[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]


New York.
St. Lawrence..

3,539 212,735 70,777 $14,315,269 $1,776,960 $550,098 5,392 21,033 334,269 12,352,363 2,081,739 515,986 3,925 199, 39 205,209 10),>72,397 1,545,679 372,625 5,441 266,1:35 432,620 10,956,314 1,972,599 439,162 4,299 8.5,795 197,237 211,700,003 2,523,234 637,3:17 6,517 300,110 291,115 17,422,474 2,671,699 610,56) 1,947 120,219 11,395 6,598,546 811,551 2 4,911 5,213 317,329 182,936 18,184,452 2,431,664 569,087 3,551

16,932 401, S6 6,306,142 1,447,497 274,726 5,212

304,77 69,255 19,134,759 1,858,418 620,149 3,3-8 191,736 118,662 8,569,671 1,571,914 357,93 5,455 861, +10 43%, 152

11,215,239 2,89,610 485,333 3,797 366,359 96,104 27,463,45 2,891,290

7:14,355 7,257 311,307 259,34 24,179,418 2,718,053 745,059 2,715 155,113 774,195 4,604,253 9711,214 1 79,999 3,217 144,627 834,964 4,999,778 1,042,000 243,335 2,29 183,115 147,70 5,103,631 891,427 222,645 8,063 219,412 75,732 16,091,999 1,675,630 412,702 3,115 212,223 1511,004 8,457,699 1, 92,960 1,195,543

404 16,675 766,979 757,004 80,504 21,799 3,447 267,414 50.),657 14,912,154 2,134,287

476,145 6,992 405,922 251,291 18,715, 19: 2,992,793 743,414 39 15,971 5,594 8,163,00

762,770 117,343 3,915

181,510 497,115 7,519,002 1,102,552 2-7,903 8,375 202,462 96,378 22,406,233 2,177,354 6:9,435 4,63 277,393 111,505 14,353,775 2,253, 562 465,057 4, 79 216,84) 73,152 29,633,614 2,924,916

$18,73 2,852 194, 157 46,720 14,349,692 1,119,131 359,598 1, 50

4,324,700 1,495,412

3,969 207,043 101,114) 16,321,319 1,9 0,759 562,3-9
8,315 4'5,800 236,591 24,29 6,451 3,49,516
341,25 114,701 25,353,290 2,903,519

770,465 3,913 29.639 97,1 20,8-2,506 2,272,115 991, 7:5 3,92 3:18,599 199,613 21,567,36 2,699,991 6:9,225 2,151 181,9 13 62,326 12 672,552 1,531,017

423,546 6,720 214,126 32,147 13,138,725 2,058,591 5,529 6,109 428,932 179,559 18,319,997 2,502,602 656,576 1,369

94,25 41,417 6,149,519 720,0:37 141,528 3,113 119,519 57,204 17,071,815 1,253,850 512, 92 3,569 292,212 101,002 16,655,695 1,935,709 51,448 876 15,072 7,602

5,261,350 173,025 74,936 1,221 46,491 50,452 4,56,210 618,59 125,330 8,916 499,354 8 5,531 19,117,429 3,141,905 751,437 4,208 315,728 139,19 13,526,379 1,812,426

496,153 1,328 93,449 31,683 4,910,728 596,736 195,84 4,011 227,904 132,016 10,053,943 1,559, 6.9 461,690 2,416 134,336 62,999 7,4 8,8 5 971,358

252,23 2,239 151,919 45,9:36 10,499,372 1,039,517

339,647 7,142 361,454) 43,250 17,994,63 2,46,152

6-41,43 4,339

163,819 260,570 13,102,527 1,271,613 314,3-6 3,653 125,19 494,929 5,655,321 953,211 199,497 3,033 151,894 138,423 7,593,504 1,206,-33 29,654 3,623 205,616 81,963 11,656,154 1,581,130 879,695 4,851

240,611 378,202 16,1 8,29 1 1,914,932 564,772
2,145 111,202 331,341 2,604,216 5611,316 1 6,429
4,192 333,030 143,554 15,271,963 2,146,361

4,767 254,451 102,1162 17,037,413 2,233,425
3,722 209,146


29,293,170 1,964,739 137,9 4,131 211,651 122,761 '11,903, 17 1,711,17 893,737 2,2 12 155,542 51,131 9,691,390 1,099,413

305,926 231,740 13,657,49» (13,100,692 $799,855,367 $10:3,776,033 $26,927,602


591, 96


[ocr errors]


The Canals constructed, or in course of construction by the State, and belonging to it as public property, are ten in number; and in the following general account of them the statutory designations of them are adopted.

