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on the retina falls before it, so that the image is confused. single cause, especially if we bear in mind that the luminous This defect is remedied by means of divergent glasses, which, rays are generally accompanied by calorific rays. But still by removing the rays from their common axis, throw back the identity is not complete, for we know several substances the focus to the retina. The habit of frequently looking at which can be made to give out light in darkness without small objects, and making microscopical observations, has a heat, or at least without any great degree of heat. Bodies of tendency to bring on short-sightedness. This defect is com• this sort are called phosphorescent, because this property is mon among young people, but diminishes with advancing especially apparent in phosphorus. There are cases in which years.

the phosphorescence is accompanied by a slow chemical Long sight is the opposite of what we have just been con- action. This is true of phosphorus, certain vegetable or sidering. People having this affection see distant objects very animal substances, as e. g. wood in a state of decomposition, well, but cannot clearly distinguish those that are near. The and fish, especially herrings in a putretied state. In other cases defect arises from the insufficient convergence of the eye, in phosphorescence is developed under the influence of a high consequence of which the image of objects close at hand is temperature. For instance, if we heat powdered fluor-spar. formed beyond the retina. But if the objects be removed to to about 700 or 900 degrees Fahrenheit, it becomes suddenly a distance, the image will approach the retina; and when they luminous and gives forth a bright bluish light. Certain subare at a suitable distance, the image is formed exactly on this stances become luminous under the influence of solar light. membrane and the person sees clearly. Long sight is corrected It is thus that the diamond and several other minerals, having by means of convergent glasses, which draw together the rays been exposed to the rays of the sun, for some time afterwards before they enter the eye, in consequence of which, if the con- appear luminous when carried into a dark place. Fluor-spar, vergence be suitably chosen, the image is brought exactly to diamond, and white marble have the property of acquiring the retina. Till within a few years it was customary to make phosphorescence under the action of several successive disuse of none but bi-convex glasses for long-sighted people, and charges of a powerful electric battery. Lastly, phosphor. bi-concave ones for short-sighted people. Wollaston was the escence is very intense in certain insects, especially the glowfirst to propose changing these glasses for concave-convex worm, which varies its light at will.. lenses c and F, fig.288, arranged in such a manner that their cur. In many countries, and especially tropical regions, the sea vature corresponds to that of the eye. These glasses, enabling is often covered with a bright phosphorescent light, caused by one to see objects which are far from the optical axis more zoophytes of extreme minuteness. These animalcules shed so clearly, are called periscopic (from TEPLOKORíw, I look rouna).

subile a luminous matter, that Messrs. Quoy and Gaimard, Double Sight is an affection of the eye which causes it to see in a bottle of water, immediately saw the whole mass become

when on a voyage near the equator, having put two of them two objects instead of one. In general, the two images are almost entirely one over the other, and the one is much more luminous. Some philosophers, observing that in many cases apparent than the other. Double sight may result from an the causes of phosphorescence are the same as those which inequality in the size of two eyes, but it may also affect a develop, electricity, and that feeble electric light strongly single eye. This last affection is undoubtedly owing to some resembles that of phosphorescent bodies, infer that phosphor. defect in the formation of the crystalline, or other parts of the escence is owing to an electric cause, eye, which causes the luminous pencil to become forked and

Action of Light on Vegetables.---Light exercises various kinds form two images on the retina instead of one. A single eye

of action on vegetables. may also be affected with triple sight, but in this case the

1. It is under the influence of the solar rays that the green parts third image is extremely feeble.

of plants acquire the property of absorbing the carbonic acid Inability to discern Colours.-Some people are unable to dis

in the atmosphere, assimilating the carbon and giving out the tinguish colours, or at least some particular colours. Such oxygen almost pure. In darkness, on the contrary, plants do persons can discern the outline and form of objects very well,

not give out oxygen, but carbonic acid.

