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monument of art, beyond the green turf and the tender wild-flower with which Nature will deck their last resting-place, to tell the inquirer where the brave men of the loyal States laid down their lives in the cause of their country and of human rights.

So it will be in the fields of moral and intellectual culture which are now opening to the laborer in the sunny region of the South. There will spring up there an influence as soft, as beautiful, and as lifegiving as ever came forth when the breath of Spring was seen in the wakening forms of beauty along the vale or on the hill-side, in the institutions of learning and benevolence which the men of the North will plant and rear there.

And now, in closing, let me remind you that no little share of this great and mighty work is for you, and those who are to fill your places, to accomplish. You are to stimulate that brain, you are to nationalize that heart, you are to train the men who are to go forth in God's strength to do battle, like the knights of old, with ignorance and oppression, with the spirit and fruits of slavery and barbarism.

Let no one, then, as he gathers his little group of young immortals around him, and remembers that he is to them a pattern as well as a teacher, ever again feel that his task is an irksome or a thankless one. There may be no record of what you are doing kept here on earth. There

may

be

no monument of bronze

or marble to mark where you rest, when your last vacation shall come. But over this whole nation there will be scattered living records and living monuments of the good you shall have accomplished, in the educated mind whose power you helped to train, whose love of liberty you helped to quicken, and whose power to guide and govern others you helped to develop by your influence and example.

LECTURE IV.

DYNAMIC AND MECHANIC TEACHING.

BY PROF. W. P. ATKINSON.

FELLOW-TEACHERS,

AND LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: MR. CARLYLE, in one of those beautiful early essays of his which we can all read with so much pleasure, - would that the utterances of his old

age were as worthy of his genius !* — says, “ There is a science of dynamics in man's fortune and nature, as well as a science of mechanics. There is a science which treats of, and practically addresses, the primary, unmodified forces and energies of man, the mysterious springs of love, and fear, and wonder, of enthusiasm, poetry, religion, all which have a truly vital and infinite character; as well as a science which practically addresses the finite, modified developments of these, when they take the shape of motives, as hope of reward, and fear of punishment."

* The whole tone of Mr. Carlyle's later writings, his worship of brute power, or of mere intellectual ability, as exemplified in his elaborate attempts to turn such a man as Frederic into a hero, above

He is dealing in these remarks with a wider subject, but I wish to make them the text, in the time that is allotted to me here, of some brief remarks on education, in respect to which they seem to me to be equally true and applicable. He goes on to say, a little extravagantly,

“In former times the wise men, the enlightened lovers of their kind, who appeared as moralists, poets, or priests, did, without neglecting the mechanical province, deal chiefly with the dynamical; applying themselves chiefly to regulate, increase, and purify the inward primary powers of men, and fancying herein lay the chief difficulty and best service they could undertake. But a wide difference is manifest in our age. For the wise men who now appear as political philosophers deal exclusively with the mechanical province. * But though mechanism, wisely contrived, has done much for man in a social and moral point of view, we cannot be persuaded that it has ever been the chief source of his worth or happiness. * Man's highest attainment is accomplished dynamically, not mechanically.” *

In criticising educational theories and institutions, it has seemed to me that no broader or more instructive classification could be made than this into dynamic and mechanic theories, into those methods, which, in the spirit of the extract I have been read

*

all, his distrust of free institutions, as exemplified in his angenerous utterances respecting America, and his atrocious sentiments as to the black race, excite in his old admirers, at least on this side of the ocean, a feeling of indignation not a little mingled with contempt.

* Carlyle's Miscellanies; Essay on the Signs of the Times.

ing, address the primal forces of our nature, endeavoring to call them out and bring them into voluntary and free activity, and those which, relying on outward machinery, cultivate those superficial aptitudes, those surface instincts and habits, which may make a skilful craftsman in art, or learning, or science, but can never form a commanding mind or an original character. And as the ever-pressing claims of practical life tend always to promote the latter form of education, and to discourage the other, and preëminently in a new country like this of ours, it can never be out of place to bring forward those considerations which prove that a true education, even though we have respect to its practical bearings, must always be of the first kind.

A teacher addressing teachers need never apologize for entering into the practical details of his profession. In my reading in the literature of education, it has been my experience to find a great deal too much of vague, or else of incontrovertible and very wearisome generalities; far too little of the record of practical observation. But I am convinced that if ever there shall be a true science of education for I do not think that can be said to exist at present - it is to be an inductive science, based on a wide-extended observation and record of particulars. I look for no true psychology that is not an inductive psychology ; and the art of education is but an applied psychol

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