quite a new light. Le Blant calls his work* a supplement to the “Acta Sincera” of Ruinart, the celebrated Benedictine of the seventeenth century, and indeed he follows much the same plan as his great master, but on a larger scale. He contrasts the acts of the martyrs with the Roman criminal code, a method of investigation which he has already made use of in his very able and fruitful memoir on the trial and crucifixion of our Lord. He shows by a multitude of details that the acts of the martyrs embody authentic documents to a much greater extent than has been usually admitted, and that they are of the greatest importance to the student of Roman law and history as contemporary records of criminal trials. It is impossible, of course, to give in our limited space any examples of Le Blant's method, but it is evidently most conclusive, as the ignorant monks of the Middle Ages could never have forged or imagined the minute coincidences with Roman organization and jurisprudence which Le Blant points out. A distinguished French scholar, M. Boissier,

. reviewing it some time ago in the Journal des Savants says of it: This work is indispensable to the church historian, but much more useful even to the historian of the empire and the student of Roman law. Some of his most curious pages have reconstructed the whole procedure of criminal law among the Romans, showing us the forms of interrogation and of condemnation, the conduct of the audience and of the officials.” Another great work has lately made a long stride towards completion. The “Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum” has now attained to the conclusion of the tenth out of the fourteen volumes originally projected. During the year 1883 volumes ix. and x. were published, containing between them more than 14,000 inscriptions from the southern half of Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia. Mommsen, the general editor of the whole series, does not desire to write at large upon ecclesiastical or Christian inscriptions, and yet, though he limits himself to the first six centuries, he is unable to exclude them wholly. These volumes are rich in curious inscriptions both Jewish and Christian. The Jewish inscriptions are specially important for the Church historian, as they represent the synagogue organization of Southern Italy in the fifth and sixth centuries. The connexion between the Church and the synagogue seems pretty evident. In the Corpus,t t. ix., we find inscriptions commemorating or mentioning Presbyters and Presbyteresses, Rabbis, Teachers, Rulers of the Synagogues, Father and Mother (Pater and Pateressa) of the Synagogue, and most notable of all “ Apostles.” Most of these offices and titles were discussed some time ago in Schürer's "Gemeindeverfassung der Juden in Rom in der Kaiserzeit.” This last title "Apostle,” however, sheds a new light

” upon the “Teaching of the Apostles,” which I described in my April article. Some critics have seen a reason for dating that document as early as the closing years of the first century, in its use of the term apostle as applied to a distinct class of mission teachers. The title as they think had not yet been appropriated to the twelve alone, and therefore this document must be very

* "Les Actes des Martyrs,” supplement aux “ Acta Sincera" de Dom Ruinart, par E. Le Blant. Paris. 1882.

+ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum," t. ix., t. x. Part. i. ii. Ed. Theodor Mommsen, Berolin. 1883.

early. But Mommsen's inscription, t. ix. num. 648, seems show that the Jews used the term till the sixth century for a special class of officials, a fact which is confirmed by the Theodosian legislation. Thus we find the Code* speaking not only of Jewish Presbyters, but also of those “ quos ipsi apostolos vocant,” as the seventeenth century critic Salmasius pointed out long ago in his notes on the writers of the Augustan history. It is however only right to mention that Mommsen is largely indebted for his Jewish inscriptions to the learned dissertations of Ascoli, read some few years ago before the Florence International Congress of Orientalists, and since published as a separate treatise.t The “Teaching of the Apostles has naturally occupied a good deal of attention both among home and foreign critics. It has been re-published in various shapes. In America it has been translated and published at the price of a few pence. At Leipzig Wünsche has published it with notes and translations at the low price of one mark, as J. J. Prins has also done at Leiden. Hilgenfeld has reviewed it in the third number of his Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Theologie in connection with an article on the “ Two Ways," published by Krawutzky, in the Tübingen Theologische Quartalschrift for 1882. He has also incorporated it with the new edition of his celebrated Novum Testamentum extra Canonem ; while Harnack, who, first of Western critics, noticed it in Schürer's Theologische Literaturzeitung, of February last, published it during June at Leipzig in the series ' edited by himself and Gebhardt, some portions of which I described in my last record. I Harnack's edition of the Aidaxú is divided into two parts; first, the text, with translation, notes and introduction, which has already appeared ; secondly, the Prolegomena, which will shortly appear. A brief account of this critical work will doubtless be acceptable to many. Harnack first gives the text of the Aidaxń accompanied by very exhaustive notes, a German translation, and an index of scriptural quotations and of ecclesiastical terms. This occupies seventy pages. We have then the introduction of the Prolegomena. He traces (pp. 1-24) the history of the document in question, both in the East and in the West. He then discusses its title, address and aim. He differs (p. 31) from Bryennius on this last point. The Bishop regards it as written by a Jewish Christian for the use of Jewish Christians. Harnack sees in the words of address “toTs Oveow," a conclusive proof that it was written by a Gentile Christian for the use of Gentile Christians; and in its contents a proof that it was written before any New Testament canon existed. On pp. 38-40, he offers a critical analysis of the document. On p. 63, he proceeds to the interesting question of the sources whence the author drew his materials. These were (1) the Old Testament; (2) a document called the Gospel ; (3) The Epistle of Barnabas ; and (4) the Shepherd of Hermas, and possibly the Gospel of St. John. He devotes twenty-five pages to an

. elaborate discussion of these various points. As to the Gospel used he

* Lib. xvi., Tit. viii., Lex 14, t. vi. p. 229. Ed. Gothofred. + “Iscrizioni, Greche, Latine, Ebraiche di Antichi Sepolcri Giudaici del Napolitano. Ed. G. I, Ascoli. Torino : Loescher.

