Intuition, an act of reason, 116.

Investigation, the tendency of action in the reflective faculties; its directions, 122—exemplified in the scientific traveler, the astronomer, the historian, the philologist, 123—in the mechanician, the chemist; its value in all the higher relations of thought, 124.

Judgment, identical with reason, 119.

Knowledge, the result of the action of • the {...". faculties, 21; actual, 22; verbal accuracy a false test of: true knowledge experimental and personal, 23. Language, a measure of power, 68; its value, 69 ; study of languages ancient and modern, of the English language, 98—100. Memory, the basis of reflective power; remembrance, 103; intellectual and moral offices of memory, recollection, 104; suggestive power of memory, 105; its susceptibility"of cultivation, 106. Method, importance of, to the teacher, 10. Methods, defective, of instruction, rearding the action of the reflective #. 127 : exemplified with reference to reading, arithmetic, geograhy, history, language, logic, intelectual and moral philosophy, 12: 134: appropriate methods for the discipline of the reflective faculties, 135–151. Modeling, its uses in training the perceptive faculties, 30. Models, false, in music; their injurious effects, 93. Monotony, evils of, in modes of training, 15. Music, as a discipline for the ear, 31; errors regarding it, 91–93. Nature, importance of early study of 20: universal susceptibility to its influence, effects of on mental character, 21 ; value of the study and observation of it, as a discipline of intellect, 40. Novelty, need of in modes of early training, 15. Objects, study of, with reference to color, form, measure, number, organization, 27–29. Observation, definition of 13; its influence as an instinctive intellectual tendency, 17 ; its effects as a habit, 18; chorished by early attention to clementary botany, geology, mineralogy, zoölogy, 19; habits of attentive ob! servation, how secured and confirmed, 41–46. Perception, definition of 13. Perceptive faculties, cultivation of 9; contemplated with reference to their classification, 12, 13; their actuating rinciple, 14–17; their tendency, 7–2s; the result of their action 21–26; their appropriate educational processes of exercise, development, and discipline, 26–55.

Personation, as a mode of expression, 66; exemplified in the successive stages of life, 67. Philosophy, mental importance of, to the teacher, 120. Plan necessary for the guidance of the teacher, 10. Processes, educational, for the discipline of the erceptive faculties, 12, 25–55; of the expressive, 80, 93– 100; of the reflective. iśl 151. Progressive intellection, law of 26; progressive discipline of the perceptive faculties, 33. Ratiocination, definition of 117. Reason. Toxolanatory remark, 111; etymology of the term; definiteness and certainty of action in this faculty, 112 ; its offices in definition and discrimination, its authority, 113; its cognizance of relations; its inventive character, 114; aberration of reason; uses of reason in analysis and abstraction, 115; intuition, inference, deduction, 116; generalization, induction, ratiocination, 117; reason, as cognizant of truth, as susceptible of cultivation, 118; judgment, understanding, 119. Recollection, definition of 104, 105. Reflective faculties, cultivation of; introductory observations; etymology of terms, 101: classification, 102; actuating principle, 121 : tendency, 122– 124; result, 125, 126; educational processes, 127–151. Remedies for errors regarding the cultivation of the expressive faculties, 9:3—100. Remembrance, definition of 103. Representation, a form of expression,

Repression, evils of 9. Revision, necessity of in the plan of education, 5, 6. Rhetoric, methods of teaching, 86. Sensation, definition of 12. Senses, discipline of; sight, color, 27; form, measure, number, 28; naturai objects, animated forms, 29; the ear, music, speech, 31. Speech and writing, results of discipline, 68. Taste, significance of the term; character of true taste, 69; its positive power; a subject of culture, 70. Teacher, his true point of view, 6; his aim in instruction, 9; his need of plan and method, 10; his place as an observer of the mind, 14; his proper business as its superintendent, 23. Truth, the result of the action of the reflective faculties, 125, 126. Understanding, its identity with reason, 119. Utterance, the tendency of the expressive faculties, 75–78. Variety, its importance in modes of culture, 15. Wonder, its analogy to curiosity, 15; its effects, 17.



