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will not take morality by impression, as the cloud passes over the field and throws the shadow down. There must be training as well as teaching.
Dr. Thompson, of New York, thought the sentiment of the Institute was sound with regard to the important subject under consideration. The practice is what is demanded. One point he wanted attention called to. Lead not your pupils into temptation, said the speaker, and related an incident that came under his observation, where, in his opinion, the teacher led a scholar to tell a lie by the method he took in dealing with a delinquency.
Mr. Tollman, of Massachusetts, thought there was a greater difficulty in the way of teaching morals than that alluded to by the lecturer last evening, — the want of text-books, - and that is the want of moral teachers. Our committees examine candidates for teaching in other matters, but do they examine in morals? Do they ask, “ Is the teacher fit to be an example in morals ?” I have heard of many teachers in Massachusetts - good old State spoken of among all their scholars as being liars, and that everybody knew they were not to be trusted. What kind of influence can they have over their scholars on moral subjects ?
Hon. Joseph White. I do not expect to add but one very small contribution to the discussion of this morning. It is but a supplement to the most excellent truths to which we listened last evening.
I wish to call the attention of this Institute away from modes. It is often said we don't get anything practical at these meetings. The teacher who comes here, and asks for a mode of teaching morality, has not the alphabet of it himself and does not appreciate the object of these discussions. It is to get some general ideas here, and then go home and form the mode of carrying them out in his own mind, and in nothing more than in respect to morality. There is no morality, which is the second table of the law, but that which grows out of religion, which is the first table. If you expect the plant of morality to grow and flourish, you must sow à plant that will strike its roots down into the sub-soil of Christianity. Teach the little one to look up through the works of Nature to the God who is the Father of Nature; teach him that reverence which your own heart feels; teach him to feel and realize the paternal care of God over him, and to love and reverence God in all things, and morality will follow.
Always trust your boys. Never spere about to see whether a boy is doing wrong or not; never have a trap for a boy; wear your heart on the outside, as the soldier wears his badge of battle; and then love your children and teach morality, because it is for the good of the school. This is worth more than all the books that have been written since great and good men wrote the Bible.
If this discussion shall lead us to go home and agonize and pray over this matter, and shall lead us to act, it will be better than all the books ever written.
On the part of some in New England no effort is made to teach religion, lest we teach sectarianism; and there are some who do not wish any religion at all taught. So we have driven God out of the school-room. Let us pray him back again.
Mr. Clarke, of New York, said, that, in the schools, morality is not on the programme of studies; and if the teacher spends his time in teaching morality, he cannot get any credit for it on the rolls of the school at the examination. Thus the teachers feel hampered.
A recess of ten minutes was taken, after which Dr. E. O. Haven, of Michigan, lectured on the following subject, “ The Indirect Benefits of School Education."
The members, together with a large number of friends, assembled at the Hall at 2 1-2 o'clock.
The meeting was called to order by the President, who introduced Miss Melvina Mitchell, of the State Normal School of Westfield, Massachusetts.
Miss Mitchell then addressed the audience, illustrating on the black board in a most interesting manner an admirable mode of giving lessons in physiology, — the human figure, with the bones and the principal organs drawn with great rapidity and correctness, and the differe parts faithfully but simply described.
The clear and simple manner with which the young lady presented her subject was highly gratifying, and kept her large audience almost spell-bound. As she closed, she was most warmly applauded. Her lecture, and the manner in which it was delivered, were the subject of earnest compliment by the ablest members present.
A discussion of the subject then occurred.
Mr. Dickinson, Principal of the Westfield Normal School, Massachusetts, said that the principle on which the mode of teaching rests, as presented by Miss Mitchell, is that the whole duty of the teacher consists in presenting occasions to the pupil for his having knowledge and mental activity; it is not to do the work for him in any degree. Having knowledge and mental activity constitutes education itself. Therefore the teacher should study to present objects in such a manner that the pupil can be conscious of having the objects before he has the names of them.
In reciting in the way exhibited, there is this advantage. If the pupil describes the form of an object by a drawing at the same time that the object is described in words, I know pretty well that he has a correct idea of that which the words describe. If he uses only one mode of description, I cannot be sure that he understands the subject. I am satisfied and easy, if he either by natural objects selects one that has the form of that which he is describing, or if he by the black-board and chalk will represent that which he is describing.
Some other advantages of this method of delineating the objects described were mentioned by Mr. Dickinson, as the cultivation of the power of expression, the necessity of fixed attention, and the improvement of the memory. Lessons to be thus recited will be better learned and longer retained.
President Cowles, of Elmira College, New York, gave his full indorsement to the method of teaching presented by Miss Mitchell. He had himself employed a similar method in teaching drawing, and he was satisfied it could be properly used in common schools.
Dr. Lambert, of New York, thought the very admirable manner in which the exercise had been conducted was a sufficient testimony to its excellence. Argument is not wanting when we have seen with our own eyes the excellence of the exercise before us. Dr. Lambert spoke of an institution near York, Pennsylvania, conducted by Dr. Hays, where for fifteen or twenty years he has been in the habit of carrying this method of instruction to an extreme. He provides in his school a black-board for each young lady, and she is required to write out and draw, as well, the oral instructions he gives, and to present upon the boards the various subjects to be illustrated in the course of his instructions.
A letter was received from the Rev. Charles Brooks, of Medford, Massachusetts, upon the subject of a national system of education.
Charles Brooks, Joseph White, D. N. Camp, Zalmon Richards, and A. P. Stone, were appointed a committee to consider
he subject brought to the notice of the Institute by the letter of Mr. Brooks, and report at the next annual meeting.
Mr. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, submitted the following resolutions on the death of Samuel Pettes, of Roxbury, Massachusetts, and paid an eloquent and feeling tribute to his memory :
Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty Ruler of events to remove by death Samuel Pettes, Esq., of Roxbury, Massachusetts, for many years a member of this Institute: therefore,
Resolved, That, in the death of Mr. Pettes, this Association has lost one of its earliest and most valuable members.
Resolved, That we recognize and hereby express our high estimate of his noble character, and the deep interest he always exhibited in the cause of education, both as a member of the Institute and in the general relations of life.
We recall with sad pleasure the many noble personal qualities of our deceased companion and friend, and sympathize most deeply with the family, who have been called to mourn the loss of one tenderly devoted to them and to the best interests of mankind during a long life of usefulness and duty.
Mr. Averill seconded the resolutions with some appropriate remarks and personal reminiscences of the deceased, after which the resolutions were unanimously adopted.
Domingo Francisco Sarmiento, Minister of the Argentine Republic, addressed the Institute, — Mr. Greenleaf, of New York, acting as interpreter.
ADDRESS OF MR. SARMIENTO.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN :
I am sorry in not being able to address, in English, the American Institute of Instruction. Speaking to the first and most intelligent masters in the world, I am not willing to