ERIE CANAL. This Canal as first built, was commenced with public ceremonies, July 4, 1817; and it was finished, ready for navigation in its whole extent, from Lake Erie at Buffalo, to the Hudson River at Albany, in October, 1825, at the total cost, including interest and loans, and all other disbursements, of $10,731,595. Its main trunk, as originally constructed, was 40 feet wide at top, 28 feet at bottom, and 7 feet in depth, with 4 feet depth of water, is 363 miles long, exclusive of feeders and side-cuts. It had only 84 lift locks, both ascending and descending, giving a rise and fall of only 692 feet; and but 3 summit levels, viz. : the Rome level, 69 miles long, extending from Frankfort, 9 miles east of Utica, nearly to Syracuse; the short Jordan level, between the valley of the Onondaga Creek at Syracuse, and that of the Seneca River at Montezuma ; and the Lake Erie level, extending from Buffalo to Lockport. The Oak Orchard level, also, though not a summit, is 60 miles long, extending from Rochester, to the foot of the Mountain Ridge, at Lockport. The lowest level on the line, from which the canal ascends, each way, is at the Montezuma Marshes. The heights of the more important levels above the Hudson, at Albany, are as follows:

The Rome level, 425 feet; the Oak Orchard level, 506 feet; and the Lake Erie level, 561 feet. The principal Aqueducts on the original work were as follows: Two consisting of wooden trunks supported by stone piers, across the Mohawk River, between the Cohoes Falls and Schenectady; one, made wholly of stone, across the Mohawk at Little Falls; and the other, consisting wholly of stone, also, and much the most massive and costly, across the Genesee River, at Rochester. The other features of the original work most remarkable, either for difficulty of execution, or for their imposing aspect when finished, were, the section crossing the great marshes at Montezuma, traversed by the Seneca and Clyde rivers, and during the excavation of which, it was necessary to keep pumps driven by horse-power at work night and day, for a distance of several miles; the great embankment, 72 feet in perpendicular height, with a base of about 250 feet in width across the ravine of the Irondequoit Creek, a few miles east of Rochester; the rock excavation, through the Mountain Ridge, at Lockport; and the pier and dam at Black Rock, in the Niagara River.

On the 11th of May, 1835, the Legislature passed an act for the enlargement of this canal. By that act, the size of the enlargement and the general outlines of the

work were submitted to the determination of the Canal Board, a body composed of the Board of Canal Commissioners and the Commissioners of the Canal Fund. After such investigation as was deemed sufficient, the Canal Board, in 1836, decided that the dimensions of the enlarged canal should be as follows: Width at top, 70 feet; at bottom, 42 feet; perpendicular depth, 10 feet, with 7 feet depth of water; the locks to be in pairs, each lock having its chamber, 110 feet long, by 18 feet wide. The enlargement having been determined on, operations were commenced in 1836, and a great amount of work has been done. The Commissioners have wisely availed themselves of the occasion, to improve the location of the canal in many places ; straightening the curves wherever practicable, shortening the distance, and diminishing the total quantity of lockage. this way, the whole length of the enlarged canal will, when done, be about



360 miles, instead of 363 ; and taking each pair of locks as one rise, or fall, the number of locks will be 71, instead of 81. This saving of lcckage, is effected among the short levels, the long ones remaining essentially as before.

The cost of the enlargement is estimated at about $23,000,000. The boats chietly employed for transportation on the original canal, average about 55 to 60 tons. The enlarged canal will accommodate boats of the capacity of 150 to 200 tons; and as the cost of towing will be increased in a much smaller ratio than that of the tonnage, the price of freights will be very materially diminished. This diminution is estimated at about 50 per cent.