“ Texte u. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Altchristlichen Literatur." Von Osc. von Gebhardt u. A. Harnack, ii. Bd. i. Hft. Lehre der Zwölf Apostel. Leipzig : Hinrichs. 1884.


maintains (p. 79) that it was a composite text, similar to our St. Matthew, but enriched out of St. Luke, and suggests that it may have been the Gospel of the Egyptians. From p. 88 to the end, he discusses the organization of the Church as revealed by the Aidaxń. His space permits him to treat only of apostles, prophets, and teachers. The nearest approach to this organization and to the earliest conception of the ministerial office, he sees, like Bunsen and all true Lutherans, in the Augsburg Confession of Faith. The views of English-speaking critics have been very diverse as to the age and authority of this document. An American writer influenced by its language about the sacraments has attributed it to a heretic of the fourth century ; Archdeacon Farrar and Dean Reichel, on the other hand, have assigned it to the first century, because of its statements about Church government.

Mr. Hatch has seen in it a confirmation of his own Bampton lectures, while Mr. Saddler, in the Guardian some weeks ago, urged some very acute reasons for dating it back to the earliest apostolic age. He ascribes it to the Jewish party in the early Church, and thinks it must have been written before the theology of St. Paul and St. Peter had permeated the entire Church ; a view which agrees with Baur's famous contention that early Christianity was Ebionite in doctrine, and that St. Paul was the true founder of Catholic theology. The discovery of this valuable work ought naturally to awaken a fresh interest in the libraries of the East. We may yet hope to recover the apologies of Aristides and Quadratus. That of Aristides was said to have been extant in a monastery of Mount Pentelicus near Athens so lately as the seventeenth century, while that of Quadratus was extant till the sixth century, when it was quoted by Eusebius of Thessalonica. Our hopes are raised the more in this direction by noting two facts. Last year the Wochenschrift für Klassische Philologie announced the discovery in a Greek convent of Justin Martyr's lost work “Concerning the Soul ;” while as to the richness of the mine to be worked, J. H. Mordtmann, one of our best authorities on Oriental literature, lately informed us in the first number of the Literatur-Blatt für Orientalische Philologie that the libraries attached to the forty-five principal mosques of Constantinople number no less than 62,152 volumes almost entirely in manuscript. A project has long been mooted to collect them into one central library, which Turkish poverty, to say nothing of Turkish ignorance and obstruction, will not I fear soon accomplish. No part of Europe is politically of greater interest than the Balkan peninsula; and yet no part is more unknown. To the student of ancient history and geography, of ethnography and of ecclesiastical history, the same district presents many a puzzling problem. The Manichean heresy is said to have lingered there till the last century. For aught we know, indeed, it may linger there still, for a paper read during last spring before the Society of Antiquaries, by Mr. A. J. Evans, shows that a still older religion, the worship of Jupiter and old Roman paganism, is not yet quite extinct there. The subject of his paper was “Scupi, or the birthplace of Justinian.” It embodied the results of several months' patient investigation on the spot last summer. In the course of it he mentioned that the inhabitants of the Turkish town of Skopia still venerate an ancient altar of Jupiter, dedicated originally by an ædile of the colony of Skupi, in the days of Roman glory. When drought threatens them they still pour libations of wine on it, as their Dardanian ancestors did fifteen hundred years ago. In the course of his paper

