JULY 1, 1790.]

Public Debt.

[H. OF R.

day of

day of

the sovereign thereof, into any port or place within extraordinary indeed; and if they should be the United States, the vessels belonging wholly or in adopted, they will annihilate in a great measure part to the subjects of such sovereign, shall after the the trade of Georgia to the West Indies, and he

during the continuance of such believed of North Carolina too, notwithstand; prohibition, be prohibited from bringing like articles ing what the gentleman from that State has said into the United States, on pain of being seized and in the course of debate on this subject. He forfeited to their use. of all foreign vessels clearing from any port of the thought it extraordinary that the gentleman froin United States, with any articles, the growth; poi tionable proposition after another; the gentle

Virginia should come forward with one excepsufficient security, that no part of the said articles man having lost one favorite proposition, so shall be delivered at any port or place to which ves- tenacious is he of his object, that he now.brings sels belonging to citizens of the United States may forward another, in my opinion, full as excep. not be permitted to transport like articles from the tionable. United States.

The question being taken was carried in the And be it further enacted, That in all cases where affirmative; the committee rose, and reported vessels belonging to citizens of the United States the propositions, which are to be taken into may be prohibited by the laws or regulations of that consideration to-morrow. foreign country from carrying thereto articles not

INTEREST OF PUBLIC DEBT. the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States, the vessels belonging wholly or in part to the

The House then went into a Committee of the subjects, citizens, or inbabitants of such country whole on the report of the committee making shall, after the

and during the con provision for the payment of interest on the tinuance of such prohibition, be prohibited in like debts of the United States, Mr. Boudinot in manner from bringing any articles not the growth, the chair. produce, or manufacture of such country into the Some time was spent in the consideration of United States, on pain of being seized and forfeited the plan reported by Mr. FITZSIMONS; but not to their use.

coming to any decision, the committee reportThese propositions being considered as very ed progress, and had leave to sit again. interesting and important in their consequences, it was moved that the committee should rise, that

THURSDAY, July 1. the members might take time to consider them. The motion for the committee's rising was


The engrossed bill further to provide for the Mr. WADSWORTH asked, what reason could payment of the invalid pensioners of the United be assigned for the committee's rising? For States was read the third time and passed. his part, he was ready to meet the propositions. The petition of John Fitch was presented, He believed he should vote for them. He con- praying for an exclusive privilege to use steam sidered them as calculated to try the strength for purposes of navigation in the United States of the committee. It is coming to the point; for a limited time. Ordered to lie on the table. it is proposing a very bold measure indeed; but

MILITIA. if it is thought we can stand the shock, I shall have no objection to try it. I hope the comed for the purpose, presented a bill more effec

Mr. BOUDINOT, from the committee appointmittee will proceed to discuss the propositions. tually to provide for the national defence by esta

Mr. VINING observed, that he had no objec-blishing a uniform militia throughout the United tion to taking up the subject; but as gentlemen States, which was twice read and committed. appeared desirous of taking time to consider

FEES OF CONSULS. the propositions, he was in favor of the committee's rising. With respect to the “bold

Mr. Gerry, from the committee appointer ness” of the measure, he was at a loss to find to report whether any and what fees, &c. shall the propriety of the epithet; for his part, he be annexed to the offices of consul' and viceconsidered it as a measure of firmness, and as consul, made a report, which was read and orsuch highly becoming the National Legislature dered to lie on the table. of this country to adopt.

CENSUS. Mr. SHERMAN observed that he saw nothing A message from the Senate informed the that favored of boldness in the propositions; they House, that they had passed the bill for giving appeared to him to be natural, and nothing more effect to an act providing for the enumeration than a proper assertion of the equal rights of of the inhabitants of the United States, in rethis country. It is merely meeting with coun. spect to Rhode Island. ter regulations the regulations of other coun-

INTEREST OF PUBLIC DEBT. tries that are hostile to our interests; this we have a right undoubtedly to do. I hope the com

The House again went into a committee on mittee will not rise, but discuss the subject, that the report of a committee making provision for the merits of the propositions may be fullyknown. the payment of interest on the debts of the

Mr. Goodhue spoke generally in favor of the United States, Mr. Boudinot in the chair. propositions, and against the committee's rising. The committee came to several resolutions,

Mr. JACKSON was in favor of the committee's which they reported to the House. They were rising. The propositions he considered as very there read, and ordered to lie on the table.

H. OF R.]

Seat of Government.

