i Before we retired into our rooms we took le :ve of Marbois, to whom our separation was a painful facrifice, and who considered this as our last hour. The clock itruck nine, the last we heard at Sina. mary, and Dossonville, who was upon the watch, gave us all notice to begin our enterprize ; upon which we went out and assembled near the gate of the fort, of which the draw-bridge was not yet up. All was sleep and silence. I mounted the bastion of the guard-house with Pichegru and Aubry, and went directly to the fentinel (the contempti. ble drummer who had so often tormented us), and alked him the hour. He made no answer, but fixed his eyes upon the stars ; upon which I seized him by the throat, while Pichegru disarmed him, and we dragged him along, throttling him so as to prevent his crying out, We were now upon the parapet, and he struggled so violently that he got away from us and fell into the river. We then rejoined our companions at the foot of the rampart, and, perceiving no one in the guard-house, ran in and took arms and cartridges. We then went out of the fort and flew to the canoe. Berwick was already there, and helped us to get into it. Barthélemy, who was very infirm and less active than the rest of us, fell, and Tunk in the mud ; but Ber. wick caught hold of him and saved him, and, having put him into the canoe, cut the rope. Berwick now took the helm, while we, motionless and filent, went with the stream. The current and the tide bore our light bark rapidly along, and we heard nothing but the murmurs of the waters and of the land breeze, which swelled our little fail and wafted us from our tomb of Sinamary.”

But their dangers were not yet past. Their canoe was so small and light that she had nearly been overset several times by the violence of the waves, and was not unfrequently half filled with water. They were moreover exposed to the almost intolerable rays of a burning fun, and were left destitute of food. As they lay, in this dreadful situation, becalmed, on the 6th of June, Ramel tells us that they “ swore, in the presence of the Almighty, never to bear arms against their country." If they meant by this to declare their determination to remain paflive spectators of the miseries of their country, and to leave the regicidal usurpers, whose conduct they themselves reprobate in the strongest terms, in quiet enjoyment of the fruits of their usurpation, and to tyrannize at their pleasure over the hapless people whom they have reduced to the lowest state of degradation and milery, their oath betrayed less the sacrifice of their vengeance than the unfoundness of their principles, and their secret attachment to a cause which they openly reprobated.

In the afternoon of the 8th, in steering towards shore, in order to avoid the effects of an approaching storm, their canoe was overset, but they contrived to reach the land, where they remained, in a most dreadful state, till the morning of the rath APPENDIX VOL. III. Mm


of June, when they were discovered by two soldiers belonging to the Dutch garrison of Monte-Krick. They were soon after conveyed to Fort Orange, and from thence to Paramaribo, the capital of Surinam, where they arrived on the evening of the 14th of June. Here they experienced, from the governor and the principal inhabitants, every attention which their situation required ; and the gratitude which the author displays whencver he inet with hospitable treatment, certainly does credit to his feelings. During their stay * this settlement, dispatches were received by the Governor, from Jeannet, insisting that the state prisoners, as he termed them, should be sent back to Cayenne ; but the Governor treated his demand with proper contempt. On the 30th of June, Ramel, Pichegru, Willot, La Rue, Aubry, and Dossonville failed from Paramaribo; (Bartheleiny, bemg ill, was left behind with his faithful fervant Le Tellier, but he has since reached this country) and arrived at the Dutch settlement of Berbice, then in pofleflion of the English, on the ist of July; thence they proceeded to Demerary, where four of them embarked for England, the other two being attacked with a dangerous illness; and on the 21st of September 1798, the anniversary of their departure from Rochefort, anchored in Deal Roads. After a stay of three weeks in London, Ramel left this country for the continent, and arrived at Hamburgh on the 20th of O&ober.