2. It is also under the influence of light that the green suband also the bright and dark portions, but nothing more. stance of vegetables is formed. The less a plant is exposed to One who was thus affected had painted a landscape, in which the light, the paler it becomes. Humboldt slightly tinged the earth, the houses, the trees, and the figures were all blue. some garden cress with green by exposing it to the brightness On being asked by a friend why he had not given each object of two lamps, and De Candolle obtained a deeper green by its proper colour, he answered that he wished to make the colour of the picture accord with that of the furniture in his using

six lamps. room; yet this was red. This defect is sometimes called gives rise to remarkable movements in the leaves and flowers

3. The transition from day to night, or from night to day, Daltonism, because Dalton, who has carefully described it, was of plants, phenomena popularly described as the sleep and himself affected with it..

waking of plants. The influence of light is here so apparent, SOURCES OF LIGHT, AND THE ACTION OFLIGHT ON that as soon as the sun appears above the horizon, the sleeping PLANTS.

plants awakeand open their leaves and petals. By exposing these

plants to the artificial light of a sufficient number of lamps, Various Sources of Light. The various sources of light arc De Candolle succeeded in modifying their habits. He thus the sun, the stars, heat, chemical combinations, phosphor- saw sensitive plants expand by night, and others open their escence, electricity, and meteorological phenomena. The calixes by day when placed in a dark room. origin of the light emitted by the sun and stars is unknown. 4. Light also exercises a directing influence upon the We only know that the inflamed substance with which the branches and roots, the former seeking and the latter avoiding sun appears to be surrounded, is gaseous, because the light of it, at least in many plants. It has been ascertained that all that luminary, like that which is emitted by gaseous sub- the colours of the spectrum do not exert the same degree of stances when inflamed, affords no trace of polarisation when influence upon the branches and roots, but that between viewed through instruments constructed for the purpose of blue and violet the greatest intensity of action is produced. detecting polarisation.

5. Light imparts to vegetables à power of suction. This As to light developed by heat, according to M. Pouillet, was demonstrated by the following experiment. Three plants bodies begin to be luminous in darkness at a temperature of of the same species and the same size were placed in three about 1350 or 1400 degrees Fahrenheit, and beyond that, the separate vases containing water, one of which was put in a light they emit is brighter in proportion to the increase of dark place, the second in a mild light, and the third in the heat. It is through the high temperatures accompanying sunshine. The first was found to have imbibed very little many chemical combinations that these last occasion a dis water, the second more, and the third by far the most. engagement of light. Such is the cause of the artificial light employed to represent lightning, for, as we have seen, flames

DOUBLE REFRACTION. are nothing more than gaseous substances heated to such Double Refraction is a property by which many crystals a degree as to become luminous.

present two refracted rays for each one incident on their As bodies become luminous at a high temperature, caloric surface, the consequence of which is, that, on looking at an seems to be then transformed to light, which would favour object through these crystals, it appears doubled. Double the idea, that these two agents ought to be referred to one l refraction was first observed by Bartholin, in 1647, but -Huyghens was the first to give a complete theory of it in 1673. same position with respect to the plane of incidence, and conCrystals that have the property of double refraction are called sequently the extraordinary ray does not conform to the laws double refracting. They are only those which do not belong of refraction. to the cubical system. Crystallised bodies belonging to this Laws of Double Refraction in Crystals with one Axis.---The system, and those without crystallisation, as glass, do not phenomenon of double refraction in crystals with one axis is possess the property of double refraction, but they may acquire subject to the following laws. it accidentally by unequal pressure or sudden cooling after

1. The ordinary ray, whatever be the plane of incidence, having been heated. Liquids and gases are never double always follows the two general laws of simple refraction. refracting. The phenomenon of double refraction is especially

2. In every section perpendicular to the axis, the extraordi. apparent in Iceland spar. In quartz or rock crystal double refraction is very feeble, and to render it perceptible requires its index of refraction is not the same as that of this latter ;

nary ray also follows these two laws like the ordinary ray, but a crystal of great thickness and suitable apparatus.