(JULY 6, 1790.



per lb,

Friday, July 2.

hands and seals, respectively, to receive the sum of


That citizens of the United States, appointed to A message from the Senate informed the reside in foreign ports and places, as Consuls or Vice House that they had passed a bill for establish-Consuls of the United States, shall be enabled to own ing the temporary and permanent seat of the any ships or vessels in their own names, or in partner Government of the United States, to which they ship with any other citizen of the United States, redesire the concurrence of this House. The siding within the said States, and be entitled to all bill was twice read and committed.

the privileges and advantages, in respect to such INTEREST OF PUBLIC DEBT.

ships or vessels, as if such Consuls or Vice Consuls, The House proceeded to consider the Report resided within any port or place within the United

respectively owning said ships or vessels, actually of the Committee of the whole on the Report States. making provision for the payment of interest on the debts of the United States: Where

Ordered, That a bill or bills be brought in

pursuant to the said resolution; and that Mr. upon,

GERRY, Mr. BouDINOT, Mr. HUNTINGTON, Mr. Resolved, That an addition of thirty-three and one. Wadsworth, and Mr. GoodHue, do prepare third cents be made to every dollar of duties now and bring in the same. payable on goods, wares, and merchandises imported

Ordered, That it be referred to the said cominto the United States.

That, in addition to the foregoing, there be levied mittee, to report a provision, and collected upon the following articles:

That, in foreign ports, where the laws of the

Kingdom or State make it necessary that vessels Distilled spirits

should enter by the medium of a Consul, and where

1 2-3 per gall. the laws of such Kingdom or State have determined Madeira wine


that certain fees shall be paid to such Consuls, the Other wines

Consul of the United States shall be authorized to re: Molasses


ceive such fees; and also to report what further proBohea tea

2 Souchong and other Black teas 4 1-2

vision may, in the opinion of the said committee, be Hyson tea,

5 1-3

necessary for Consuls and Vice Consuls of the United

States." Other Green teas

4 2-3 Coffee


1-6 Brown sugar

MONDAY, July 5. Loaf sugar


Mr. LAWRENCE presented a petition from All other sugars


sundry persons confined for debt in the jail of Pepper


the county and city of New York, praying that Pimento


a general bankrupt law may be passed by Nutmegs


Congress. Mace


Ordered, To lie on the table. Cinnamon


[The Anniversary of American Independence Cloves

12 1-2

being celebrated to-day, an early adjournment took Cassia


place.] Resolved, That, after the day of the discount of ten per cent. of the duties on goods, wares, and merchandise, imported in ships or ves

TUESDAY, July 6. sels, the property of a citizen or citizens of the Uni

SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. ted States, be discontinued, and that an addition of The House resolved itself into a Committee ten per cent. be made to the duties on goods, wares, of the whole on the bill sent from the Senate for or merchandise, imported in any other ship or ves establishing the temporary and permanent seat sel.

of the Government of the United States, Mr. Ordered, That a bill or bills be brought in Boudinot in the chair. pursuant to the said resolutions; and that Mr. Mr. SHERMAN. -As this bill respects the perFitzsimons, Mr. Tucker, and Mr. SHEŘMAN, manent residence of the Government, which is do prepare and bring in the same.

an iinportant subject, it ought to be a matter of

inquiry, Whether the place proposed is the real FEES OF CONSULS.

centre of population and territory or not? He The House proceeded to consider the report thought it was too far Southward. He moved of the committee appointed to consider and re- therefore, that the Potomac should be struck port whether any, and what, fees, perquisites, out, and a district to include the town of Baltior other emoluments, shall be annexed to the more be inserted. offices of Consul and Vice Consul: Where- Mr. BURKE seconded this motion. upon,

Mr. Lee desired the gentleman to inform Resolved, That it shall and may be lawful for all the committee where he meant the temporary Consuls and Vice Consuls of the United States, for residence should be, provided this motion should every protest or deposition, relative to letters of at- be carried. torney, goods, wares, and merchandise, bills of ex- Mr. SHERMAN said, he had no objection to change, and other marine and mercantile affairs and making Philadelphia the temporary residence, transactions, with a certificate thereof, under their as soon as it was convenient. He then menJULY 6, 1790.]

Seat of Government.

