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cussion of such a topic. Of the memorable trial of Dr. Sacheverell we despair of reading a fair and iinpartial hiftory. The prejudices of the Whig, or of the Tory, will ever interfere to fóil the page of the historian ; and it can, indeed, scarcely be expected, that one of the most important events in Britih history can be difcuflod with becoming freedom, after the new-fangled crime of a libel on the revolution has been invented by a British House of Commons. Dr. Somerville appears to us greatly to undervalue the abilities of Sacheverell; to misconceive the motives which influenced his conduct ; and to misrepresent the nature of the attachment which the people evinced for him. An attentive perusal of the incomparable writings of Leslie would have tended to correct many of the false notions evidently entertained by our author, to chatea his judgement, and to strengthen his mind.
At the trial of Sacheverell the Whigs thought proper to discuss the general queitions at issue between them and the Tories. The doctrines promulgated by them on his trial may be regarded as the creed of the Old Whigs.* The lit.no ingenuity and labour were therefore employed in Itating and explaining the principles of the British conftitution, as conceived by them, and applying them in defence of the revolution, and of the Hanoverian fucceffion. The Doctor and his council eluded the snare prepared for them by the most explicit and unreserved admiffion of all the propofitions advanced by his accusers relative to the constitution, and the neceility and justice of the revolution ; and confined their re. plies merely to disproving the application of the Doctor's fermons to the articles charged in the impeachment. The defence of Sacheverell was most ably managed by his counsellors; he was, nevertheless, condemned. The amount of his fentence was, that he should not preach for three years. After it was pronounced, he was conducted in triumph to the city, and received the congratulations of thousands. In the evening the windows were illuminated, and bonfires kindled in every street, surrounded by the populace, shewing their zeal for his doctrines by drinking his health to intoxication.
The influence of the high church clergy appeared so great during Sacheverell's trial, that the House of Commons announced their intention of patronizing such clergy as should manifest abilities in defence of oppolite principles. From the time of Sacheverell's triumph, the decaying influence of ministry became daily more obvious.
Conferences were opened at Gertruedenberg, between the French and the con
* The reader will see them quoted, compressed, and generalized in Burke's “ Appeal from the Old to the New Whigs."
federates, for the restoration of peace. Louis offered to give up the succession of his grandson to the crown of Spain, but was answered that, unless he joined in difpoflefling Philip of that crown to which he himself had raised him, the allies would not treat. At last they insisted that Louis himself Should undertake the expulsion of his grandson from Spain. The French King declaring this to be beyond his power, the conferences broke up. The Wbig party pretended to doubt the King of France's fincerity in his proposals for peace. The author very ably argues, that whatever his general chatacter might be, he was fincere then, because it was his interest to be so. All the plenipotentiaries of the confederates, even Prince Eugene, were guided by the superior genius of Marlborough. Him he considers as the obstacle to peace. In the Low Countries, in 1710, although the French avoided a decisive engagement, they were successful in capturing feveral fortifications. In Spain, after Philip had been more completely defeated than during any former period of the war, he became victorious and triumphant. Before the meeting of Parliament, 1710-11, the effects of Sacheverell's trial were more manifelt than ever. The danger of the church resounded in every village ;. the doctrines of indefeasible right and non-resiitance were revived, and inculcated with as little reserve as under the reigns of her Majesty's uncle and father ; the revolution was compared to the breach made upon the conftitution in 1648 ; and the trial of Sacheverell was represented as the counterpart to that of Archbishop Laud. Such was the popular avidity for publications of this stamp, that the hawkers and pedlars who retailed them found a ready sale and kind reception in every part of the country, while those in defence of the Whigs remained unfold, and exposed the authors and publishers to the fury of the populace.
The Queen, by this time, had reposed her principal confidence in Harley and Mrs. Marsham, and was by no means averse to the high church doctrines become in vogue. The Whig articles of political belief were quite contrary to her earlieft opinions. Notwith tanding that her own title to the crown was founded upon the revolution settlement, and the authority of Parliament, she did not relish the difparagement of her lineal rights, nor was the pleased to hear the managers for the Commons in lifting so vehemently upon the limitation of prerogative, and the lawfulness of relittance.
From these circumstances, the party, which had long been bani!hed from court, was elated with the hopes of an honourable recall. Mr. Harley was again admitted to secret conferences with the Queen ; she was already well disposed for a
rupture with the party in office, provided the could find the means of doing it with effect. The Tories procured addreffes from every part of the country against the present Par. liament and present ministers. Her Majesty began to make changes in administration, at first partial, and in the less important offices. Harley, then her favourite, appears to have wilhed for a ministry composed of both parties; but the Whigs would consent to no coalition. Her Majesty diffolved Parliament. At the meeting of the next Parliament the Tories were evidently superior in numbers; the Queen changed her ministers; the Duke of Marlborough, however, still continuing at the head of the army. Enquiries were instituted respecting the mismanagement of the revenue, and the abuses in office. Manifold crimes were charged upon the former ministry. Enquiries were at the same time instituted concerning the management of the war, and indirect censures were patied on the Duke of Marlborough. The chief men in administration were now Messrs. Harley and St. John, both of whom, notwithstanding their profesied attachment to the Tories, were secretly paying their court to his Grace. In 1711 the campaign opened, under the conduct of the Duke of Marlborough. His genius and talents rendered the war fuccessful wherever he presided ; by a masterly stratagem he forced the French lines, and afterwards capturing Bouchain, though defended by a powerful army, under that able General, Marshal Villars. The armies, by the severity of the season, being obliged to go prematurely into winter quarters, the illustrious career of Marlborough ended.
