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Jan. 28, 1791.]

Proceedings.

[H. OF R.

addressed to him by the President of the Na- Nays.-Messrs. Ashe, Baldwin, Bloodworth, tional Assembly of France, and of a decree of Brown, Burke, Giles, Hartley, Hathorn, Heister, that Assembly on the death of Dr. FRANKLIN. Jackson, Matthews, Moore, Muhlenberg, Parker, [For copies of which see the Appendix.]

Van Rensselaer, Seney, Smith, of Maryland, Steele,

Stone, Tucker, and Williamson.-21.
THURSDAY, January 27.

FRIDAY, January 28.
QUAKERS' MEMORIAL.
Mr. BOURNE presented the address and me- Consuls and Vice Consuls, was twice read and

The bill sent from the Senate, concerning morial of the people called Quakers, in the committed. State of Rhode Island, respecting certain parts Mr. Herster presented a petition from the of the militia bill.

public creditors holding loan-office certificates MARINE HOSPITALS.

for money lent to the United States to carry on Mr. Parker gave notice, that he should, to the late war, representing the insufficiency of morrow, move that a committee be appointed to the provision for the public creditors made by bring in a bill for the general establishment of the act of the last session, and praying that Marine Hospitals in the United States. more adequate provision may be made. SOUTHERN FRONTIERS.

Mr. Anes laid the following motion on the

table: The following message was received from the President of the United States:

That the Secretary of the Treasury be directed

to report, whether it is necessary that any provision UNITED STATES, January 27, 1791.

should be made by law respecting the new emission Gentlemen of the Senate

money. and blouse of Representatives:

REPORT ON H. LAURENS' CASE. In order that you may be fully informed of the si- Mr. Smith (of S. C.) brought in a Report on tuation of the frontiers, and the prospects of hostility the petition of Henry Laurens, which was in that quarter, 1 lay before you the intelligence of against granting the prayer of the petition; laid some recent depredations, received since my message on the table. to you upon this subject of the 24th instant.

REPORT ON CHURCHMAN'S PETITION. GEO. WASHINGTON.

'The Report on the petition of John ChurchA message from the Senate informed the man was taken into consideration; the first part House, that they have passed a bill concerning of the Report respected furnishing him with Consuls and Vice Consuls. Also, communica- money to prosecute bis discoveries by a voyage ting sundry papers, referred to in the message to Baffin's Bay. On this part of the memorial, of the President of the United States. The the committee offered no opinion. A motion papers were read; viz: A letter from General being made to take the sense of the House, whePutnam to the President of the United States, ther he should be furnished with a sum of modated at Marietta, January 8, containing an ney for this purpose, the question being put, it account of an attack, the 2d instant, on Big passed in the negative. Bottom, a settlement about forty miles up On the other part of the Report which rethe river, in which fourteen persons were kill spects the enhancement of the penalty for coun. ed, and three taken prisoners; a letter from the terfeiting or copying original charts, a commitsame person to General Knox, and a letter from tee was appointed to bring in a bill to make Captain David Zeigler to Governor St. Clair, provision for that purpose. corroborative of the above account.

REPORT ON THE MINT. These papers were referred to the committee appointed yesterday on the message from the

The SPEAKER Communicated to the House a President of the United States.

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, on the The engrossed bill, repealing, after the last subject of the establishment of a Mint; which day of June next, the duties heretofore laid on

was ordered to be printed. distilled spirits imported from abroad, and lay

KENTUCKY. ing others in their stead, and also upon spirits distilled within the United States, and for ap-ed itself into a Committee of the whole, and

On motion of Mr. Brown, the House resolvpropriating the same, was passed by a majority took into consideration the bill providing for of fourteen. The yeas and nays being called for, were Bouvinot in the chair. The Chairman report

the admission of Kentucky into the Union, Mr. as follows:

ed the bill to the House without amendment,
YEAS.--Messrs. Ames, Benson, Boudinot, Bourne, and, on motion, it was read the third time, and
Cadwalader, Carroll, Clymer, Fitzsimons, Floyd, passed.
Foster, Gerry, Gilman, Goodhue, Griffin, Grout,

NEXT MEETING OF CONGRESS.
Huntington, Lawrence, Lee, Leonard, Livermore,
Maclison, Partridge, Schureman, Sedgwick, Sher-

The House took into consideration the Reman, Sylvester, Sinnickson, Smith, of South Caro- port of the Joint Committee in respect to the lina, Sturges, Thatcher, Trumbull, Vining, Wads- time when the next Congress shall commence worth, White, and Wynkoop:-35.

its session.