Mr. Evans controverted the views of one of the most learned of Austrian archæologists, whose investigations have shed much light on the civil and ecclesiastical history of the Balkan peninsula. In the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy for 1881-82, t. xcix. p. 437, Professor Tomaschek, of the University of Graz, published an article on this very same subject of Justinian's birthplace, where, while disagreeing with Mr. Evans on some points, he at the same tine strikingly illustrates the important results, philological as well as historical, supplied by investigations in that locality. In the same volume there also occurs a most interesting article by Dr. Moriz Hoernes, on the Antiquities of Herzegovina and Bosnia, where we are informed, p. 839, that the ancient cult of Dionysus lingers as yet in that locality. Among the works lately produced by English scholars, the volume of Dr. Swainson on the "Greek Liturgies” takes a leading position.* In this quarto of 395 pp. Professor Swainson makes accessible to students much that has been hitherto buried in the scarce volumes of Fabricius' “Codices Apocryphi Novi Testamenti,” of Goar, Renaudot, and of Joseph Aloysius Assemani. He presents the leading Eastern liturgies in nine different sections, including those of Saint Mark, Saint Chrysostom, and Saint James. He has also brought his work into connexion with the latest discoveries by inserting on p. xlv. of his preface the liturgical portions of the Διδαχή των Αποστόλων and has prefixed a preface where the student will find the result of much diligent labour in Messina, Rome and Paris. The Academy of May 3 had an able review of this work by the Rev. Professor Dowden, D.D., of Edinburgh, one of our best English liturgical scholars. Dr. Swainson has, I fear, in some places supposed too wide a knowledge of foreign literature on the part of his readers. He has made considerable use of a Greek MS. liturgy from Rossano, a town in Calabria. On page xvi of his preface he refers to an early MS. of the Gospels found there in 1879 by Messrs. Harnack and Gebhardt. It is written in silver uncials on a purple ground, and is enriched with some very early specimens of Christian pictures. But though he refers in a long note to it, he gives not a hint of the title of the work published by these scholars in 1880, called “Evangeliorum Codex Græcus Purpureus Rossanensis," where English students can see the illustrations and a fac-simile of the text. Dr. Swainson's preface might also well have been a little more helpful to the reader if he had given, as Renaudot did, a dissertation on the origin, authority, and use of the liturgies. It may be, however, that the conditions of publication prevented this, as his work is published by the University of Cambridge. Dr. Swainson's work would, on some minor points, have been somewhat more accurate, or, perhaps we might say, up to date, if he had used the “Catholic Dictionary" of Messrs. Addis and Arnold.t Dr. Swainson seems to think the Greek rite and Greek Roman Catholics as things of the past in Italy. Now this


* “ The Greek Liturgies, chiefly from Original Authorities." By C. A. Swainson, D.D., Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Londov : Clay & Son. 1884.

+ “A Catholic Dictionary." By W. E. Addis and Thomas Arnold. London : Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 1884.

Dictionary informs us on p. 822, in an article on “United Greeks,” that the followers of the Greek rite in Italy have three seminaries of their own, three bishops solely for their own use, not diocesan bishops, but like those of ancient Celtic Church, resident in monasteries and devoting their attention to their own followers wherever found in the South Italian dioceses; and, strangest of all, a married priesthood living in communion with the Pope, and that in Italy itself. This Dictionary estimates the number of United Greeks in Italy at 30,000, of whom 25,000 live in Calabria. This Dictionary is very useful as giving authoritative details of the organization of the Roman Catholic Church. But when it ventures beyond its own sphere it betrays a wonderful lack of critical power. Any kind of proof suffices to establish a charge against the English Church, while the articles on the Bull of Deposition, the Deposing Power and the Holy House of Loretto show what idea of historical criticism its authors have when applied to the conduct of their own friends. Much the same remark indeed applies to another work lately republished in England, though published originally some years ago in Rome.* Dr. W. Maziere Brady was formerly a clergyman of the Irish Establishment, where he ministered till the Act of 1869 destroyed its legal status. During his ministry he proved himself a very learned archæologist in matters pertaining to Irish Ecclesiastical History. He then joined the Roman Catholic Church, and now resides in the city of Rome, where he has devoted his energies to trace the succession of English and Irish bishops in obedience to Rome since the Reformation. His theory, as stated in his preface, is this :- The Roman rite alone, and not episcopal power, confers valid consecration. He discusses the case of Archbishop Parker's consecration, but determines that even if all the bishops who consecrated him had themselves been validly consecrated, “the claims of subsequent Protestant ordinations to validity would not be in the least advanced.” Dr. Brady, indeed, though a Roman Catholic, remains a genuine Irishman. He cannot help taking a kick at England in favour of Ireland. He dwells on the weak points of Parker's consecration, and points out, p. 22, how superior the Irish Church is in this respect, "inasmuch as the Irish orders of the

" Protestant Church recently disestablished can be traced to Hugh Curwin, Archbishop of Dublin, of whose ordination there was never any doubt entertained." The life and times of Swift have lately engaged much attention. Mr. Craik's life of the witty dean may seem to have exhausted all the facts of the case, and yet a work which has just appeared in Dublin sheds much new light on some disputed points in that strange career. Dean Swift, in virtue of his office as Dean of St. Patrick's, was also Rector of St. Bride's parish, in the City of Dublin. The present incumbent of that parish has now published a valuable work on the succession of the Rectors of St. Bride's, where he brings forward many facts hitherto unknown about Swift, Ussher, and the great Duke of Marlborough. This volume is enriched with a preface by the learned Dean of Armagh, the Very Rev. William Reeves, D.D., than whom no one is more competent to discuss questions of Irish antiquarian history. No student of the

* “Annals of the Catholic Hierarchy in England and Scotland, A.D. 1583–1876, with a Dissertation on Anglican Orders.” By W. M. Brady. London: Stark.

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