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the Administrator finds necessary to carry out the purposes of such orders, to prevent the circumvention or evasion thereof, and to safeguard the minimum wage rates established therein. No such order shall take effect until after due notice is given of the issuance thereof by publication in the Federal Register and by such other means as the Administrator deems reasonably calculated to give to interested persons general notice of such issuance.

(g) Due notice of any hearing provided for in this section shall be given publication in the Federal Register and by such other means as the Administrator deems reasonably calculated to give general notice to interested persons.

ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES

SEC. 9. For the purpose of any hearing or investigation provided for in this Act, the provisions of sections 9 and 10) relating to the attendance of witnesses and the production of books, papers, and documents) of the Federal Trade Commission Act of September 16, 1914, as amended (U. S. C., 1934 edition. title 15, secs. 49 and 50), are hereby made applicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Administrator, the Chief of the Childen's Bureau, and the industry committees.

COURT REVIEW

Sec. 10. (a) Any person aggrieved by an order of the Administrator issued under section 8 may obtain a review of such order in the circuit court of appeals of the United States for any circuit wherein such person resides or has his prinicipal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, by filing in such court, within sixty days after the entry of such order, a written petition praying that the order of the Administrator be modified or set aside in whole or in part. A copy of such petition shall forth with be served upon the Administrator, and thereupon the Administrator shall certify and file in the court a transcript of the record upon which the order complained of was entered. Upon the filing of such transcript such .court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to affirm, modify, or set aside such order in whole or in part, so far as it is applicable to the petitioner. The review by the court shall be limited to questions of law, and findings of fact by the Administrator when supported by substantial evidence shall be conclusive. No objection to the order of the Administrator shall be considered by the court unless such objection shall have been urged before the Administrator or unless there were reasonable grounds for failure so to do. If application is made to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and it is shown to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence may materially affect the result of the proceeding and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceedings before the Administrator, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Administrator and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Administrator mav modify his findings by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and shall file with the court such modified or new findings which if supported by substantial evidence shall be conclusive, and shall also file his recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of the original order. The judgment and decree of the court shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended (U. S. C., title 28, secs. 346 and 347).

(b) The commencement of proceedings under subsection (a) shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Administrator's order. The court shall not grant any stay of the order unless the person complaining of such order shall file in court an undertaking with a surety or sureties satisfactory to the court for the payment to the employees affected by the order, in the event such order is affirmed, of the amount by which the compensation such employees are entitled to receive under the order exceeds the compensation they actually receive while such stay is in effect.

INVESTIGATIONS, INSPECTIONS, AND RECORDS SEC. 11. (a) The Administrator or his designated representatives may investigate and gather data regarding the wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment in any industry subject to this Act, and may enter and inspect such places and such records (and make such transcriptions thereof), question such employees, and investigate şuch facts, conditions, practices, or matters as he may deem necessary or appropriate to determine whether any person has violated any provision of this Act, or which may aid in the enforcement of the provisions of this Act. Except as provided in section 12 and in subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator shall utilize the bureaus and divisions of the Department of Labor for all the investigations and inspections necessary under this section. Except as provided in section 12, the Administrator shall bring all actions under section 17 to restrain violations of this Act.

(b) With the consent and cooperation of State agencies charged with the administration of State labor laws, the Administrator and the Chief of the Children's Bureau may, for the purpose of carrying out their respective functions and duties under this Act, utilize the services of State and local agencies and their employees and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, may reimburse such State and local agencies and their employees for services rendered for such purposes.

(c) Every employer subject to any provision of this Act or of any order issued under this Act shall make, keep, and preserve such records of the persons employed by him and of the wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment maintained by him, and shall preserve such records for such periods of time, and shall make such reports therefrom to the Administrator as he shall prescribe by regulation or order as necessary or appropriate for the enforcement of the provisions of this Act or the regulations or orders thereunder.

CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS

SEC. 12. (a) After the expiration of one hundred and twenty days from the date of enactment of this Act, no producer, manufacturer, or dealer shall ship or deliver for shipment in commerce any goods produced in an establishment situated in the United States in or about which within thirty days prior to the removal of such goods therefrom any oppressive child labor has been employed: Provided, That a prosecution and conviction of a defendant for the shipment or delivery for shipment of any goods under the conditions herein prohibited shall be a bar to any further prosecution against the same defendant for shipments or deliveries for shipment of any such goods before the beginning of said prosecution.

(b) The Chief of the Children's Bureau in the Department of Labor, or any of his authorized representatives, shall make all investigations and inspections under section 11 (a) with respect to the employment of minors, and, subject to the direction and control of the Attorney General, shall bring all actions under section 17 to enjoin any act or practice which is unlwawful by reason of the existence of oppressive child labor, and shall administer all other provisions of this Act relating to oppressive child labor.

EXEMPTIONS

SEC. 13. (a) The provisions of sections 6 and 7 shall not apply with respect to (1) any employee employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, professional, or local retailing capacity, or in the capacity of outside salesman (as such terms are defined and delimited by regulations of the Administrator); or (2) any employee engaged in any retail or service establishment the greater part of whose selling or servicing is in intrastate commerce; or (3) any employee employed as a seaman; or (4) any employee of a carrier by 'air subject to the provisions of title II of the Railway Labor Act; or (5) any employee employed in the catching, taking, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life, including the going to and returning from work and including employment in the loading, unloading, or packing of such products for shipment or in propagating, processing, marketing, freezing, canning, curing, storing, or distributing the above products or byproducts thereof; or (6) any employee employed in agriculture; or (7) any emplovee to the extent that such employee is exempted by regulations or orders of the Administrator issued under section 14; or (8) any employee employed in connection with the publication of any weekly or semiweekly newspaper with a circulation of less than three thousand the major part of which circulation is within the county where printed and published; or (9) any employee of a street, suburban, or interurban electric railway, or local trolley or motor buss carrier, not included in other exemptions contained in this section; or (10) to any individual employed within the area of production (as defined by the Administrator), engaged in handling, packing, storing, ginning, compressing, pasteurizing, drying, preparing in their raw or natural state, or canning of agricultural or horticultural commodities for market, or in making cheese or butter or other dairy products; or (11) any switchboard operator employed in a public telephone exchange which has less than five hundred stations.4

4 Amendment provided by act of August 9, 1930 (Public No. 344, 76th Cong., 53 Stat. 1266).

(b) The provisions of section 7 shall not apply with respect to (1) any employee with respect to whom the Interstate Commerce Commission has power to establish qualifications and maximum hours of service pursuant to the provisions of section 204 of the Motor Carrier Act, 1935; or (2) any employee of an employer subject to the provisions of Part I of the Interstate Commerce Act.

(c) The provisions of section 12 relating to child labor shall not apply with respect to any employee employed in agriculture while not legally required to attend school, or to any child employed as an actor in motion pictures or theatrical productions.

LEARNERS, APPRENTICES, AND HANDICAPPED WORKERS SEC. 14.. The Administrator, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulations or by orders provide for (1) the employment of learners, of apprentices, and of messengers employed exclusively in delivering letters and messages, under special certificates issued pursuant to regulations of the Administrator, at such wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 and subject to such limitations as to time, number, proportion, and length of service as the Administrator shall prescribe, and (2) the employment of individuals whose earning capacity is impaired by age or physical or mental deficiency or injury, under special certificates issued by the Administrator, at such wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 and for such period as shall be fixed in such certificates.