H. OF R.]

Post-Office and Post Roads.

[Jan. 31, 1791.

The House, after some debate, agreed to the That during the residue of the present session, no Report: the first part of which states that it will debate should be admitted on the question for taking not be necessary for the new Congress to com- up the order of the day. mence its session immediately after the fourth Laid on the table. of March.

POST-OFFICES AND POST ROADS. The second part of the Report proposes that the time for the annual meeting of Congress

The House resolved itself into a Committee should be altered; a coinmittee consisting of of the whole on the bill for establishing the Messrs. Tucker, Lee, and PARTRIDGE was Post-office and Post roads of the United States, appointed to report a bill for that purpose.

Mr. BOUDINOT in the chair.

Mr. STEELE moved to expunge the second MARYLAND.

section, for the purpose of introducing another In Committee of the whole on the bill de- as an amendment; in substance, claring the assent of Congress to a certain act That the most direct route from Wiscasset, in the of the State of Maryland, some amendments District of Maine, to Savannah, in the State of Georbeing agreed to by the committee, the bill was gia, be established as a post road; and that the Presireported to the House, and ordered to be en-dent of the United States be empowered to establish grossed for a third reading.

cross post roads, where they shall appear to him ne

cessary. CERTIFICATES. A motion made by Mr. Tucker, respecting ment of the principal post-road, a considerable

He observed, that upon the present establishprovision to be made for subscribing, agreeable and populous part of North Carolina derived to the funding system, certain certificates is - no advantage from the establishment, and the sued in lieu of others, in several of the States, sea-coast exclusively enjoyed the benefit of a subsequent to the first of January, 1790, was regular and speedy conveyance for their correreferred to the Secretary of the Treasury.

spondences, and thus the agricultural interest

was sacrificed to the commercial. MONDAY, January 31.

In the last session, it was true, he had been BENJAMIN CONTEE, from Maryland, appeared of opinion, that a discretionary power, which and took his seat.

by his amendment was proposed to be left with

the President, should not be given to him; not MARYLAND.

that he thought it unconstitutional, but because The engrossed bill declaring the consent of he then conceived the Representatives, from Congress to a certain act of the State of Mary- their collected local information, better able to land, was read the third time, and passed; to determine in what parts of the country posts continue in force one year.

would be required: but the Senate did not con

cur with the House in exercising that power, APPROPRIATION BILL.

and a change of circumstances required a change Mr. LAWRENCE, from the committee appoint- of measures; the President, by a tour to the ed for that purpose, reported a bill making ap- Southward, he said, could collect the necessary propriations for the year 1791, which received information whereon to found proper regulaits first reading.

tions in that quarter. A motion being made to go into a Committee Mr. Williamson opposed the amendment of the whole on the Bank Bill as the order of offered by his colleague. The object of an the day, the same was objected to; it was con established post was not to afford the most tended that the Militia Bill was of more imme- speedy conveyance, by the straightest line bediate importance, when the necessity of making tween two distant places; but to accommodate speedy provision for the relief and protection on the route as many persons desirous of writof the frontiers was taken into view. In an-jing as possible. If the post was obliged to tra swer it was said that a committee was nearly vel by the straightest road the sea -ports would ready to report on this subject, and that more be cut off from the advantage of a public mail; speedy and effectual relief to the inhabitants of and it is a fact, that the mercantile interest the frontiers was contemplated than could pos- principally supports the establishment. The sibly be derived from the militia bill.

post, to be as beneficial as possible to the comThe objections to the motion were overruled, munity, and as profitable to Government, by the question's being determined in its favor, should pass through as many towns as practicathirty-five members rising in the affirmative. ble; by journeying through the interior parts of The House accordingly, in Committee of the North Carolina, these ends would not be anwhole, took the Bank Bill into consideration, swered, as letter-writers there will not be Mr. BOUDINOT in the chair.

found to be numerous. Upon the present The bill was read in paragraphs; and no establishment, he said, the profits of the postamendments being offered, the Chairman re-offices in the State of North Carolina were not ported it to the House, who voted that it should more than one-fourth of the expense; but if the be read the third time to-morrow.

proposed amendment was adopted, he was of Mr. Boudinot moved the following resolu- opinion they would not pay more than a tenth tion:

part.

Jan. 31, 1791. )

Post-Office and Post Roads.

(H. OF R.

