,) " is the most popular of all, and seeins itself a city, with numerous streets ; yet their houses are mean and little. It is crouded with Mhops, containing all kinds of goods, as well those of their own manufacture, and such as they re
ceive annually from China, "as what they buy up of those imported from Europe. The number of the Chinese, who live both within and without the walls of the city, cannot be determined with precision, but it must be very confiderable, as the Company receive a poll-tax from them of more than forty thousand rix-dollars.
“ Every Chinese, who has a profeffion, is obliged to pay a monthly poll-tax of half a ducatoon ; women, children, and those who have no trade, are exempted from the tax, fo that their number can only be guefled at. They are under a chief of their own nation, who is known by the appellation of Chinese Captain ; he lives within the walls, and has fix lieutenants under him, in different districts. A fag is hoisted at his door, on the first or second day of every month, and the Chinese liable to the tax are then obliged to come to him to pay it.
“ Like the Jews in Europe, they are very cunning in trade, both in the largest dealings and the most trifting pedlery. They are su desirous of money, that a Chinese will run three times front one end of the city to the other, if he have but the prospect of gaining one penny. In doing any business with them, the greatest care must be taken to avoid being cheated.
"" Their Itature is rather short than tall, and they are, in general, tolerably square. They are not so brown as the Javanese. They Thave their heads all round, leaving a bunch of hair in the middle of the crown, which is twisted with a ribbon, and hangs down their back. Their dress confits in a long robe of Nankeen or thin filk, with wide sleeves, and under it they wear drawers of the same, which cover
" The Chinese are of a tery luftful temper. They are accused of the most detestable violations of the laws of nature : and, it is even said, that they keep swine in their houses, for purposes the most fames ful and repugnant."
He proceeds next to give an account of the Dutch govern. ment of Batavia, and enters into a detail of its component parts. This, however, though just and accurate, has not inuch in it of novelty. Of the mode of living of the Europeans, at Batavia, the following is Stavorinas's account.
“ Europeans, whether Dutch, or of any other nation, and in whatever ftation they are, live at Batavia, nearly in the same man
In the morning, at five o'clock, or earlier, when the day breaks, they get up. Many of them then go and fit at their doors ; bus others stay in the house, with nothing but a light gown, in which they keep, thrown over their naked limbs. They then breakfast upon coffee or tea ; afterwards they dress and go out to attend the business they may have. Almoft all who have any place or employment must be at their proper station at, or before; eight o'clock, and they semain at work till eleven or half past. At twelve o'clock they dine ; take an afternoon's nap till four; and attend to their business again till fix; or take a tour out of the city in a carriage. At fix
o'clock, they assemble in companies, and play or converse till nine, when they return home ; whoever chooses to stay, to supper is wel. come, and eleven o'clock is the usual hour of retiring to reft. Cone vivial gaiety feeras to reign among them, and yet it is linked with a kind of suspicious reserve, which pervades all stations and all companies, and is the consequence of an arbitrary and jealous government. The least word, that may be wrested to an evil meaning, may bring on very serious consequences, if it reach the ears of the person who is aggrieved, either in fact or in imagination. I have heard many people assert that they would not confide in their own brothers in this country."
(To bé continued.)
Art. v. Two Biographical Tracts: First, Observations on
Mr. Holliday's Life of William, late Earl of Mansfield: Second, Thoughts on the judicial and political Life and Charalier of the said Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench ; illustrated with a variety of Notes and References. By an ancient Member of the Inner Temple. To be comprized in two Volumes, and published in four Parts. Vol. I. Part I. 8vo. Pp. 216.
Pp. 216. Price 4s. Murray and Highley. London. 1799. (R. HOLLIDAY's work, upon which the present author
, viewed in the British Critic; it has also received some animadversion in « The Pursuits of Literature, and has been laughed at, in verse, by the waggish provider of Salmagundi, and of Bubble and Squeak. Mr. H.'s publication was before the commencement of our labours: if it had fallen upon us to give a judgement upon it, we should have felt ourselves bound to pass one much less favourable than that of the British Critics. It seems to us, that Mr. H. brought to this undertaking less of the qualifications of a writer than we ever witnefled; the title of the work, and the simple confidence with which he delivered it to the public, plainly shew, that he is wholly unacquainted with books, and knows nothing of the taste or expectations of those who read them. The writer of these i Observations" passes a censure on Mr. H.'s performance, and calls in question his fidelity as an historian : he means himself to give a life of Lord Månsfield; but we are sorry to say, that the ancient Meniber of the Inner Temple, seems to be as little versed in matters beyond the record as Mr. H. the conveyancer; and it is a very singular fate attending the life and fame of Lord M. that they should be
committed to the disposal of these two gentlemen, who have seemingly set up authors for this purpose only, before they have learnt onę tenth part of their trade ; but let us hear what they say of one another.