[H. OF R.

tioned several particulars which would render whence all parts of the Union may be equally it inconvenient to go there at present.

benefited. From these considerations, he deMr. HUNTINGTON said, that the only reason duced the necessity of placing the Government for removing, which he had ever heard, was, in a central situation. He observed, that while that this place is not so central. If there is any the present position continued to be the seat of force in the reasoning, he wished not to go to a Government, the agriculture of the States to place less central. He adverted to the mode of the Eastward is invigorated and encouraged, conveyance to this place, generally adopted by while that to the Southward is languishing and members to get to the seat of Government. He expiring. He then showed the fatal tendency supposed that the present centre was some of this preponderating encouragement to those where between Philadelphia and Baltimore; parts of the country, already considered as the but the place contemplated is very much re- strongest parts of the Union-and from the namoved from the centre, more than three hun- tural operation of these principles he inferred dred miles West. With respect to centrality, that the interest of the Southern States must be he said that it is not an idea which predominates eventually swallowed up. The decision of the in regard to any other country of which he Senate, said he, affords a most favorable opporknew any thing respecting the geography; other tunity to manifest that magnanimity of soul, and various important considerations operated which shall embrace, upon an extensive liberal in fixing the seat of Government.

system, the best interest of the great whole. Mr. White observed, that if this House was This cannot be done, while the present unequal alone to be consulted, on the principle of ac- situation of the seat of Government of the Unicommodation, Baltimore might answer; but ted States continues. Nations have their paswhen it is considered that this bill originated in sions as well as individuals. He drew an alarmthe other House, who have an equal voice with ing picture of the consequences to be appreus in determining the question, and in which hended from disunion, ambition, and rivalship. this place has been repeatedly rejected, it is He then gave a pleasing sketch of the happy evident, that, if the clause is struck out the bill effects to be derived from a national, generous, will be lost. He then controverted the calcu- and equal attention to the Southern and Northlations of the gentleman last speaking, and statern interests. Will gentlemen, said he, blast ed the difference of travel between the Southern this prospect by rejecting the bill? I trust they and Northern distances, which is made to be as will not. four and one-half to one; but he said, that so He then entered into the merits of the quesfar as respected himself, he should make no tion. The States of Delaware, Pennsylvania, difficulty on that account; but the accommoda- Maryland, and Virginia, which contribute more tion of the citizens who may have business at than one-half to the revenue, and which have the seat of Government is a consideration of the only rival claim to the permanent seat of very great importance. With respect to the Government are satisfied with the arrangement uncentral situation of the seat of Government in the bill. That Philadelphia is the nearest in other countries, this arose from the mere centre of the present wealth and population of whims of the Sovereigns of those kingdoms; the United States, the gentlemen from New but modern policy has obliged the people of York themselves will confess; the Potomac European countries, (I refer particularly to will become the nearest centre for a permanent Great Britain,) to fix the seat of Government residence probably by the period proposed-to pear the centre of trade. It is the commercial oppose this, therefore, will be acting from mereimportance of the city of London, which makes lý local motives. it the seat of Government; and what is the The gentleman moves to insert Baltimore. consequence London and Westminster, though Mr. L. insisted that Baltimore is as far South they united send only six members to Parlia- as the place proposed, besides being exposed by ment, have a greater influence on the measures its frontier position on the sea; we are not conof Government than the whole empire besides. fined, said he, to a particular spot on the PotoThis is a situation in which we never wish to mac;' we may fix on a place as far North as the see this country placed. He concluded by ob- gentleman from Connecticut wishes. I consiserving, that if this amendment is agreed to, der the motion, therefore, calculated to destroy the bill will be lost, and we shall be without the bill, and ought to be opposed by every one either a temporary or permanent residence. who is in favor of a Southern situation.

Mr. Lee, after a few introductory observa- This State has no pretensions to the permations, entered into a consideration of the relative nent residence. It is true, the citizens of this interests of the Southern, Middle, and North place have put themselves to a great expense to ern States. He interspersed a variety of re- accommodate the Government, and

are entitled flections, tending to conciliate and blend those to much praise for their exertions; but he wishdifferent interests--and to disseminate the sened to take up the subject on national ground, timents of union and concord. He alluded and to have it decided on principles which apparticularly to the great object of funding the ply to the best interests of the whole. He then debts of the United States; the seat of Govern- referred to a map of the Potomac, and the ad, ment will concentrate the public paper. Hence jacent country which lay on the table, and he inferred the necessity of a situation from which had been sent from the Executive of the

H. OF R.]

Seat of Government.

[JULY 6, 1790.