whence the distinction between the ordinary index and the Crystals with one Azis.- In a crystal possessing the property extraordinary index. of double refraction there are always one or two directions in

3. In every principal section, the extraordinary ray does not which only simple refraction is observed, that is to say, only follow the second law of refraction, that is to say, the planes one image of objects is seen. These directions are called of incidence and refraction coincide, but the ratio of the sines optical axes or axes of double refraction. This last name, how- of the angles of incidence and refraction is not constant. ever is inappropriate, for it is precisely in the direction of these

4. The velocity of light in a crystal not being the same for axes that double refraction does not take place. Crystals with the ordinary ray as the extraordinary, the difference of the one axis are those which present only one direction in which squares of these two velocities is proportional to the square of the light does not become forked, and crystals eith too axes are the sine of the angle made by the extraordinary ray with the those which present two. The crystals with one axis, of which

axis. most frequent use is made in optical instruments, are Iceland spar, quartz, and turmalin. Iceland spar has the form of a This last law is the expression of an empirical formula given parallelopiped, the faces of which are inclined at angles of hy Biot, for connecting together the velocities of the two rays. 105 degrees 5 minutes (fig 344). The faces, which are six in It also results from formulæ, to which Fresnel was conducted

by purely theoretical considerations, which have this remarkFig. 344.

able peculiarity, that Biot's formula may be deduced from them. Huyghens, who was the first to give a complete theory of double refraction founded on the system of undulations, discovered a very remarkable geometrical construction, by the aid of which one can determine the position of the refracted ray in all its varied situations with regard to the axis, on knowing its incidence ; but his theory was not admitted by philosophers till Malus established its accuracy by numerous experiments.

Laws of Double Refraction in Crystals with two Axes.-Crystals

with two axes are very numerous. Of this elass are the sul. number, are rhombi or lozenges, which meet three and three phates of nickel, magnesia, barites, potash, and iron, with

In these different at their obtuse angles at the extremity of a straight line, ab, sugar, mica, and the topaz of Brazil. which is the axis of crystallisation. Brewster has ascertained crystals, the angles of the two axes assume very different the general law thatin crystals with one axis, the axis of double values, varying from three to ninety degrees. Fresnel disrefraction always coincides with the axis of crystallisation. covered by theory and demonstrated by experiment, that in The principal section of a crystal with one axis is the plane, crystals with

two axes, neither of the refracted rays follows which passing through the optical axis is perpendicular to a

the laws of simple refraction, but calling the line which bisects face, whether natural or artificial, of the crystal.

the angle between the two axes the middle line, and that which Ordinary and extraordinary Ray.--Of the two refracted rays found that in every section perpendicular to the middle line,

bisects the supplement of this angle the supplementary line, he exhibited by crystals with one axis, one always follows the laws of refraction, and is called the ordinary ray.

one of the refracted rays follows the ordinary laws of refracThe other is not generally subject to the laws of refraction, tion, and in every section perpendicular to the supplementary that is to say, the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to line, it is the other ray which follows these laws. that of the angle of refraction is not constant, and the plane of

POLARISATION. refraction does not coincide with that of incidence ; hence this ray is called the extraordinary ray.

Polarisation by Reflection.--Polarisation is a particular modi. The images corresponding to these rays are also called ordi- fication of the luminous rays, by virtue of which, when once nary and extraordinary.

they have been reflected or refracted, they become incapable Figure 345 shows the cause of the rays in this phenomenon. of further reflection or refraction in certain directions. Põlari

sation was first discovered in 1810 by Malus, a French philo

sopher, who died only a few years since. Light is polarised: Fig. 345.

by reflection or refraction. If reflected on a surface of black glass, light is polarised when the reflection takes place at an angle of 35° 25' with the glass. The following are some of the properties of the polarised ray.