The Tories had often complained of the Whig ministry, for neglecting affairs in Spain, and attending almost solely to the army under the Duke of Marlborough; but when they came themselves into office, suffered the troops in the Spaniin dominions to be in a much worfe condition than they had ever been in during the preceding adininiftration, and shewed how much more easily they could censure others, than do their duty themselves.
The death of Jofeph and the fucceffion of Charles to the Imperial dignity, and to the Sovereignty of Austria, and all her extensive and rich territories and dependencies, had produced an important change in the policy of pursuing the original object of the confederacy, such an immense mass of power as muít have accumulated from the union of the Empire and Spain, was not less formidable to the independence of Europe than the extension of the dominion of France. (To be corcluded in our next.)
ART. II. Tooke's Diversions of Purley.
(Concluded from P. 16.)
dam Adverbs. ASKANT, AsKANCE, are from the Dutch schuin, wry, ob
lique. Aswoon, from the Saxon asuand, of the verb funnian, defi
cere animo, according to Mr. Tooke. But as this deri. vation conveys not a precise idea to a reader, for it may be applied to a coward as well as a person that faints, we prefer on swefen, in a swoon or vision, as Pharaoh, (Gen, XL. 8.) upon the same principle as Aday, on dæg, ANIGHT, on night; ALONG, on lenge; ABROAD, on bræde : ABACK, on bac; ALIVE, on life;, AMID, on mid; ARIGHT, on right; Atwo, on iwa; AWAY, on weg ; ANON, on an, in one, by an ellipse, probably in a
moment, ASTOUND, is the French estonnéd, astonished. Enough, is the Dutch genoeg, to satisfy, and Mr. T. sneers
at Dr. Johnson, because he cannot determine whether this word is a substantive, an adjective, or an adverb; he afterwards observes in the Anglo-saxon, it is genoeg, or ginoh, and appears to be the past particle, genoged, multiplicatum, inanifold of the verb genogan multiplicare. We prefer simple genoh sufficient, as El u fuys to his brother, I have gench. (Gen. xxx11.9.) Israel on receiving intelligence of his loft Joseph, eweeth, Genoh ic hæbbe gif Josep min sunu git leofath. (Gen. XLVI. 28.) Quoth, enough I have, if Joseph my fon yet liveth ; and gengh cannot mean manifold in Deut. 1. 6. where the sacred writer speaks of the Ifraclites having dwelt a sufficient
time in Mount Oreb. Fain, is fægn, glad, Saxon. LIEF, Liefer, LIEFEST, are the Saxon, leof, Icofre, leofes,
formed from lufe-love. ADIEU, from the French à dieu, from the Italian ad dio. Farewell, from faran, Saxon, to go with the adjunct con
veying the sense prosper in your journey. Halt, is our old Saxon heald, hold. (Luke xxlr. 63.) Lo, is our English look, from lociun, Saxon. Needs, is used parenthetically need is, antiently written nedes,
as CERTES, for certain is: PRYTHLE, is I pray thee.
To wit, Mr.Tooke obferves, "does not mean to know, though
the infinitive of witan, as Skinner and Johnson have sup. posed, but to be known." Wecannot always assent to the supercilious dogmatism of this hyper-etymologift. We think Skinner approximates as near to the truth as the author of Ewea IITEQOEVTH ; but we believe this term to have been first used in writs, or mandamuses, to sheriffs, bailiffs, or other officers of the Monarch, commanding them to circulate the contents of such proclamations or rolls through their respective counties, bailiwicks, or districts, and that originally it was tho or do-witan, or wit, do make known, for to and do were the same
word with our ancestors. Perchance, according to Mr. T. is par-escheant, par-efche
ance ; the participle of escheoir, echecir, echoir, to fall; but might it not have been simply stated, with greater clearness, ty or through chance ; and percase, in the
same manner, by or through case? PERADVENTURE, by or through adventure, without the pa
rade of learning, antiently peraunter, paraunter, inaunter,
inaventure. MAY BE, MAY-HAP, are may be and may-happen. HAB-NAB, is hap-ne-hap, happen or not happen. PERHAPS, is, by or through haps, that is, what may happen by
chance, &c. UP-HAP, is upon a hap. BELIKE, is from the Dutch lykke, luck or chance, by luck; we
might with equal propriety, derive it from the German
gluk, by gluk, or by luck. Aroot, is on-foot, and here he corrects an error of Warton,
relative to fact-hot, which doubtless means immediately,
instantaneously, without giving time for the foot to cool. ASIDE, ABREAST, AFRONT, AHEAD, ABLAZE, ABOARD,
ABROAD, ADAYS, ANIGHT, AFIRE, ALIVE, ALOFT,
a liine, and WHILST is a corruption of whiles. AUGHT or OUGHT, Mr. Tooke fays, is the Saxon kwit, (we
believe more generally hwæt, as Exodus XXII. 14,) a whit, or o whit, that is, any thing ; as NAUGHT OR NOUGHT, is
NA WHIT or NO WHIT. FORTH, in our opinion, is very juftly derived by Mr. Tooke,
from the Latin foris, by dropping the final s, and the adoption of th, the favourite termination and pronunciation of our ancestors, and from this we have the almost