Mr. BlOODWORTH was in favor of the motion. Mr. Tucker adverted to the pains which the

Mr. STEELE said, he was satisfied with the House had taken, during the last session, to speroute followed by the post as far as Petersburg; cify in the bill the different routes in which it but he objected to its returning thence to the appeared necessary for the post to travel; but, Eastward, as if to avoid the State of North Ca- unfortunately, their labors had been rendered rolina, taking a circular, hazardous, and unpro- useless by the non-concurrence of the Senate. fitable route. The merchants had water con- However, he wished a similar clause again inveyance at hand from Petersburg to Georgia, troduced in the bill, hoping that the Senate and generally preferred it, as more expeditious would now be differently disposed. He said, than the post. If the excise bill passed, he that the ideas of particular States, respecting conceived there would be an additional neces- alterations in the post-road, ought not to be dissity for a communication with the interior coun- regarded. He was firmly of opinion, that it try by means of a regular post, if any revenue should pass through the most populous parts: was to be collected from distilleries dispersed though the inhabitants of those parts had not at throughout the State of North Carolina. Under present many correspondents, yet if a regular the present regulations, the inhabitants of the conveyance was offered them, they would, in a interior and populous part of that State received short time, acquire the habit of writing; and no regular information of the proceedings at the though at first the profits to Government might, seat of the General Government, and other use by the change proposed in the post-road, be diful intelligence, but from the direct communi- minished, yet by degrees they would increase, cations of their Delegates in Congress. In and in the end become greater than before the support of his opinion, he also mentioned the alteration. He could wish, therefore, that the desire expressed by the Legislature of his clause which had been before agreed to, and was State that a change of route should take place. now left out, might be inserted in the bill; but He was sorry to find his honorable colleague as he had not the bill at hand, he would move a opposed to his amendment; but for his own clause respecting the State of South Carolina, part, even if he was to torture his invention, he and such propositions as should be moved by could not, he thought, contrive a more absurd other gentlemen, on similar principles, he and improper road than that now followed by would give his assent to. He moved that the the post. He assured the House he was no general route should be from Wiscasset to Auways influenced by private interest in offering gusta, the seat of Government in Georgia; from the amendment he had proposed.

thence to Savannah; and by cross-posts to the Mr. Parker objected to the amendment. If seat of Government in South Carolina, and so in a change of route took place, those now benefit- each State, in cases where the seat of Governed by the post he conceived would be offended, ment is out of the direct road. and those in whose favor the amendment was Mr. WILLIAMSON remarked, that no one proposed not materially benefited by the alte- knew which was the direct road; ¡f the gentleration. It would be injuring all the sea-port man who had proposed the amendment would towns of North Carolina and Virginia, to give point out its course, members would then be an advantage to the interior parts of the former, enabled to judge of the propriety of it, but not of which, in their present circumstances, they before. With respect to the excise, and the would make but little use. If the amendment necessity of interior posts on that account, he took place, a very small portion of Maryland observed, that though some considerable revewould feel the benefit of the establishment. nue might be expected from that source, yet, in He was willing that channels of information his opinion, the Treasury of the Union would from the seat of the General Government should still receive more augmentation from the duties be opened for the advantage of the interior parts collected on imported spirits, in the ports of of North Carolina, but not so as to injure the entry, through which, for that reason, he coninterests of other States.

ceived the post ought still to pass. II it took Mr. SHERMAN mentioned that the disagree- its direction through the interior parts of North ment of the two Houses on this paragraph had Carolina, four of those ports out of five would occasioned the loss of the bill last session. The be out of the post-road, and the fifth at a disHouse of Representatives wished to specify the tance of forty miles further than before. Beseveral routes, and the Senate thought the Pre- sides the duties on spirits, those on other goods sident of the United States and Postmaster Ge- amounted to a sum by no means trifling, and neral bad a constitutional right to exercise that for the collection of which a direct and regular power, and that Congress had no authority to communication between them and the seat of interfere.

the General Government was requisite. He The present post-roads, he said, were estab- mentioned the necessity of giving the merchant lished from long experience. He still thought regular opportunities to write for insurance, the House was able to enter into the detail of as an additional argument against the amendthe business. He saw one great objection to ment. leaving it with the President. It was scarcely Mr. Jackson said, that if any revenue was to possible to give universal satisfaction, and con- be derived from the post-office it would be from stant application would consume much of his the commercial and not the agricultural parts time.

of the States. He was against the amendment. H. OF R.]

Bank of the United States.

[Feb. 1, 1791.