Thus have we given a brief sketch of a Narrative which, though it must be read with caution, contains many interesting anecdotes, and many strong facts; all of which tend to pla e the conduct of the French ufurpers, and their detestable agents, at home and abroad, in the most odious point of view. The book ends with a declaration of the author, that his arms and his blood shall be devoted to the preservation of his country's independence, and the rights of his fellow-citizens ; a declaration, which, considered in the abstract, is certainly deserving of praise; but which, we confess, appears to us incompatible with the oath which he had before taken, in his voyage to Surinam. At least, we wish he had explained, whether, in his opinion, that independence and those rights of which he professes himself the champion, are most likely to be preserved by the army of Condé, or the conscripts of the Directory?

Art. IV. Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statta

haiterschaften des Ruflichen Reichs, &c. i.e. Remarks on a Journey to the Southern Governments (Provinces) of the Ruffian Empire, in the years 1793 and 1794. By P. $. Pallas,


Counsellor of State to his Majesty the Emperor of Russia, Knight; &c. Vol. I.

Vol. I. 4to. Pp. 516. besides 24 pages of dedication, preface, reference to the plates, &c. With coloured plates, vignettes, maps, &c. Leipzig. Martini.


THIS 'HIS splendid and interesting work is, within our know

ledge, the first that has been dedicated to his present Russian Majesty, in the German language, and printed in a foreign territory. The illustrious author takes this opportunity of reminding the Emperor Paul, that his health has been much impaired during the long biennial journey, undertaken chiefly for the benefit and improvement of his extensive and partly unexplored dominions. He remarks, that several of his patriotic suggestions here offered, have already been realised since the first sheets of this work were printed, and that his Imperial Majesty will doubtless adopt many other useful hints given by the author, as the reign of Paul I. is entirely devoted to justice, order, and the glory of his empire.

In a short preface M. Pallas modestly observes, that he was induced to publish these travels partly with a view to render the accounts of several objects alluded to in his former works more complete, and to point out the new order and state of things which he observed in different provinces of Russia, and partly to communicate to the world a faithful description of thofe remote southern provinces, which have not before been visited by travellers. He has carefully avoided mentioning whatever appeared to him immaterial, or not of sufficient moment to the discriminating reader; while he has adhered to the invariable rule of inferting in his journal only those particulars which are not to be found in former travels.

In the second volume, which is to appear in 1800, the author promises to present us with a description of the Taurian peninsula known by the name of Crimea, and to accompany it with a variety of prospects of that delightful country. From this delineation we Thall learn the natural constitution, the advantages, and whatever is remarkable in that small but long celebrated peninsula.

To gratify the curiosity of the reader, with respect to the contents of the first volume of these magnificent travels, we Mall attempt to extract and translate, from the original, those passages which appear to us the most curious and instructive.

Having left St. Petersburgh at the early hour of 2 o'clock, on the first of February, 1793, our author arrived, after a tedious journey of nearly ten days, at Mofco, the largest city in the Russian dominions. On the road from Mofco to Novo Mm 2


grod, he takes notice of the following monuments of antiquity :

“ The ancient fepulchral hillocks (tumuli) on the heights of Valda attract the eye particularly in winter, when the whole surface is covered with snow; they are ftill more conspicuous on the heights near the rivulets Cholova and Polomet, because they exhibit, with the fir trees on their tops, a picturesque winter landscape: and for this reason I have prefixed a drawing, which represents one of those hillocks, in a vignette.

* These hillocks of interment, for notwithstanding their magni. tude they cannot be considered as the productions of nature, are generally on the summits of mountains, exhibiting a moft airy and beau. tiful prospect ;' and I have likewise observed in Siberia, that the an. cient cemeteries are invariably in the most pleasing fituations. It were much to be wished, for promoting the knowledge of the antiqui. ries of Ruffia, that some of the landed proprietors would cause those venerable monuments to be carefully explored, and that their discoveries might be communicated to the world.”

