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region of the South and Southwest, as it lies now spread out before you wasted and spent, its fields ravaged, its towns and villages desolated, and its people decimated by sickness, exilė, and the march of armies. Can you doubt that there is to be a most thorough and radical change in the condition of its population, and the economical disposition of property and business there? That odious monopoly of lands in the hands of a few cotton-growers, those immense plantations which have heretofore been tilled by the forced labor of the slave, are to be among the things of the past. The same economy of small farms which we find at the North and in the Middle States, and managed by free labor, are, in time, to take the place of these. And these farms are to be open to the freedman and the emigrant, while the race reared in idleness, and trained up in the superciliousness of slave-power, together with the ignorant and downtrodden “white trash” who have grown up under the blighting shadow of slavery, will give place to the skill of the artisan, the industry of busy thrift, and the cheerful toil of those who have awakened to the new life of freedom and of manhood.

There is one other view to be taken of this part of our subject. The changes which these suggestions contemplate, are, indeed, to supply the bone and muscle of a vast and growing multitude strong in all the physical powers and capacities of man.

But from

whence is to come the educated brain, whence the culture that civilizes and refines, and is to fit them for the duties and responsibilities of citizens and freemen ? We read in our story-books of giants with iron frames and matchless strength, being led and held in willing bondage by some gentle child of cunning skill and winning art. But where are we to look for the gifted genius, the gentle power, which are to guide and control this future American giant ?

The generation that is to occupy these fields, to rule in these States, and to wield the future destinies of the South, if we would have them freemen and free American citizens, must be educated. The brain to do this is to be supplied somewhere. And where, in all our land, can we look for it with so much confidence as here among the schools and colleges of New England ? Regarded only in the light of political economy, this thought has a more important bearing than may, at first, seem obvious. There are, in a territory so vast as ours, certain large and important centres of business and influence, which are practically recognized, and seem destined to assume a more fixed and decided character in the progress of the country. There are to be certain great marts of the West for carrying out the trade and commerce peculiar to that region. So with the cotton States. Pennsylvania, with her mineral resources, commands great and peculiar elements of trade and wealth ; while New York is centralizing to itself the general commerce of the entire nation. We have here, in New England, few of these auxiliaries of soil, position, or natural resources. But the history of the American Colonies and of the American Republic is full of evidence, that, somehow or other, the voice of New England has always been heard and heeded in the councils of the nation, beyond the relative rank of numbers and wealth. Nor have we much difficulty in ascertaining the cause of this, if we stop to analyze the character of those who made these rugged fields and this bleak climate their home. It was the free Puritan spirit, giving life and activity to vigorous minds, prolific in expedients, and bold to execute great conceptions, that fitted the fathers of New England for the work of founding an empire. And the race that sprung from this seed has never lost the germinal principle with which such an ancestry was imbued. Inventive art has been busy in subduing Nature, and turning the elements into sources of wealth. The ready hand of labor, guided by the cunning skill of trained and cultivated minds, has been laying here the deep and sure foundations of social and individual independence, while the crowded condition of our population, compared with that of the West and South, has led to a wide and continuous emigration from this New-England hive into the wilder and richer regions which are there opened to enterprise. Where can we go, in all this vast continent of ours, that we do not find the busy, painstaking, reading, thinking, and thriving Yankee ? Brain-culture seems to be the proper business of a people situated as these are.

Nor have we any reason to envy the sources of trade and commerce and wealth of any other region of our country, so long as we can rear up for export, a crop of intelligent, educated men to supply the market for brain, which is becoming more and more a national necessity, as our country fills up from foreign emigration, which is to share it with her own native children.

And if an earnest assurance were wanted that the heart and brain which is to supply this demand is already being actively educated, and sensitively alive to the solemn ministry to which it is to be consecrated, we should find it in the tone of almost

every address made, or sentiment uttered, in every public exercise since the fall of Richmond, in every school, academy, or college, in New England. Questions which before that scarce the wisest dared to grapple with, have been made the themes of declamation and intense feeling before crowded assemblies; and passionate words of right and duty, in view of the new attitude which social and political relations have assumed in the changes wrought out by this Rebellion, have been echoed by the cheers of an equally passionate and earnest audience. These may not all

savor of wisdom or prudence, but they are unmistakable indications of the resistless energy which has been aroused in the educated brain not only of the schools and colleges of New England, but of the thinking, acting masses of her people.

It is the men born here, reared and trained and educated here in our schools and our colleges, on our farms and in our workshops, who are to go forth into these regions where war has been making such havoc, to shed new light upon a people's mind, to give dignity to labor, to teach by example as well as precept, to plant the school-house, to rear the church, to spread abroad a love of books, and awaken an interest and a curiosity in the minds of the unlettered. It is in this way that the North may work upon the ruder metal of the Southern mind, and at length, from even the discordant elements of the North and South and East and West, may form and fashion an adamantine chain of national ties and sympathies, whose links no violence can break, nor art can sever.

I have no occasion, for my present purpose, to exaggerate the

power

of an educated brain in restoring, reforming, and reinvigorating the regions over which is seen the track of war.

There will spring up a verdure deeper and richer than ever before marked the spot where our sons and brothers are sleeping beneath the sod on which they fell in many a battle-field of the South. Nor will it need any

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