CHAMPLAIN CANAL. This Canal connects with Lake Champlain at Whitehall, and with the IIudson River at Waterford. It was commenced in October, 1817, and completed in November, 1819, at a cost of $1,179.872. It is 66 miles long; of the same dimensions in other respects as the original Erie Canal, with a total quantity of 188 feet of lockage, and 21 locks, of which 54 feet distributed in 7 locks include the rise from the lake to the summii level, extending from Fort Ann to Fort Edward, and 134 feet distributed in 14 locks include the descent to the Hudson at Waterford.

On its summit level this canal receives a navigable feeder 12 miles long, drawing its supply from the Hudson at a point about 2 miles above Glenn s Falls, and called the Glenn's Falls Feeder.

At Waterford, where the canal unites with the Hudson, the river is converted into a spacious basin 3 miles long, by means of a dam situated at the northern limit of Troy, and at the easterly end of which is a sloop lock, bywhich the navigation of the Hudson is preserved to Waterford. Waterford, also, a canal called the Junction Canal, 3 miles long, and crossing the Mohawk a little below the Cohoes Falls, connects with the Erie Canal at Cohoes village; thus completing the links that unite the northern and western trade with each other, and with that of the Hudson.

CHENANGO CANAL. This Canal extends from the Erie Canal at Utica, by way of the village of Clinton, on the Oriskany Creek; thence up the valley of that creek to the summit level; thence to the valley of the Chenango River, which it follows to the village of Binghamton, on the Susquehannah, where it connects with the New York and Erie Railroad. It is 97 miles long; was commenced in 1833 and finished in 1837, at a cost of $1,737,703. The lockage from Utica to the summit is 706 feet, and thence to Binghamton, 303 feet, the whole divided among 116 lift-locks, 2 of which are built of stone, and the other 114 of wood and stone called composite. This canal is furnished with 7 reservoirs, consisting of natural ponds, having their original capacity increased by embankments and dams furnished with flumes and gates to regulate the discharge.

OSWEGO CAVAL. This Canal, connecting with the Erie Canal at Syracuse, and with Lake Ontario at Oswego, was commenced in 1826, and completed in 1828, at a cost of $525,115. It is 38 miles long; about half its length, however, being in the Oswego River, converted into canal or slack-water, by means of 8 dams and a tow-path on the river bank. The total quantity of lockage is 123 feet, distributed among 18 lift-locks, all descending from Syracuse to Oswego. So far as the canal is wholly an excavated work, the dimensions of its cross-section are the same as those of the old Erie Canal.

There is, also, a towing-path made by the State along the bank of the Seneca River, from its junction with this canal to Baldwinsville, by which

the navigable waters of that stream are made available; and a similar work has been recently done on the Oneida River, to connect the naviguble waters of that stream and the Oneida Lake with the Oswego Canal.

CAYUGA AND SEXECA CANAL. This work begins in the village of Geneva at the outlet of the Seneca Lake, and following the valley of the Seneca River, is fed by its waters, till after sending off a side-cut of two miles to the Cayu ya Lake, at East Cayuga, it enters the bed of the river, and so continues to Montezuma, where it joins the Erie Canal on the marsh level. The whole distance from Geneva to Montezuma is 21 miles, about half of which consists of canal proper, and the other half of slack-water navigation in the river. The whole descent from Geneva to Montezuma is 74 feet, divided among 12 locks. The canal was commenced in 1827 and finished in 1829, at the cost of $214,000. This work, be it remembered is the common thoroughfare for the trade of the Cayuga, Seneca, and Crooked Lakes, the Chemung Canal, the Owego and the Blossburg railroads, and the whole basin of the Upper Susquehannah, and its wide-reaching tributaries; and it is obviously destined to become at no distant day very productive, from the carriage of coal. gypsum, and salt, and the inevitable expansion of a trade springing from such resources.

CROOKED LIKE CANAL. This Canal, commenced in 1830, and finished in 1833, connects Crooked Lake, near Penn-Yan, with the Seneca Lake at Dresden ; is 8 miles long, has a descent of 269 feet, distributed among 28 lift-locks, and cost $137,000.