1. This ray undergoes no reflection on falling upon a second plate of glass at the same angle of 35° 25', if the plane of incidence on this second plate is perpend cular to the plane of incidence on the former, but it is more or less reflected if

incident at other angles. The parallelogram abcd represents a principal section of a 2. When transmitted through a double refracting prism it parallelopiped of Iceland spar, which being placed upon a sheet only gives one image, if the principal section is parallel or perof white paper, we look through it at a black point o, on the pendicular the plane of incidence, while in every other paper. The incident ray setting out from the point o, divides position with respect to this plane, it gives two images more into two rays, o i and oë, which being unequally refracted, on or less bright, emerging convey two images, Ó' and o", to the eye. If the 3. It cannot be transmitted through a plate of turmalin parallelopiped be turned about on one of its angular points with whose axis of crystallisation is parallel to the plane of inciout removing it from the paper, the ordinary image will remain dence, but on the contrary is more and more easily transfixed, but the extraordinary image will turn about the other, mitted, as the axis of the turmalin becomes more and more which shows that the plane of refraction is not in the perpendicular to that plane.

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All bodies have, like glass, the power of polarising light by of the language to be learnt must be exhibited, examined, and. reflection, but not all with the same completeness, nor at the MASTERED. same angle of incidence. Marble, for instance, completely 2. An Alphabet is a collection of different characters called polarises light, while diamond and common glass only polarise letters, each of which represents its own peculiar sound. it partially. Of all bodies metals have the smallest polarising These letters differ from each other in rame, form, size, and . power.

sound. Used as vehicles of thought, they must not only be Angle and Plane of Polarisation.—The angle of polarisation of familiar to the eye, but their use, both singly and combined, a substance is the angle which the incident ray must make must be understood. with a level and polished surface of this substance, in order 3. Two objects are to be before the student whilst perusing that the reflected ray may be polarised as completely as these lessons book, viz. :possible. For water this angle is 37° 15', for glass, 35° 25', for quartz 32° 28', for diamond 22°, and 33° 30' for obsidian, various sounds of the letters of the French Alphabet.

First.-—The acquisition of the correct pronunciation of the a kind of natural black-glass, which polarises light very well. Sir David Brewster has given the following remarkably in order to read the French Language easily, intelligibly, and

Secondly.-To learn how to combine and use these sounds, simple definition of the angle of polarisation : "The angle of profitably. polarisation is the angle of incidence for which the reflected ray is perpendicular to the refracted ray." But this definition

4. The first object will be accomplished by the aid of analogous is not applicable to light reflected by double retracting English sounds; that is, every sound represented by a letter or crystals. In polarisation by reflection, the plane of reflection combination of letters of the French Alphabet, will be in which the light is polarised is called the plane of polari. unfolded, analyzed and defined, as far as possible, by means sation. This plane coincides with the plane of incidence, and of analogous sounds of a letter or continuation of letters of the consequently contains the angle of polarisation. It is in this English Alphabet. plane that light which has been once reflected cannot be

6. The second object will be accomplished by learning a few again reflected at the angle of polarisation, in a plane per. brief and simple Rules, illustrated and enforced by appropriate pendicular to the first. It is also in this plane that it is not examples. transmissible through turmalin whose axis is parallel to that

6. Diligent attention, patient labour, and A DETERMINATION plane. Every ray, therefore, that is polarised by refraction TO SUCCEED, will enable the learner to overcome every has a plane of polarisation, that is to say, a plane in which it obstacle, and thus make him master of a Language not only exhibits the phenomena above mentioned.

exceedingly difficult for foreigners to acquire, but beautiful in Polarisation by Simple Refraction. When a ray of light which itself, and coexistent with the triumphs of civilisation, is not polarised falls at the angle of polarisation upon a plate

7. The student's attention is next directed to an inspection of glass with parallel faces, it is only reflected in part, the of the French Alphabet. other part goes through the plate and is refracted, and the

Capitals. Small Letters.