BY will.i.AM RUssell,

Editor of the American Journal of Education (Boston,) 1826–29.

INTRoductory Observations.

Importance of the Study of Man's Moral Constitution.—The vital part of human culture is not that which makes man what he is intellectually, but that which makes him what he is in heart, life, and character. Intellectual cultivation, however, is a source of moral power to the individual, not merely in the mental aid which it enables him to render to others, but in that which it gives him for the understanding and government of himself. All intellectual training, therefore, is necessarily moral in its influence, so far as regards enlarged opportunity and power of intelligent, voluntary, and efficient action. It is only misguided ignorance, blinding prejudice, or perverted ingenuity, that would ignore or undo, in educational administration, the natural union of morality with intelligence.

A culture exclusively intellectual serves but to exhibit the skeleton of the mental frame, which moral influence is to furnish with the means and the power of action, and into which religious principle is to breathe the breath of life. But when moral culture assumes a separate and formal character, it ceases to be a living spiritual reality, and becomes but a mechanical routine of “the letter” which, we are told, “killeth.” No reliance for effective moral influence on disposition or character, can be safely placed on mere didactic inculcation or catechetical instruction. The oracles of Divine truth tell us, that the highest moral training—the spiritual—does not separate" admonition” from “nurture"—the life-giving influence—but combines the two in the educational process of “bringing up.” The true study of the human being, as a subject of meliorating culture, contemplates the child in the living unity of his whole nature. It regards him as an intelligent self-conscious, self-impelling, self-guiding, self-responsible agent, yet dependent on, and responsible to, the law of a higher power

* At the suggestion of Hon. Henry Barnard the following series of lectures has been transcribed from the author's general course on Human Culture, originally addressed to the students of the Merrimack, (N.H.) and New England, (Lancaster, Mass.) Normal Institutes. A previous series on Intellectual Education, may be found by referring to Vols. II., III, and IV., of this Journal.

than his own, which has summed up and defined his individuality in a conscious will. All careful investigation, however, in the mental, not less than in the physical world, implies an examination so close as to constitute a thorough analysis—not, in this instance, for the sake of a mere philosophic solution, but for the purpose of securing a true synthetic construction of life and character, by the better understanding, so obtained, of constituent elements and the influences which may best secure their living union and power. In every process of “instruction,” (in ward building.) the educator, whether parent or teacher, if he would work thoughtfully and successfully—if he would avoid laying upon the mental foundation of created capability a superstructure of “wood, hay, stubble,” instead of the “gold, silver, and precious stones” of true worth and value—is in duty bound to see to it that he attentively observe, and carefully study, the nature and constitution of the being, whose fabric of character it is his office to aid in building up. The educator must, in a word, thoroughly understand and appreciate the elements of human character. These must be familiar to him in all their relations, and in all their varied workings, that he may understand more fully the means and sources of healthy action and healthful regimen, which it is his duty to prescribe. True position of the Teacher as a Moral Educator.—Even to the youngest and least experienced of teachers, who wishes to acquit himself to the moral obligations under which he is professionally laid, equally to his pupils and himself, we would earnestly recommend not the practice of looking into some text-book of moral philosophy, for his own guidance, or for the instruction of his pupils, but—in the true spirit of an earnest, faithful, and intelligent instructor, who is aware that all he daily does or omits is a part of the effectual, living education of the subjects of his influence—the careful study and watchful observation of the moral indications and tendencies of his pupils, as intimating their capabilities and suggesting his measures and resources. It is his part to carry on, in successive stages, the sacred offices of parental love and wisdom, daily transferred to his charge, to be fulfilled in the sphere of the schoolroom, according to the measure of his judgment, his skill, and his benignity. But the proper home influence, though so often missing, is the true ideal of purpose, plan, and work, for the teacher; and, so far as regards moral results, in the schoolroom as at home, the appropriate influence must ever be that of an authoritative, affectionate, living, presence—not that of an inanimate book or a deadening routine. No one doubts that, to become a skillful cultivator of the intel