State of Virginia. He referred also to other end of ten years? What reason can be given papers and documents.

why those parts of the Union should not popu: Mr. BURKE said, he wished that the whole late, which are at a distance from the Potomac, business of the temporary and permanent resi- in proportion to those parts in the vicinity of dence might now be settled. "He exculpated that place. . I presume none can be assigned. the members who are in favor of Baltimore Why, then, is a period of ten years to expire, from all design to defeat the present bill. He previous to going there? The reason is plain. referred to soine observations which had been The people would not now consent to have the made on the conduct of the members of the Government dragged to so remote a part of the States South of Virginia, and said, that they United States. He then adverted to the fundhad consulted the interest of the whole. One ing business, and other important matters which reason why he was in favor of the motion was, remain to be decided on, and very strongly inbecause he preferred Baltimore to Conoco-timated that these questions were to be detercheague. He thought a populous city better mined agreeable to the fate of this bill. He than building a palace in the woods. Another showed, from a variety of particulars, that Phireason was, that there was no political necessi- ladelphia would become the permanent resity existed for removing the Government from dence. He then adverted particularly to the New York to Philadelphia. He said, that the several parts of the bill. The first was respectmeasure would excite the most turbulent pas- ing the place where it is proposed to erect the sions in the minds of the citizens. It is unjust public buildings. He said, they could not be to the people of this city, to remove from this erected within the time mentioned, and showed place till the expense they have incurred is re- the various difficulties which would attend the paid them. It is a breach of honesty and of whole business. He then stated the advantages justice. It is injustice to the State-to the of Baltimore, and said that that place would whole Nation. He entered into a consideration have obtained in the Senate, if the Maryland of their sacrifices and services. He thought it Senators would have voted for it. He cona very extraordinary measure indeed. "It is cluded by observing, that, as no necessity excalculated, said he, to arrest the funding sys- ists for removing the temporary residence, he tem, and to throw every thing into confusion. hoped that Congress would sit down contented If the bill is passed in its present form, Con- where they are. gress will never leave Philadelphia; for the Mr. BLOODWORTH observed, that as the Commissioners to be appointed will incur no funding bill had been alluded to, he could wish penalty for a neglect of doing their duty. This that the objection from that quarter might be is a most essential defect in the bill, and there taken out of the way. He moved that the comare other defects in it. He spoke in handsome mittee should rise, in order to take up the ways terms of the State of Pennsylvania. He said, and means. he had as high an opinion of that State, as any Mr. Smith (of Md.) introduced an address man whatever, but he was afraid of their in- from the inhabitants of Baltimore to the Memfluence; and that State was the last in which he bers and Senators from that State, which was would ever consent the permanent seat of Go- read. This contained an account of the numvernment should be. He then adverted to the ber of houses and inhabitants of that town, &c. influence of the members from that State, who, also, the accommodations already made, and by their political management, had raised a the provision to be made to complete every nestorm in the United States. [Here Mr. Burke cessary arrangement. was called to order.] After a short interrup. Mr. CARROLL mentioned to the committee tion, he proceeded, and said a Quaker State was that there was a memorial of the inhabitants of a bad neighborhood for the South Carolinians. Georgetown, on the Potomac, on the table, which Here he adverted to the Quaker business last he had presented some days since; and submitwinter. He objected to Philadelphia also, on ted it to the House whether it would be proper account of there being no gallery in the House to read it. It was read. proposed for the accommodation of Congress- Mr. Lee moved that certain papers received an open gallery he considered as a very im- from the Executive of Virginia should be read, portant check ta the Legislature.

which was done. Mr. LAWRENCE.-The gentleman from Vir- Mr. Smith (of S. C.) called for the reading ginia has observed, that the object of the amend of a Report of a Committee appointed by the old ment is to defeat the bill. He has also men- Congress, to view the banks of the Potomac; tioned the States which are most particularly which was done. interested in the question. Mr. L. said, the Mr. Srone. All we seem to differ about is, State of New York might have been considered. whether Baltimore or the Potomac shall be the He wished the motion might succeed, because seat of the Government; and if this was all, the he thought that it would conduce to the peace Delegates of that State might fold their arms of the Union. He objected to the place propos- and sit down contented; but the State of Mary. ed for the permanent residence; by the bill it is land has been placed in the situation of Tanta. conceded that the place is not, at present, a lus. He then stated how the gentlemen had suitable position. By what magic can it be formerly voted, who now appear in favor of made to appear it will be more proper at the Baltimore. Had the bill come down from the

JULY 6, 1790. ]

Seat of Government.

(H. OF R.