Capitals. Small Letters. light transmitted is partially polarised in a plane perpen. dicular to the plane of reflection, and consequently to the

А
B

B
plane of polarisation of the light which has been polarised by
reflection. Arago observed, also, that the reflected and the

d refracted pencils contained an equal quantity of polarised light, and that the reunion of these two pencils produces

Compare tne A. natural light. We may therefore regard ordinary light as

f formed of two equal pencils, polarised at right angles. As a

phabet at the left single plate of glass never completely polarises light, we may employ several, one upon the other, and their successive

of this page, with

J reflections and refractions will give a more complete result. Glasses 80 placed are called piles, and are often employed to

the one on the K obtain a pencil of polarised light.

L Polarisation by Double Refraction. Light is polarised by double

M

right, which is the refraction when it passes through a crystal of Iceland spar or any other double refracting substance. The two pencils,

English Alphabet, which are distinct on emerging, are both polarised completely,

P but in different planes, which are perfectly or nearly perpen

and carefully note dicular to each other. To prove this, we look through a

the difference be. parallelopiped of Iceland spar at a black spot on a sheet of white paper. To the naked eye there appear two images with the same brightness, but if we interpose a plate of rurmalin and

tween them. turn it about in its own plane, each image will disappear and reappear twice for each revolution of the turmalin, which shows that the two emerging rays are polarised in planes

Y perpendicular to each other. The ordinary image vanishes at

у

Y
Z

Z the moment when the axis of the turmalin is parallel to the principal section of the surface of incidence, and the extraordinary image at the moment when this axis is perperi- it has no letter which corresponds to the English W, though

In the French Alphabet there are only twenty-five letters ; dicular to the same section; whence we infer that the ordinary it is occasionally found in French books. It is used only in pencil is polarised in the plane of the principal section, and foreign words, and then pronounced like the English V. the extraordinary pencil in a plane perpendicular to that section,

8. The French Alphabet is divided into VOWELS and Con

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au

eau

eu

ou,

ua

ue

oua

oue

ueu.

ou a

ou-e

U-eu,

oueu

11. COMPOUND VOWELS.

FRENCH ACCENTS. They are thus called, because, being united together, each 17. The constant use of certain marks called ACCENTS in the vowel loses its own simple sound, and helps to form another French language, constitutes a marked peculiarity which cannew sound. They form but one syllable, and are consequently not escape the attention

of the student. Rarely, except in pronounced by one emission of the voice.

elementary works of the English Language, is the syllable of There are seven Compound Vowels, viz. :-

any given word which requires an emphasis, marked.

18. But it is not so in the French Language ; here, accents ai

ei
oi and

of various kinds are constantly meeting the eye on every page.

One thing, however, must be observed, viz. :--the position of 12. DIPHTHONGS.

the Accent does not always and infallibly mark the syllable of a They are thus called, because, though pronounced as one nunciation.

word, which must receive the stress of voice in common pro syllable, yet the sound of both vowel is distinctly heard. 19. Modern Grammarians have established the following There are sic Diphthongs, viz. :

rule, viz. : TO PLACE THE STRESS OF VOICE ON THE LAST

PRONOUNCED SYLLABLE OF EVERY WORD.
ia ie io

and
ui

20. A slight inspection only of the following examples will The following ten combinations of THREE SUCCESSIVE VOWELS illustrate the above remarks. are also called Diphthongs, viz. :

The first syllable of this word is marked with

an accent; must the stress of voice therefore be iai iau ieu

oui uai uei Dé-vo-rer placed upon the syllable de? No :-if the rule uie and

be applied to this word, the stress of voice falls

on the last syllable, RER. These Diphthongs are thus divided into syllables, viz. :

It will then be asked, What is the use of this accent? We i-ai i-au i-eu

ou-i
u-ai

answer, It modifies the sound of the vowel over which it is placed. u-ei u-ie and

Again :- the word used now as an ex

ample, has the same kind of an accent as the They must, however, be pronounced quickly, and as one

word used in the previous example had; syllable.