lectual capabilities.of his pupils, the instructor must understand the character and action of the intellectual faculties—not merely as these exist in the enumeration of particulars in a text-book of mental philosophy, but as they actually reveal themselves in the personal action and relations of the living pupil, in whatever concerns the use and exercise of his mind. The teacher must take the position not of a student of intellectual philosophy, ruminating in his study, but of a wakeful observer and inquirer into the phenomena of an actual, living specimen of the human mind, whose course is to be, in part, dependent on the fidelity of his observation, and the genial character of his influence. Our previous course of suggestions on the cultivation of the intellectual faculties, it will be recollected, assumed this ground as the appropriate and peculiar one of the teacher, and the only one on which he could justly be regarded as doing aright his professional work. The same ground we would claim for the teacher, when surveying the field of moral culture.


Recapitulation of Method.—The plan which we propose to adopt in the following series of lectures, will still be, as in the former series, that which places the teacher as a responsible personal observer and reporter on phenomena and facts; watching and aiding the progress of human development. Our survey of the field of intellectual cultivation, as founded on the nature and constitution of the human being, presented, (1.) it will be recollected, a given class of the mental powers and faculties, themselves, as subjects of examination; (2) the actuating principle, or mowing spring, of these powers; (3.) their perceptible natural tendency, or course of action; (4.) the results of their action; and, (5) the educational processes designed for their appropriate development. -

Following this plan, we avoid all mere theoretic speculation, and stand on the sure ground of observed fact—the only point of view for the discovery and recognition of truth, or the direction and guidance of the teacher. We thus, moreover, place the work of education in the teacher's own hands, as a charge devolving on him, not merely professionally, but personally, and laying him under his just responsibility, as an agent for others, and as one intrusted, in the capacity of temporary guardian, with the dearest of all human interests, and the best of all hopes—hopes extending even to a neverdying life.


Unity of Man's Moral Constitution.—Adopting the above method for our course of suggestions on moral education, we should proceed

to enumerate, as a class, the most prominent of the peculiar powers and faculties which constitute man a moral being, capable of moral influence, instruction, and development. But as every moral act involves the whole man—not merely the executive organ of muscle or nerve, intellect, heart or will, but all, in their living unity and active coöperation, we can not, as when examining the intellectual faculties, select any class or group of powers as exclusively constituting the moral capabilities of the human being. We must take into view his whole nature, comprehending, as it does, the vast range of his physical, intellectual, emotional, and voluntary attributes, in the personal constitution and organization of the individual. 1. HEAlth as an element of Moral Life.—Man's moral condition, and his capability of moral development, depend, in no slight degree, on that intimate connection which the Creator has ordained between soul and body. As a necessary condition of the unity of man's complex nature, wholeness of being is essential to whole and true, that is, normal action, whether of body, or of mind, or of both. Physical disorder, by its reáctionary character, disintegrates its subject as a moral agent, by withdrawing the executive organism from coöperation and consentaneous action, in subordination whether to the dictates of reason and conscience, the solicitations of feeling, or the normal activity of the will. Physical suffering, and its attendant involuntary irritation, are sufficient to overeast the clear healthy action of the judgment, to stifle the monitions of conscience, to change the natural current of affection, to generate angry passion, and propagate moral evil, to any extent—from the petty ebullitions of peevish temper, to the outbreaks of the fiercest anger, or of raving and furious insanity. Health, then, the educator must ever be careful to enumerate among the conditions of morality, whether the healthy state of the agent be owing to the normal sanity of mere bodily condition, or to that health of the higher nature, conscience, which, in man's fallen state, must so often be invoked, to rule the turbulent and rebellious tendencies of a morbid physical organization, and which, when enlightened, and strengthened, and purified, by supernal aid, is a surer reliance than the happiest condition of the best normal animal life.—To this branch of our subject we shall have occasion to refer more distinctly, under other heads, in the discussion of parental and educational influences. 2. INTELLEct, and its culture, important elements of Moral Life.— The vital fact of man's moral unity of constitution, involves the condition of his intellectual nature, as sound and true, or otherwise. The unhealthy condition of the bodily organism, is sufficient to subvert, as we have seen, the whole moral character of the fuman being,

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