He wished matters could be so arranged as to other. Did the post only cross the river into give Augusta, in Georgia, the advantace of the the District of Maine, and return immediately, public mail, by establishing a post-road to that their situations would be somewhat similar; but place, but thought the post should go first to the post-road there had been several years exSavannah, and from thence to Augusta. tended to Portland, which is sixty miles within

Mr. Tucker's motion was disagreed to. the District; and in the year 1788, it was ex

Mr. BLOODWORTH spoke in favor of Mr. tended eighty miles further, to Pownalborough; Steele's amendment. He said, he had no idea not in order to go to the seat of Government, of stopping the communications with the sea- for it is not a State, and the return will show ports. He supposed that provision would be that it could not be for the sake of the revenue. made for their accommodation; and, in this The present clause in the bill provides for view, he conceived there was no impropriety in continuing the post to the same place. He relied opening the communication in the most direct on the justice of the House, that his motion manner with the interior country. He urged would prevail, and that the post-road would be the necessity of giving the people every advan- extended to Augusta. tage to acquire information.

Some other alterations to Mr. STEELE's proMr. SHERMAN wished a limitation to the position were offered; all of which were negapower of establishing cross-roads; that such tived, as was the original motion. only should be established as should defray their own expenses.

Tuesday, February 1. Mr. BOURNE was against the amendment as it stood; it would tend to render a number of port of Government for the year 1791 was read

The bill making appropriations for the sup; good post-roads almost useless. He hoped, as the second time, and ordered to be engrossed an amendment to the proposition before the for a third reading. House, that a sentence would be added to make it read thus: “ That the most direct roads from

BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. Wiscasset, in the District of Maine, to Savan- The bill sent from the Senate, to incorporate nah, in Georgia, and those now used as post-the subscribers to the Bank of the United States, roads, be established as such.”

was read the third time; and the question being Mr. Hartley feared the House would not on the passage of the bill, find time this session to enter into the minutiæ Mr. Smith (of S. C.) observed, that the bill of the establishment, and wished a temporary being taken up rather unexpectedly yesterday, discretionary power given in the business to the gentlemen did not appear prepared to discuss President of the United States, and the Post- the subject. It therefore was suffered to be master General, after having fixed that the read in Committee of the whole, and passed to main road should remain as heretofore estab- the third reading, in his opinion, rather inforlished. However, he proposed that the power mally; as the members were thereby deprived be not granted without a limitation. He thought of giving their sertiments in the usual manner no part of the revenue of the United States, on a bill of the greatest importance. He thought other than that derived from the post-office, it susceptible of various amendments. (The should by them be touched for the establish- SPEAKER having observed, that the bill, agreement of posts. He wished also this power ably to the rules of the House, could not be granted for a limited time.

amended without being recommitted,] Mr. S. Mr. Baldwin moved that the post-road moved, that the bill should be recominitted, for should be extended from Savannah to Augusta, the purpose of making sundry alterations, and in the State of Georgia. He observed, that it removing objections which he thought the bill was a duty which the Government owed to the liable to. He then enumerated several objecparts of which it was composed, to provide at tions. Those who are to receive the subscripleast some channel of communication to them; tions, he said, by the bill are not obliged to give that hitherto the post had only crossed the river any bonds for their fidelity. He thought the from Carolina; barely landed in the State of clause which excludes foreigners from voting Georgia, and returned; that the seat of the Go: by proxy exceptionable; and the time in which vernment in that State is one hundred and subscriptions are to be received, he thought too twenty miles from that place inland, and all contracted. communication with it for that distance de- Mr. Jackson said, he was in favor of the mopends entirely on contingency. The operation tion for a recommitment; but not for the reaof this Government will prove, that the distant sons offered by the gentleman from South Caextremes of the Union, remote from the warm rolina. He was opposed to the principle of the and vivifying influences of the Government, bill altogether. He then adverted to the situa. will have a sufficiently hard lot. And is it to be tion of the United States, and observed, that it thought best that no way should be provided to was so different from that of Great Britain, at communicate any information to them? That the time the Bank was established in that counignorance may be a soporific to prevent a sense try, that no reason in favor of the institution of their situation? He was obliged to add, that can be deduced from thence. He adverted to great provision had long been made on one ex- the arguments arising from the facility which Treme of the Union, and none at all for the Banks afford of anticipating the public resour

FEB. 1, 1791.)

Bank of the United States.