and also, it is placed over the same vowel. Sometimes, also, we find FOUR SUCCESSIVE Vowels in the Lé-gère-ment But it has another different accent over the same word, viz. :

first vowel of the second syllable ; and,

according to the rule, the stress of voice is ouai in the word jou-ai,

not placed either upon the first or second jou-eur, and

(syllable, but upon the last.
ouée
bou-ée,

This second accent (observe its form and position) only

serves to modify the sound of the vowel over which it is placed. The first example-ouai, is composed of two compound sometimes, however, an accent is placed over a vowel of the vowels, viz.: ou and ai.

syllable, which, according to the rule, receives the stress of The second example-oueu, is also composed of two com- voice, viz. :-Cé-lé-bri-té. pound vowels, viz, ; ou and eu. In the last example-ouée, the final E is silent, and the

Again, in the word used here as an example, three vowels are thus divided, viz. : ou and é.

Ba-ti-ment

a third, and still different accent is placed over

the vowel A. Its presence affects the sound of 13. Y.

that vowel only. It has nothing whatever to do

with the proper accent of that word, as the term Accent is The vowel Y is frequently found combined with other understood when applied to words in the English language. Towels, but in such combinations it is never used as a diph. As a general rule, the stress of voice is not so strong in the thong. Its use in combination is peculiar, and will be fully French as in the English language. explained hereafter.

21. Accents, as used in the French language, are certain

marks differing from each other, and placed over certain vowels 14. NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS.

only, for specific purposes.

22. There are three Accents, viz. :These are certain sounds produced by the combination of the

called the Acute Accent, vowels, with the consonants M and N, viz. :

Grave

Circumflex,
im
in

yn;

23. 'The acute accent, is used only over the vowel E, and

serves two purposes : whose sounds will be explained hereafter.

First, -to modify its sound. 15. NASAL DIPHTHONGAL SOUNDS.

Secondly,to mark the existence of a distinct and final

syllable, viz. :These are certain sounds produced by the combination of

Dé,

Trom-pé, nasal vowel sounds with a vOWBL, not nasal, before them,

Pe-tar-dé,

Cér-é-mo-nie. viz, :

24. 'The Grave accent, is used only over the vowels A, E and ian ien ion

uin

and

ouin. U, viz. :-
16. LIQUIDS.

à,
à,
Père,

and The following combinations of the consonants are called and serves two purposes : Liquids, riz, :

First, to modify the sound of the vowel E.
11
and

Secondly,—to distinguish one part of speech from another,
gn.

viz. :The sounds of these liquids are very common in the French à is a Preposition, a is a Verb, là is an Adverb, la is an Article, language, and will be explained hereafter.

où is an Adverb, ou is a Conjunction,

am

em

om

um

an

ym and

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a il,

accent.

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26. ^ This character, which represents the Circumflex | words commencing with a vowel or H mute, and is much accent, is the union of the Acute and Grave accents, and is used in the French language, viz. :-placed over each of the Vowels except Y. It indicates that

L' ami instead of Le ami. the letter over which it is placed, has a sound troice as long as it

L'église La église. has without it, viz. :

I'' homme

Le homme.
Age,
Bête,
Büche,
Cóte,

S'il

Si il,
Gite,
Mé-lée, and Tête.

30. EUPHONIC T.
This accent also indicates the suppression of the letter S,
aftor the porcel over which it is placed ; thus

This letter is thus called on account of its peculiar position

between two parts of speech, viz., the Verb and Pronoun. It Bête, Fête, and Tête

does not sound agreeably to the French ear to say

a elle, were formerly written

demande on, etc. Beste, Feste and Teste.

Therefore, to prevent the hiatus of sound between the vowels

at the end of the first and the beginning of the second words The S was not sounded, but gave to the preceding vowel in the examples, this Euphonic T is inserted. It is used only that prolonged sound now represented by the circumflex in asking questions, and then a hyphen is placed both before “ Cassell's Lessons in French."

and after it, viz. :This accent also serves to distinguish parts of speech from a-t-elle: a-t-il ? ira-t-on ? demande-t-on ? each other, yiz. :

parle-t-il ? va-t-on ?

prouve-t-il ? Crû is a Participle from the Verb CROÎTRE.