The ancient Member tells us, that a more appropriate title to Mr. H.'s book would have been this:-“ Selections from the Works of Sir James Burrows, interspersed with a few Conversations between Earl Mansfield and the Reporter ; to which are added Notes, by John Holliday, Esq. an enthufiaftic Encomiaft”-It is a sort of resentment at the unmerited (as he thinks) and indiscriminate panegyric bestowed by Mr. H. that has excited the present writer to take up .
his pen, which seems pointed with severity against the noble Lord, no less than his biographer. In « observing” upon both these objects of animadversion, he is very miscellaneous, and even rambling ; a more heterogeneous collection of materials we hardly ever saw. When he has proceeded to the 16th page, and is to criticise what Mr. H. has said of Lord M.'s political speeches in Parliament, the first of which is his speech in the year 1743, when Solicitor General, on the motion for dismissing the Hanoverian troops, he complains that the real value of the Protest, in the Lords, upon that occasion, 'has not been sufficiently stated : this defedi he undertakes to supply, by giving a sketch of the character of all the Lords who signed that Protest ; and this review reaches from P. 16 to P. 52. If this be not biography we know not what is !-In P. 64 he notices what Mr. H. has said of Lord M. making Demosthenes his model in speaking; from this circuinstance he takes occasion to give a sketch of the Athenian orator's life, and considers how far his character was a fit model for a Chief Justice to copy; among other circumstances, he touches upon the supposed charge of bribery; from thence he flies off, in P. 79, to the corruption of Lord Bacon; he then fairly gives the whole of Wraynham's case, as duly reported as need be—and, expressing great indignation at the sentence of the Star-chainber passed upon that gentleman, he next gives a list of the persons who joined in that sentence, fubjoining a short account of their character and conduct, the vicissitudes of their fortunes, and the unhappy ends of fone of them, which he is pleafed to consider as judgements upon them for the aforelaid piece of injustice : all this employs him as far as P. 112, when he returns, as he tells us, “ from fo prolix a digression again to Demosthenes," considering Denofthenes as no digreffion at all. Indeed, a few pages after, viz. in: P. 119, he makes this “ Meiroir," as he terins it, of Demosthenes, a reason for giving another of Cicero,
• to P. 143.
whom he calls " Mark Tully Cicero,” (to reduce it, as may be supposed, to the analogy of Mark Antony,) which reaches
With all these excursions, “ The Observer” had not yet gratified to the full his passion for biographical sketches; he had a stock ftill behind that must be exhibited, and there must Þe a contrivance for tagging on these materials also to the end of his book. He coines to what he calls Lord M.'s funeral honours, and quotes the lines that conclude
" Where Murray (long enough his country's pride)
Shall be no more than Tully or ihan Hyde." Thus, at once, he obtained as fair a pretence for criticising the character of Lord Clarendon as he before had for that of Mark Tully, Lord Bacon, Demosthenes, all the Protesting Lords, and all' the Lords of the Star-chamber. From Lord Clarendon, he proceeds to the ingratitude of Charles the Second, in promoting rebels and traitors to the prejudice of his father's friends-all of which ingratitude is ascribed to the counsels of Lord Clarendon ; and then he produces a catalogue of the persons alluded to, placing, in opposite columns, their conduct during the rebellion, and usurpation, and their promotions by Charles the Second. This " digreffion" upon Lord Clarendon, and the courtier-rebels, is contained from P. 145 to P. 216, which ends the book. Of this last excurfion of the author we have no other complaint than that it is out
of place, having nothing to do with the subject : in other respects we are obliged to him for it; it is certainly entertaining, interesting, and instructive. May it be a leffon to all the friends of our established government, to support it with their lives and fortunes, while it fubfifts; for if they, pufillanimously, desert their duty, and leave the reins to be once grasped by innovators, these daring invaders will trample them to the ground during their usurpation, and will find means to outbid them upon the patching up of a new seulement. The restoration of a King makes little compensation for the past losses of individuals.
After what has been said, generally, on the qualifications of this writer, it is unnecessary to enter into a particular cri. ticism of his style, language, or manner, all of which are of the most ordinary kind; he certainly has no advantage in these respects over Mr. H.-much less in that of correctness; indeed, though he chastises his precursor so severely for errors, and misprints, he has himself committed some of the groffest fort ; in p. 114 are no less thi.in three false prints in two Latin verses.