Senate with Baltimore inserted, instead of Poto- to the Potomac, yet if a majority in either inac, he should have had no difficulty in deter House were opposed to going there, Congress mining how to act; but he conceived, that if the would remain at Philadelphia, and they would amendment now proposed should take place, be obliged to repeal the bill from necessity. nothing would be done, and the business will Mr. Scott said, he should not notice many be left in a very inauspicious state. From this things which had been offered on the subject. and other considerations, he was resolved not He would only observe, that from the town of to be drawn off from his present determination, Baltimore there is no water conveyance to the by any motion, amendment, or modification of interior country; but from the proposed site on the bill whatever. With respect to himself, he the Potoniac, there are two hundred miles navihad no election between the town of Baltimore gation directly into the heart of the country. and the Potemac; yet, as a Marylander, he Nor is Baltimore more Northerly than the powould, if he saw a prospect of success, vote for sition contemplated. A connexion with the the town of Baltimore; but as it respects the Western country is of the utmost consequence United States, he should vote for the Potomac; to the peace and union of the United States, let and on this idea he was willing to make some the gentlemen from the sea-coast say what they sacrifices. He considered the subject as one of will. the most painful and disagreeable that could be Mr. Madison.-In order to decide this quesagitated, and he wished to have the business tion rightly, we ought to compare the advanfinally and unalterably fixed.

tages and disadvantages of the two places as Mr. SENEY also considered this as an unhap- they relate to the good of the United States. py question to come before the House at this Now, I will defy any gentleman, however santime. The State of Maryland is as much di- guine he may be with respect to Baltimore, to vided on the subject as the United States ap- point out any substantial advantage that is not peared to be; a great rivalship subsists between common to the Potomac; and I defy them to the Potomac and Susquehanna rivers; and he disprove, that there are not several important dloubted not but that when the question was ul- advantages belonging to the Potomac, which do timately decided, it would be either on the one not appertain to Baltimore. The committee or the other of those rivers. He agreed with have had ample information with respect to the Mr. LEE, that Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Northern and Southern positions of the two Virginia were the only States who could make places. In point of salubrity of air, without any reasonable pretensions for the seat of Go- disparaging the pretensions of Baltimore, the verninent; but à majority of voices from these Potornac is at least equally favored in that reStates had been against the Potomac. Penn- spect. In regard to centrality of situation, the eylvania and Maryland, he observed, had given Potomac has undoubtedly the advantage. In the preference to the Susquehanna. Mr. S. respect to security, from invasion, I aver the then noticed some transactions of the Legisla. Potomac has the advantage also. With relature of Maryland, which he said clearly evinced tion to the Western country, there is not a shatheir determination to support the pretensions dow of comparison. If we should go as far of the Susquehanna. Maryland certainly had South as Baltimore, why not an equal distance an equal right with Pennsylvania and Virginia Southwest to the Potomac? Those who are acto have her interests consulted. The interests quainted with the country on the Potomac, and of Maryland, it appeared, were now to be sa: that in the neighborhood of Baltimore, do not crificed to those two adjoining States. And hesitate to give the preference to the Potomac. however flattering it may seem to Maryland, to It is true, that Baltimore has respectable refix the seat of Government on her side of the sources; her rapid growth is a clear proof of it; Potomac, the real advantages were in a great but look at the resources of the Potomac; the measure nugatory, as it would be but a very great range of rich country that borders on it, small portion of that State that could reap any and see if these are not advantages that must, benefit therefrom. The real advantages would in a short time, produce a commercial town. undoubtedly result to Pennsylvania and Virgi- Sir, a period might be named, not exceeding ten nia. It appeared somewhat extraordinary to years, within which the town of Baltimore obhim, that gentlemen should be willing to contained the greater part of its increase and confine the residence to a particular spot, previous sequence; a period of ten years will produce the to their removing to a permanent residence. same effects on the Potomac, because the same Why is it necessary to fix upon Philadelphia causes exist; and when, superadded to this, the for ten years? Surely this is putting the Go- residence of Government shall be there, there veroment in a very ineligible situation, for it is can be no doubt but that there will be every acby no means improbable that many serious and commodation that can be desired. iinportant occurrences might render a removal It is said, that before the ten years expire, a highly expedient, perhaps unavoidable. Be- repeal of the act may take place, and thus Consides, after the Government shall have remain- gress be kept at Philadelphia. But what more ed ten years in Philadelphia, the probability of can we do than pass a law for the purpose? It quitting it for the Potomac appeared to be very is not in our power to guard against a repeal, slight indeed. For though it was understood Our acts are not like those of the Medes and by the bill that the offices were to be removed | Persians, unalterable. A repeal is a thing

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