PROHIBITED ACTS

Sec. 15. (a) After the expiration of one hundred and twenty days from the date of enactment of this Act, it shall be unlawful for any person

(1) to transport, offer for transportation, ship, deliver, or sell in commerce, or to ship, deliver, or sell with knowledge that shipment or delivery or sale thereof in commerce is intended, any goods in the production of which any employee was employed in violation of section 6 or section 7, or in violation of any regulation or order of the Administrator issued under section 14; except that no provision of this Act shall impose any liability upon any common carrier for the transportation in commerce in the regular course of its business of any goods not produced by such common carrier, and no provision of this Act shall excuse any common carrier from its obligation to accept any goods for transportation;

(2) to violate any of the provisions of section 6 or section 7, or any of the provisions of any regulation or order of the Administrator issued under section 14;

(3) to discharge or in any other manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed any complaint or instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding under or related to this Act, or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or has served or is about to serve on an industry committee;

(4) to violate any of the provisions of section 12;

(5) to violate any of the provisions of section 11 (c), or to make any statement, report, or record filed or kept pursuant to the provisions of such section or of any regulation or order thereunder, knowing such statement, re

port, or record to be false in a material respect. (b) For the purposes of subsection (a) (1) proof that any employee was employed in any place of employment where goods shipped or sold in commerce were produced, within ninety days prior to the removal of the goods from such place of employment, shall be prima facie evidence that such employee was engaged in the production of such goods.

PENALTIES

Sec. 16. (a) Any person who willfully violates any of the provisions of section 15 shall upon conviction thereof be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000, or.to imprisonment for not more than six months, or both. No person shall be imprisoned under this subsection except for an offense committed after the conviction of such person for a prior offense under this subsection.

(b) Any employer who violates the provisions of section 6 or section 7 of this Act shall be liable to the employee or employees affected in the amount of their unpaid minimum wages, or their unpaid overtime compensation, as the case may be, and in an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. Action to recover such liability may be maintained in any court of competent jurisdiction by any one or more employees for and in behalf of himself or themselves and other em

ployees similarly situated, or such employee or employees may designate an agent or representative to maintain such action for and in behalf of all employees similarly situated. The court in such action shall, in addition to any judgment awarded to the plaintiff or plaintiffs, allow a reasonable attorney's fee to be paid by the defendant, and costs of the action.

INJUNCTION PROCEEDINGS

Sec. 17. The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Territories and possessions shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown, and subject to the provisions of section 20 (relating to notice to opposite party) of the Act entitled “An Act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes,” approved October 15, 1914, as amended (U. S. C., 1934 edition, title 28, sec. 381), to restrain violations of section 15.

RELATION TO OTHER LAWS

SEC 18. No provision of this Act or of any order thereunder shall excuse noncompliance with any Federal or State law or municipal ordinance establishing a minimum wage higher than the minimum wage established under this Act or a maximum workweek lower than the maximum workweek established under this Act, and no provision of this Act relating to the employment of child labor shall justify noncompliance with any Federal or State law or municipal ordinance estabblishing a higher standard than the standard established under this Act. No provision of this Act shall justify any employer in reducing a wage paid by him which is in excess of the applicable minimum wage under this Act, or justify any employer in increasing hours of employment maintained by him which are shorter than the maximum hours applicable under this Act.

SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS

SEC. 19. If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

Approved, June 25, 1938.

[H. Doc. No. 231, 80th Cong., 1st sess.) MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TRANSMITTING

REORGANIZATION PLAN No. 2 OF 1947 To the Congress of the United States:

I am transmitting herewith Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1947, prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1945. The plan permanently transfers to the Department of Labor the United States Employment Service, which is now in the Department by temporary transfer under authority of title I of the First War Powers Act. In addition, the plan effects two other changes in organization to improve the administration of labor functions.

I am deeply interested in the continued development of the Department of Labor. The critical national importance of effective governmental action on labor problems requires proper assignment of responsibility for the administration of Federal labor programs. Such programs should be under the general leadership of the Secretary of Labor, and he should have an adequate organization for this purpose.

The provisions of this plan are directed to this objective. I have found, after investigation, that each reorganization contained in the plan is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1945.

UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE

The United States Employment Service was established by the WagnerPeyser Act in the Department of Labor. Later, by Reorganization Plan No. 1, effective July 1, 1939, it was trarsferred to the Social Security Board in the Federal Security Agency and administered in conjunction with the unemploymentcompensation program. During the war the Employment Service was extensively reorganized. The critical nature of the labor-supply problem greatly increased the importance of the Service and compelled the Federal Government to take over the administration of the entire employment-office system on a temporary basis.

Soon after the creation of the War Manpower Commission the United States Employment Service was transferred to the Commission, by Executive Order No. 9247 of September 17, 1942, and became the backbone of the Commission's organization and program. When the Commission was terminated shortly after VJ-day, most of its activities, including the United States Employment Service, were shifted by Executive Order No. 9617 to the Department of Labor, the central, agency for the performance of Federal labor functions under normal conditions. Both of these transfers were made under authority of title I of the First War Powers Act. More recently, the Employment Service was returned to its prewar status as a joint Federal-State operation.

The provision of a system of public employment offices is directly related to the major purpose of the Department of Labor. Through the activities of the employment office system the Government has a wide and continuous relationship with workers and employers concerning the basic question of employment. To a rapidly increasing degree, the employment office system has become the central exchange for workers and jobs and the primary national source of information on labor market conditions. In the calendar year 1946 it filled 7,140,000 jobs, and millions of workers used its counsel on employment opportunities and on the choice of occupations.

The Labor Department obviously should continue to play a leading role in the development of the labor market and to participate in the most basic of all labor activities-assisting workers to get jobs and employers to obtain labor. Policies and operations of the Employment Service must be determined in relation to over-all labor standards, labor statistics, labor training, and labor law-on all of which the Labor Department is the center of specialized knowledge in the Government. Accordingly, the reorganization plan transfers the United States Employment Service to the Department of Labor.

FUNCTIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION

The plan transfers the functions of the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division to the Secretary of Labor to be performed subject to his direction and control. The fair labor standards bill was drafted on the assumption that the Wage and Hour Division would be made an independent establishment. As finally passed, however, the act placed the Division in the Department of Labor but was entirely silent on the authority of the Secretary over it. As a result, the Secretary has lacked an adequate legal basis for supervising and directing the affairs of the Division, and it has had an ambiguous status in the Department. The transfer effected by the plan will eliminate uncertainty as to the Secretary's control over the administration of the Wage and Hour Division and will enable him to tie it into the Department more effectively. This in turn will facilitate working out a sound combination of wage and hour, child labor, and related enforcement activities of the Department, and will permit the Secretary to simplify and strengthen the organization of the Department.

FEDERAL PUBLIC-WORKS

COORDINATION OF ADMINISTRATION OF LABOR LAWS ON

CONTRACTS

The Congress has enacted several laws regulating wages and hours of workers employed on Federal public-works contracts. The oldest of these are the 8-hour laws fixing a maximum 8-hour day for laborers and mechanics on such projects. More recently the Davis-Bacon Act established the prevailing wage rates for the corresponding classes of workers in the locality as the minimum rates for employees on certain Federal public-works contracts and required the Secretary of Labor to determine the prevailing rates. Another measure, the Copeland Act, prohibited the exaction of rebates or kick-backs from workes on public works financed by the Federal Government, and authorized the Secretary of Labor to prescribe regulations for contractors on such works.

The actual enforcement of these acts rests almost entirely with the Federal agencies entering into the contracts. This is proper since the engineers and inspectors of the contracting agencies are in close touch with the operation of the projects and, in the case of cost-plus contracts, the pay rolls and accounts of the contractors are examined by the auditors of these agencies.

The enforcement practices of the various contracting agencies, however, differ widely in character and effectiveness. Some agencies have instructed their inspectors thoroughly as to the acts and their enforcement and have adopted

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