This letter cannot be translated, because it has no meaning. Cru is a Noun and Adjective.

It is thus used, merely for the sake of euphony.
DO is a Participle from the Verb DEVOIR.
Du is an Article and Noun.

31. PARENTHESIS AND PUNCTUATION.
Redů a Participle from the Verb REDEVOIR.
Sur is an Adjective.

In the French language, the Sur is a Preposition.

Parenthesis ().

Comma, Semicolon ; Colon : Та is a Participle from the Verb TAIRE.

Period. Mark of Interrogation ? Mark of. ExclaTu is a Pronoun.

mation ! Dash - and Quotation

are the same, and used for the same purposes, as in the English 26. CEDILLA.

language. Besides the three kinds of accents just enumerated, certain

32. ASTERISKS. other marks or signs are used, called

The ASTERISKS in the French language, are also the same, Cedilla, Dieresis, Hyphen, and Apostrophe. and used for the same purposes, as in the English language,

viz. :ç The CEDILLA is a peculiar mark, somewhat resembling a

+

င့် figure 5 inverted, and placed only under the letter C, before the vowels A, O, and U, viz. : .

It indicates that the letter C under which it is placed, has the soft sound of the Letter S, yiz, :

LESSONS IN MORAL SCIENCE.No. I. çà pronounced as if pri Sà. Deça

Desà.

CONSCIENCE, OR THE MORAL FACULTY.
Façade

Fasade.
Façonner

Fasonner.

As all men, when reason is developed, have a faculty by Leçon

Leson.

which they can discern a difference between objects of sight Reçu

Resu.

which are beautiful and those which are deformed, so all men

possess the power of discerning a difference between actions, 27. DIERESIS.

as to their moral quality. The judgment thus formed is immeThe DIERESIS consists of two dots, placed over the vowels diate, and has no relation to the usefulness or injuriousness to E, I, and U. It shows that the vowel over which it is placed human happiness, of the objects contemplated.

Whatever difference of opinion may exist respecting the is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel; thus indicating, in reality, a distinct syllable, viz. :

origin of this faculty, it is universally admitted that men, in

all ages and countries, have judged some actions to be good Naiveté pronounced as if printed Na-ive-té. and deserving of approbation, while they have judged others Ouïr

Ou-ir.

to be bad and of ill desert. Poëte

Po-ete.

In all languages, we find words expressive of the ideas of

moral excellence, and moral evil. In the laws and penalties 28. HYPHEN.

established in all ages throughout the world, it is evidently

implied that some actions ought to be done, and others avoided. The Hyphen is a short horizontal mark, which is used to In cases of flagrant injustice or ingratitude, all men, of every connect words and syllables, viz. :

country and of every age, agree in their judgment of their moral A-t-il, Belles-Lettres, Celui-ci, Demi-kilomètre,

evil. There is, in regard to such actions, no more difference Fait-on, Suis-je, and Très-rarement.

in the judgment of men, than respecting the colour of grass,

or the taste of honey. If any man does not perceive grass to Its use in connecting syllables is precisely the same as in be green, or honey to be sweet, we do not thence conclude the English language; that is, when a word is divided, so that that men's bodily senses are not similarly constituted, but that a part of it is at the extreme right-hand of a page, and the the organs of the individual who does not see and taste as Iest at the extreme left.

other men do, are defective, or depraved by disease.

To determine whether all men have one original moral 29. APOSTROPHE.

faculty, the case proposed for their moral judgment should be

simply good or evil. For a complex act, in which there is The APOSTROFE is like a comma placed at the upper end something good and something evil, or rather where there of letters, instead of at the lower end, or at the bottom on a must be an accurate weighing of motives in order to ascertain line with the lower end.

the quality of the action, is not a proper test as to the existIts use is, to show the elision or cutting off a vowel before ence of a uniformity of moral judgment in men. Therefore,

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