[H. OF R.

ces in cases of emergency. This idea of anti- appointment, than by passing this bill. He cipations he reprobated, as tending to involve hoped, therefore, that it would not be recommitthe country in debt, and an endless labyrinth ted, but that it would now pass. of perplexities. This plan of a National Bank,

Mr. LEE observed, that having been confined said he, is calculated to benefit a small part of by sickness, he was precluded from attending the United States, the mercantile interest only; the House yesterday; but sick as he was, had the farmers, the yeomanry, will derive no ad- he supposed that there was a prospect of a bill vantage from it; as the bank bills will not cir- of such magnitude and importance passing withculate to the extremities of the Union. He out a discussion of its principles, he certainly said, he had never seen a bank bill in the State would have attended, and offered his objections of Georgia, nor will they ever benefit the far- to various parts of it, which he thought very mers of that State, or of New Hampshire. He exceptionable. He hoped, therefore, it would urged that there was no necessity for instituting now be recommitted; that a bill which is so una new Bank. There is one already established equal and so partial may undergo a thorough in this city, under the style of the Bank of discussion. North America. This proposed institution is Mr. Tucker was in favor of a recommitan infringement of the charter of that Bank, ment. He acknowledged that those who had which cannot be justified. He urged the un- their objections to the bill were certainly blameconstitutionality of the plan; called it a mono- able for not coming forward with them yesterpoly; such a one as contravenes the spirit of day. He then stated sundry objections to the the Constitution; a monopoly of a very extra- bill. The time allowed to receive the subscripordinary nature; a monopoly of the public mo- tions, he said, is too short, and will benefit those neys for the benefit of the corporation to be only in the vicinity of the Bank. The clause created. He then read several passages from which authorizes the Joaning of one hundred the Federalist, which he said were directly con- thousand dollars to the Government, without trary to the assumption of the power proposed express provision by law, he thought exceptionby the bill. He hoped, therefore, that it would able, as the Executive will be able, by this be recommitted; and he could not help hoping means, to borrow at any time, without being also, that it would be deferred to the next session. authorized, to almost any amount of the

Mr. LAWRENCE observed, that the friends of Bank. The loan of two millions of dollars by the institution proposed had been unjustly the United States to the Bank, he objected to; charged with precipitating the bill; but, he said, as diverting that sum from the particular obit had been long in the hands of the members; ject for which it was borrowed. There is no they have had time to consider it; the usual appropriation, said he, of the half-yearly diviforms have been observed in its progress thus dend of profits accruing to the United States, far; and if those who are opposed to the bill did which he observed, was a very essential defect. not see proper to come forward with their ob- Mr. T. stated other objections, as reasons for a jections, it surely is their own fault, and the recommitment. advocates of the bill are not justly chargeable Mr. WilliaMSON was in favor of the recomwith precipitancy. He then particularly re-mitment, to give those who say they bave not plied to the objections offered by Mr. Smith, of had an opportunity of offering their objections South Carolina; and after considering them, time to do it; and if the motion be not agreed said, that those objections did not, in his opi- to, he should not give his vote for the bill. He nion, constitute sufficient reason to induce a re- then adverted to the objections deduced from commitment of the bill. He then noticed the con- the Constitution, and explained the clause restitutional objections of Mr. Jackson, and said, specting monopolies as referring altogether to the Government of the United States is vested commercial monopolies. by the Constitution with a power of borrowing Mr. SHERMAN objected to the recommitment. money; and in pursuance of this idea, they He said, that though the bill could not be have a right to create a capital, by which they amended without its being recommitted, yet it may, with greater facility, carry the power of was open to discussion and objection previous borrowing on any emergency into effect. Under to taking a vote on its passage. He did not the late Confederation, the Pennsylvania Bank, think the objections offered afforded sufficient called the Bank of North America, was insti- reasons for a recommitment. He replied to the tuted. He presumed that it will not be contro- observations offered by several gentlemen who verted, that the present Government is vested had spoken in favor of the motion. with powers equal to those of the late Confede- Mr. GERRY expressed his surprise at the obration. He said, that he had no doubt its ope- servations of gentlemen who had neglected to ration would benefit, not only the centre, but offer their objections to the bill before, and said the extremities also of the Union. The com- it could only be imputed to their own neglect, mercial, mechanical, and agricultural interests and not to any precipitancy on the part of the of the United States are so combined, that one friends of the bill. Mr. G. noticed the several cannot be benefited without benefiting the objections which had been offered, and said, if other. He concluded by observing, that he nothing more important could be offered, he thought the Legislature of the United States thought it would be unjustifiable in the House could not better answer the purposes of their to go into a committee.

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