CHEMUNG CANAL. This Canal, commenced in 1830 and finished in 1833, connects the Seneca Lake, at its head, with the Chemung River, a branch of the Susquehannah, at Elmira, is 23 miles long, besides a navigable feeder 16 miles long, extending from the summit level at the village of Horse-Heads, to Corning, situate also on the Chemung, westerly from Elmira, and there connecting with the railroad which runs to Blossburg, in Pennsylvania. It also connects with the New York and Erie Railroad at Ilmira. The ascending and descending lockage on both the canal and feeder, which together are 39 miles long, is 516 feet, divided among 52 locks. Both works cost $344,000. At Blossburg is an inexhaustible mine of bituminous coal, of excellent quality, and the coal trade which has commenced very favorably, promises to become a source of much revenue to this canal.

GENESEE VALLEY CAYİL. The act for building this Canal was passed May 6, 1836, and in the succeeding summer the work was commenced. The whole line, from Rochester, where it connects with the Erie Canal, to Olean, on the navigable waters of the Allegany River, is 108 miles long. At a point 4} miles south of Mount Morris, a branch canal extends to Dansville, 11 miles.

The Dansville branch and that portion of the main line between Rochester and the junction, making together 52 miles, was completed and brought into use in the fall of 1840 ; 36 miles more of the main line extending from the junction to Oramel, including the Genesee River feeder at the latter place, was completed and brought into use in 1851 ; 2 miles more, extending to Belfast, in 1853; 3 miles more, extending thence to Rockville, in 1854; and 24 miles more, extending thence to Olean basin in the village of Olean, was so far completed that it was brought into use in the fall of 1856, making 117 miles which have been in use since that time.

The work remaining to be done to complete this canal so far as at present contemplated, consists of one section, 2 lift locks, 2 bridges and one reservoir. The section is about one mile in length, extending from Olean Basin to the Allegany River; on it are located the locks and bridges above mentioned. Some work has been done on the section, and a small amount on one of the locks. The reservoir, which is known as Oil Creek reservoir, is located on the summit level, two miles north of Cuba and about half a mile west of the canal.



This work was commenced under an act of April 19, 1836, in the summer of that year. It is to open the navigation from the Erie Canal at Rome, to Carthage, in Jefferson County. From Rome the line passes up the valley of the Mohawk to the Lansing-Kill, which it follows to the summit level in Boonville, and then passes on to the High Falls in the Black River, in Turin. From that point to Carthage the navigation is to be continued by improving the Black River. The length of the canal is 35 miles; of the improved river navigation, 42} miles; and a navigable feeder 12 miles long, from the Black River, is to enter the summit level of the canal at Boonville, making the whole length of this artificial navigation 103.1 miles.

The ascent from the Erie Canal at Rome to the summit in Boonville is 697 feet, divided among 70 locks; and the descent from the summit to the High Falls is 387 feet, divided among 38 locks. The feeder has but one level.


Main line of Black River Canal
Navigable Feeders..
Improvements of Black River
Reservoirs ...

35.62 miles. 12.48 do. 42.50 do. 12.95 do.


103.55 do.

ONEIDA LAKE CANAL AND FEEDER. The Oneida Lake Canal extends from the Erie Canal, at Higgins', 3.75 miles, to Wood Creek, and thence by slack-water in that creek, 2.25 miles, to Oneida Lake, making the whole work 6 miles long. It was purchased, with the Feeder and all other appurtenances, of an incorporated company, by the Canal Commissioners, thereto empowered by an act of the Legislature passed May 11th, 1840. The price paid to the company was $50,000—for which a stock certificate, bearing 5 per cent. interest, was issued on behalf

5 of the State, dated April 12th, 1841 ; and the same day the State took possession of the work and its appurtenances.

The Feeder is a work entirely distinct from the Canal, and independent of it, running from the Oneida Creek, 2 miles to the Erie Canal, with which it unites at a point about five miles west of the junction therewith of the Oneida Lake Canal.

WORKING DIVISIONS OF THE CANALS. The Canals of the State and improvements connected therewith, are now divided into three principal Divisions, each of which is under the direct supervision of one of the Canal Commissioners, and one division engineer.

« ForrigeFortsett »