With respect to the grand Russian metropolis, the author makes the following observations :

“ Mosco has, during the last twenty years, tot only been much im. proved in the magnificence of its buildings, and the refinement of manners, but the taste and luxury of its inhabitants have also increased. The high price of all the necessaries of life, and the profusion of dainties, which, though formerly rather scarce in this great city, are now principally imported from foreign countries, formed a remarkable contralt with its state at the time aforementioned. Horticulture has within these few years been brought to fuch perfection that all kinds of vegetables and fruits are in fuperabundance ; being the only produftions of the country that are fold cheap, and which will probably become cheaper every year. The longest thoots of asparagus are pro. duced here in the midst of winter in hot-beds, and in such abundance that they are exported to St. Petersburgh. Farly fruit is neither scarce nor dear in Mosco ; it is not inferior to that of England; and in summer the most delicious species of cherries, apricors, peaches, pears, and apples, nay, even pine-apples, are sold at a reasonable price. All these improvements, made fince the year 1770, are chiefly the effects of persevering induitry. The numerous private orchards, kitchen-gardens, and hot houses lately established by the nobility and gentry, have contributed much to produce a great abundance of regetables. It deserves to be recorded here, that the late Prokop Akirrfievitih Demidof, counsellor of state, by his patriotic example, in im. at his own expence many foreign species of fruit trees, and liberally beitowing the treasures of his gardens, has been principally instrumental in promoting this beneficial branch of indeftry: The inland provinces of Russia are also indebted to this beneficent man for introducing several useful Species of grain. But, alas ! his patriotic



spirit no longer animates the labours of the husbandman; his beautiful botanic garden, which I described in the year 1782, is now desolate; the scarce plants which he had procured at a great expence from England, and bequeathed to the University of Mosco, are scattered, infon i much that scarcely a vestige of his donation remains.

“ Some German game-keepers have discovered truffles in the vici. nity of Mosco, and they are sold in the market through the whole fum. mer, in a fresh itate, and at a very moderate price.

“ Every object we behold in Mosco is, like the city itself, in a certain degree, of a gigantic appearance. Several palaces, in particulår, are of a vast size; they resemble castles, and are inhabited by hundreds of servants who are born in a state of vassalage. The Foundling Hospital is one of the most extensive charitable institutions in the world. Some of the country residences are planned and the architecture finished in a magnificent style; but the institution particularly deserving of notice is the new Asembly of the Nobility, which during winter is visited by at leait one thousand persons of both sexes, who appear at the balls, and masquerades, in very fuperb drefes. This is undoubtedly the most numerous private association of the kind, and their grand allembly-hall is one of the most spacious rooms in Europe.".

When speaking of the two villages Tolskoi and VasilefMaidan, situated on the road between the towns of Lukoyanof and Saranok, the author justly exclaims :

With great indignation I observed here in every direction the remains of large oak forefts in a desolate state, and producing only indifferent brushwood which grew out of the stumps of that magnifi." cent tree.

All the timber used for wheels, carts, and the implements of husbandry, is supplied by the oak; and even each gate of the most wretched farm-yard deltroys two of the thickest and straightest oaktrees, which the Russian boors cut down without hesitation, instead of reserving them for more important purposes. Wherever I turned my eyes, I discovered numbers of broad and thick oak planks (two of which only are usually split from the trunk of one tree) which every boor claims a right to fell and take to the neighbouring town for fale, and which are used for the flooring of dwelling-houses. On the whole road to Penfa we found in every place reason to complain of this un. pardonable walte of that noble tree,

~ In the whole government of Pensa beneficent nature has not byen parsimonious in bettowing luxuriant forests of oak; and I likewise observed on the banks of the rivulet Atina, and its collateral branches, several young foreits of oak belonging to noblemens' estates. These forests appeared to be in a flourishing itate, but planted too thick for the production of full-grown timber. They extend over 'dales and rising grounds to a great distance, and iinpart true pleasure to the pa. triotic observer. How mournful, on the contrary, is it to remark in many other places, especially in the vicinity of the Imperial do. pains, that the young ozkotrees have been cut down and the stumps


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