amount, so that what is to be done may be and must be done with a much greater degree of thoroughness, or at least by making it an essential condition of admission, that, in addition to the present requirements, the candidate be obliged to sustain an examination of the most critical character on two orations in Cicero, and on one Book in the Anabasis, the examination to involve a thorough acquaintance with all forms, idioms, constructions, and all other topics properly belonging to the portions named. Either of these modifications will at once indicate to the pupil that he has much to attend to besides the mere reading of his authors and a general knowledge of syntax, and will give a new and muchneeded incentive to thorough classical study in the preparatory schools.

Prof. Thatcher, of Yale College, thought there had been an inclination of late years to take some new methods of acquiring Latin, as some would learn French and German, by a very unphilosophical method, an Ollendorff method, a baby method, of studying Latin, with translations it may be, or by other helps, which shall hurry the pupil to the knowledge and use of Latin by a swift process. He thought all these short cuts to a knowledge of Latin and Greek to be founded in error as to the object of study. The object of studying Latin is not to learn Latin; if he thought the object was to learn Latin, and be a master of Latin, he would give it up, and pronounce it a failure. The object is not attained.

The object of classical study is to make scholars in the first place. It ought to be the object in the institutions of the country that take the lead in education, to foster scholarship and raise up a generation of scholars. Scholarship demands knowledge, the discipline of the mind, the cultivation of the intellectual man, to say nothing of the moral man, nothing of the heart; for this, definite and exact knowledge is necessary. No one can be a proper student of Latin or Greek without exact knowledge, knowledge of the minutest facts. The mind is sharpened by taking hold of the minutest facts, and having them distinct and classified as the printer classifies type, so that the mind knows them with a certainty that does not admit of a doubt. All knowledge is embraced in comprehensive scholarship. The object to be pursued in a university is this scholarship. But, secondly, it requires not merely this knowledge, but such a discipline of the mind that the mind itself not only holds the knowledge, but has a power of its own. This scholarship involves a discipline of the several powers of the mind. To be an authority in scholarship embraces knowledge and the power to express, and so the power to influence.

This may seem, in a measure, to be contradictory to the statement that the object of studying Latin is not to learn Latin. He who knows Latin and Greek has in that knowledge valuable possessions. So far as the object is to secure scholarship, the study of Latin has an object in itself. Besides this, there is a greater object in a university education; and that is, to make men. With that understanding of the object, I never lose faith in any school which teaches aright; for he who studies Latin in the way presented here by Dr. Taylor grows a man. Classical study, tempered as it should be with other studies, produces a greater transformation of the human mind than any other. There is no so great change in the human mind as that produced in the four years of college study. The contemplation of the change wrought in the mind of youth who are passing through a course of education is grand. How is the second object of the study to be attained ? It cannot be attained by the processes which would shorten or change the present method of studying

Latin, as it has been presented here, because such processes are not those by which the mind is best trained; and this training of the mind rather than storing it with knowledge is that which turns a boy into a man.

Now what is that process ? It is manifold; it is beautiful to contemplate in its variety. There is the acquisition of definite knowledge; but what is a mere knowing man? Have you not met such a one ? But he has no power. He knows everything, and that is the end of him. He may be a store-house of knowledge, and yet have no influence. He can answer a question, but has no mental power. But the study of the Greek and Latin by the old methods secures, on the one hand, that accurate and definite knowledge; and, on the other, it cultivates by a continually repeated process all the faculties of the mind. He who pursues such a course is not helped by keys to the construction of a sentence, or the meaning of a particular word in it. He may decide for himself what a particular word means in a particular sentence. If he is told, the study, so far as that goes, is good for nothing. His decision for himself is the secret of the value of classical study. His judgment is cultivated by deciding for himself. Not in a single instance, any more than the strength is increased by a single exercise in a gymnasium. In a gymnasium he is told to lift himself with his hands by a bar. If somebody lifts him, it would be as great an advantage as to have a key or translation. Those repetitions of the exercise of the judgment every day for four years, when a young man is called up to recite and decide some point that comes up in the recitation-room, cannot fail to improve the mind, and produce such a refinement of its powers as nothing else can bring. I trust this Institute will not urge any kind of training which will cast out these gymnastic processes, which are so essential to the refinement of the mind, and to that addition to the store of knowledge which the old methods are adapted to secure. I do not believe there is any other process by which the mind can be furnished up to a high grade for this world's work than by a course of classical training.

Mr. A. P. Stone, Principal of the Portland High School, Maine, said, There are two theories in New England: one, that you are to take up the Latin Grammar and learn everything, in coarse type and fine, before you begin to make any use of the principles acquired. The other theory is, that you shall take up a noun of the first declension and learn a few of the leading peculiarities of nouns of that declension, and then take

up the verb and begin to combine words in sentences. Some teachers ask why all the matter found in the grammar is placed there, if it is not to be learned ? I consider the grammar a complete book for reference, having everything relating to any particular subject arranged under one head.

I am glad to learn the views of the gentleman who has just spoken with regard to the Ollendorff method. If a student were to learn Latin from that system, and an old Roman should hear him speaking, he would have about the same impression that the French emperor had when in a certain city he was received by an Irish dignitary who made an attempt to express himself in the French language. The emperor excused himself from replying, with the regret that he did not understand the Irish language. I like some of the ideas in Arnold's series of books, such as that of taking up some of the principles relating to nouns, and then the verbs, for the purpose of being able to use the grammar as fast as it is learned. Thus the interest of the pupil is kept up.

Mr. Boltwood, of Illinois, would like to know what is to be done with a large class of scholars who never intend to take up a college course, with whom the prime object is to study the Latin to a certain extent, for the purpose of aiding their comprehension of the English.

Professor Thatcher said that those acquainted with the German schools know that no German teacher would think of carrying students in six years over the ground over which our schools carry them in three or four. It is extremely desirable to diminish the amount of Greek and Latin while we increase the amount of knowledge of the principles. I think that colleges are gradually coming up to the proper point, and are making more strict examinations of candidates. At our recent examination, a majority of the applicants were rejected. Out of one hundred and nineteen, only fifty-two were admitted. There is this difficulty, that we require of boys in school not only to learn the construction of the Latin, but also to learn the literature to the extent given in the curriculum of the colleges. It would be a difficult matter to make a sudden revolution. In Yale College the amount of “stuff,” so to speak, has been reduced, while we have aimed to increase the thoroughness of the instruction.

Dr. Taylor said he was aware of the difficulty of the proposed change; and on that ground would not change the amount required at present, but would make the test on a certain amount.

On motion by Mr. Greenleaf, of Brooklyn, Dr. Taylor was requested to write out his views, as presented, for publication in the proceedings of the Institute.

Mr. Sawyer, of Middletown, said, Many of us are shut up, in the preparatory course for college, to send up our students, obliging them to say we have not gone over the course pre

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